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Volume XX 


No. 1334 Chestnut Street, 



Index to Volume XX. 

Accidents to Two Sunday-school Mission- 
aries, 200 

Africa, A God of Love 126 

Africa, Belief in W itches, . ... 69 

Africa, Bible in the Transvaal. . . 4 

Africa, Bishop of Sierra Leone, . . 468 

Africa, Deatli of Mr. Marlins. . . . 423 

Africa, Death of Mrs. Roberts, . . . 113 

Africa, Gold in, 318 

Africa, Lectures by a Kin a;, ... 68 
Africa, Letters from, . . . 125, 438 

Africa, Messages from Miss Nassau, . 320 

Africa, Missionary Progress in Uganda . 247 

Africa, Results of Missions. . . . 469 

Africa, Soudan Expedition, ... 4 

Africa, Strong Drink 69 

Africa, The Kind of Missionaries, . . 468 

Africa, Uganda 227 

Africa. Value of Protestant Missions, . 422 

Aged, Our Duty to 334 

Aim of Christian Endeavor, . . . 299 

Alaska, Contributions from, . . . 363 
Alaska, Letters from, .... 43, 216 

Alaska's Claim Upon Us, .... 403 
American Board of Commissioners for 

Foreign Missions, .... 317 

American Schools at Sao Paulo, Brazil, . 355 

Among the Chinese in Northwest, . .- 30 

" And the Church" 63 

Annual Report, of Japanese Y. M. C. A. 

in San Francisco, .... 27 
Another Chapter in the Acts of the Apos- 
tles 19 

Arabs, Sheik Othman 70 

Arizona, Indian Church at Sacaton, . . 205 

Arizona, Letter from, .... 216 

Armenian Church, . . • . . . 269 

Armenians, Relief for 393 

Asking and Thanking 141 

Attacks on Missions, 342 

Barber Memorial, 419 

Beautiful Incident, ..... 53 

Belief in Missions, 385 

Benson, Archbishop, Death of, . . . 317 

Best Way, 141 

Bible in Schools and Colleges, . . . 239 

Bibles for the World, .... 3 

Bit of History, 280 

Board of Education before General Assem- 
bly 56 

Book Notices, . . 74, 153, 309, 385, 470 

Booth, Ballington, Ordination of . 317 

Booth, William A., . . . . 16 

Boys' School at Ilangchow, China, 18 



Boys' School in Teheran, Persia, . 268 

Brazil, American Schools at Sao Paulo, . 355 

Brazil, Arabic Bibles, 71 

Brazil, Evangelical Influence of School 

Work, 358 

Brazil, Letter from, .... 36.1 

Brazil, Missions in, 347 

Brazil, Situation in, 349 

Brazil, Some Reminiscences, . . . 353 
Bread Question with Moslem Converts, . 265 
Bright Outlook in Wisconsin, . . . 409 
Brown, Rev. S. R., D.D., . . . .170 
Buddhist Monastery in Korea, . . . 119 

California, Letter from 451 

Canada, Temperance in, .... 161 
Catholic Missions in Persia, . . . 343 
Cattell, Rev. W. C, D.D., . . 83 
Chapel of the Holy Cross, Parras, Mex- 
ico, 17 

Chicago, Missions and Methods in, . . 10 
Child's Mite Box, . . . . .111 
Chile, A Courageous Convert, . . . 359 

Chile, Bible in, 343 

Chile, Boys' School at Santiago, . . 16 

Chile, Missions in, 347 

Chile, Notes from the North, . . . 347 

Chile, Union Church 345 

Chile, Yankees of South America, . . 351 

China, Admiral Ting 68 

China, Altered Conditions, ... 70 
China, A Unique Mission, ... 4 
China, Blind Convert, . . . .342 
China, Bovs' School at Hangchow, . . 18 
China, Burial of Children, . . .149 

China, Christian Peddler, . . .68 

China, Christians in 149 

China, Education, 69 

China, Letters from, . . 34, 362, 440 

China, Light Bearing, .... 469 
China, LfHung Chang, . . 240, 244, 421 
China, Look at My Feet, . . . .458 

China, Map of, 459 

'China, Missionary Honored . . . 239 
China's New Embassy to the West, . . 13 
China, Numeral-type, .... 148 

China, Protestant Communicants, . . 68 
China, Reform in, . . . . .81 
China, Rev. George Mark, . . .376 

China, Sharing the Joy 110 

China, Students, in, ..... 468 
China, The Form of a Servant, . . 342 

China, Xavier's Rock Opening, . , 34 

Chinese Custom, 126 

" Chinese" Gordon Remembered. . . 162 

Chinese in New York, . 
Chinese in Northwest, Among the, . . 30 
Chinese Work in California, ... 28 
Christian Endeavor, Aim of, . . . 209 
Christian Endeavor Convention, 1896, 89, 22(5 
Christian Endeavor Extension, . . 221 

Christian Endeavor for Home Missions, 374, 443 
Christian Endeavor Fruit, . . . 220 

Christian Endeavor, Fundamental Aim, . 141 
Christian Endeavor in Buffalo, . . . 208 
Christian Endeavor in Madagascar, . . 144 
Christian Endeavor in Paris, . . . 297 
Christian Endeavor in the Mountains, . 37(3 
Christian Endeavor Notes, 64, 145, 219, 

295, 375, 457 
Christian Endeavor of National Impor- 
tance, 82 

Christian Endeavor Platform, . . .220 
Christian Endeavor Thank Offering, 219, 283 
Christian Training Course, 07, 146, 227, 

305, 383, 465 

Christ's Birthday, 459 

Cliunghing 243 

Church and Heathenism, .... 166 

Church at Home and Abroad, Report, . 7 
Church Erection, Appreciative Words, . 204 
Church Erection, Embarrassing Confi- 
dence, ....... 

Church Erection, Grateful Letters, . 
Church Erection, The Only Solution, 
Church Missionary Society, New Mission- 
aries, ....... 

Church Missionary Society, Three Years' 
Enterprise, 3 

Church Reminiscences in New York City, 
Church's Challenge to Her Young People, 
Coates College for Young Women, . 
College Board, How It Does Its Work, 196 
Colleges and Academies, The Assembly 


Colombia, Love for Missionaries, 

Colombia, Missions in, 

Colombia, Religious Liberty in, 

Colombia, Strange Burial Customs, 

Colorado, Letter from, 

Colored Man's Cry, .... 

Colportage Library, .... 

Communion of Saints, 

Comparison of Christianity aud other Re 

ligions, ..... 

Contemporary Thought, . 
Convention, At the, . 
Courageous Convert, 
Cove in the Cumberlands, 
Cowan, Mrs., Death of, . 
Cuba and Spain, .... 

Culture and Service, .... 
Current Events and the Kingdom, 3, 81 

161, 239, 317, 393 
Dennis, Dr., Withdrawal as Editorial Cor 


Dismal Tramp with a Bright Ending 
Eaton, Mr. Oliver D., ... 

Education for Citizenship, 
Education of Young Women, . 


Eleven Busy Years, .... 
Elliuwood, Rev. F. F., D.D., Twenty- 
fifth Anniversary, . .113 

475 W*ersN|? ^e. Hew York 27, M.Y. 















Endeavor Societies in Paris, 

Enemy of Mankind, .... 

Enthusiasm for Missions, . 

Evangelical Influence of Sao Pauh 
School Work, .... 

First Laos Christian Endeavor Conven 
tion, ...... 

Florence Crit-tenton Missions, . 

Florida, Letter from, .... 


Foreigners in the United States, 

Foreign Mission Advance, Scotland, 

Foreign Mission Letters : 



China, 34 





Foreign Missions, Effect of an Interest, 

Foreign Missions in General Assembly, 

Foreign Politics and Foreign Missions, 

For God and Native Land, 

Formosa, Opium in, . 

Fourth of July, .... 

France and Madagascar, . 

Frank Statement from Japan, . 

Freedmen, Report of Committee, 

Friction Load, . ... 

Frugal Living, ..... 

Gardiner, Allen, .... 

General Assembly, Board of Education, 

General Assembly of 1896, 

General Assembly, Suggestive Words, 

General Assembly, Young People's Soci 

Glasgow Council, .... 

Gleanings at Home and Abroad, 68, 148 

227, 306, 385 

Good News from Nebraska, 

Gordon, Dr., Life of, . 

Gospel Sermon Preached by Korean 

Great Debate, ..... 

Great Revival of 1800, 

Guatemala, Persecution or Indifference, 

Guayaquil, Ecuador, .... 

" Hall of Happiness," 

Have Home Missions Paid ? 

Help from the Sanctuary, . 

Helping Men into the Ministry, 

Highland University, 

Hirsch, Baron, and His Heir, . 

Holding On, ..... 

Home Class Work in Montana, 

Home Mission Appointments, 75, 137, 217 

294, 452 

Home Mission Conferences, 

Home Mission History of Illinois,- II 

Home Mission Letters . 

Alaska, .... 43, 216 

Arizona, ...... 216 

California, 451 

Colorado, 293 

Florida, 43 

Idaho 451 








125, 438 
2, 440 
270, 440 
5, 88 
38 i 






Indian Territory, 

136, 216, 293, 371 



Foreign Mission Letters 



Michigan,. . 

Minnesota, . 




New Mexico, 

New York, . 

North Carolina, . 

North Dakota, 

Oklahoma, . 

South Dakota, 


Utah, . 


West Virginia, 

Wisconsin, . 

Home Mission Rallies, 

43, 44 
. 210 

44, 108, 371 
. 130, 451 
. 43, 217 
. 136, 215 

45, 204 
. 134, 292 

45, 137, 371 
45, 130, 451 

. 458 
. 371 
. 134 
. 215 
. 452 
134, 217, 452 
. 293 
. 451 
. 45, 371 
. 363 

Home Missions, Cost of Administration, 

35, 205 

Home Missions, Have They Paid, . . 133 
Home Missions, New Work, ... 35 
Home Missions, Presbyteries Made Re- 
sponsible, .35 

Home Missions, Receipts 1895-90 . . 35 
Home Missions, Results of the Year, . 35 
Home Missions, Retrenchment, . . 442 
Home Missions, Secretary's Address, . 130 
Home Missions, Standing Committee's Re- 
port 128 

Home Missions, The Situation, . . . 305 
How a Country Church Doubled its Offer- 
ings 12 

How Marcus Whitman Saved Oregon, . 401 

How One Church Does It, ... 93 
How the College Board Does Its Work, 

195, 330 

How Women Do 

Hull House, 446 

Idaho, Letter from, 43 

Ideal in Practical Sabbath-school Work, 338 

Illinois, Home Mission History, . . 38 

Immigration, 394 

Important Suggestion 303 

Increase of Crime, 162 

India, A Hindu's Testimony, ... 69 

India, Condition of the Country, . . 69 

India, Death of Rev. J. F. Ullmann, D. D., 342 

India, Dr. Millers Work, .... 71 

India, Education, 148 

India, Female Education, . . . 228 

India, Pour Generations of Christianity, . 228 

India, Fruits of Missionary Labor, . . 149 

India, Hinduism Must Go, . . . 227 

India, Letter from, 439 

India, Missionary Machinery, ... 70 

India, No Peace, 70 

India, Railroads in Burma, . . . 467 

India, Snake Poison, ..... 69 

India, Student Volunteers, ... 68 

India, Tribute to Rev. J. F. Ullmann, . 424 

India, Their Methods, .... 70 

Indians, A Step Forward 401 

Indians, Christian Sioux, .... 08 
Indians, Our Red Brothers, . . .322 

Indians, Prayers of, 468 

Indian Territory, Letters from, . 136, 216, 293 

Institutional Church League, . . . 317 
Interdependence of Home and Foreign 

Missions, 290 

International Arbitration, ... 3 
Iowa, Letters from, . . . . 43, 44 

I Serve, 01 

Italian Evangelical Mission, . . . 418 

Japan, Bible in, 81 

Japan, Bright Signs, 110 

Japan, Buddhism in, 182 

Japan, Christian Charities, . . . 175 
Japan, Death of Mrs. True, . . .177 

Japan, English Readers in, ... 3 

Japan, Entrance of Bible, ... 71 

Japanese Endeavorer, .... 377 

Japanese in California, .... 32 

Japanese in Hawaii, 08 

Japanese Work in California, ... 27 

Japanese Y. M. C. A. in San Francisco, . 27 

Japan, Evangelistic Work, . . . 450 

Japan, Female Education, . . . 421 

Japan, Foreign Trade, .... 148 

Japan, Frank Statement, .... 191 

Japan, Joseph Hardy Neesima, . . 229 

Japan, Liberal Tendencies, . . ._ 240 

Japan, Missions in, . . . . . 179 

Japan, No Baksheesh, .... 177 

Japan, Opium in Formosa, . . . 161 

Japan, Problems before the Church, . 179 

Japan, Quiet Progress in, . . . . 186 

Japan, Sentiments 385 

Japan, Situation in, ..... 189 

Japan, Special Evangelistic Effort, . . 183 

Japan, Story of the True God, . . . 177 

Japan, Tribute to Miss Talcott, . . 49 

Japan, Western Methods, . . . 227 
John Robinson Church, ... . .81 

John the Baptist, 138 

Junior Society, 298 

Kansas Cyclone, 279 

Kansas, Letter from, 216 

Kansas, Missionary Journey in, . . 339 

Kendall, Mrs. Henry, Death of, . . 200 

Kingsbury, Rev. Enoch, .... 213 

Korea, Buddhist Monastery, . . . 119 
Korea, Letters from, .... 270, 440 

Korea, Lights and Shadows of the Year, . 122 

Korea, Mission in, 113 

Korea, Mrs. Bishop's Impressions, . . 148 

Korean Mind, 116 

Korean Missionary Literature, . . . 114 

Korea, Old Kim, 342 

Korea, Pai Chai School 468 

Korea, Physician for Police Headquar- 
ters, 468 

Korea, Preaching Christ through, . . 121 

Korea, Progress in, 317 

Korea, Religious Literature, . . . 385 

Korean Repository, 410 

Korea, Sermon Preached by Butcher, . 115 
Laos, First, Christian Endeavor Conven- 
tion, 138 

Laos, Rapid Progress, .... 176 

Large Offering 161 

Lark's Nest, " 140 

Lei .anon of 1896 428 

Letters from Chairmen of Presbyterial 

and Synodical Committees, 207, 208, 284 


Letters from Secretary Speer, . 
Life-giving Words, .... 
Lights and Shadows of the Year 

Korea, .... . • 

Li Hung Chang, . . 162, 239, 

Little Trials, ' 

Live Missionary Meeting, 
Look at My Feet, . . 

Lord's Bag, The 

Louisville, Presbyterianisin, 
Lowrie, The Late Hon. Walter, 
Loyalty to Presbyterianisin, 
Madagascar, ..... 
Madagascar and France, . 
Madagascar, Christian Endeavor in, 
Madagascar, Closing Saloons, . 
Mankato Presbytery, 
Manses, Value of, ... . 
Map of China, ..... 
Mark, Dr. George, .... 
Marling, Mr., Death of, . 
Marriages of Missionaries, 
Marshall N. C, .... 

Martyn, Henry, 
Mary Holmes Seminary, 
Mathematics and Imagination, . 
Mathematics and Morals, 

Medical Missions 

Medical Work in Syria and Anicric 

Contrasted, .... 

Melville, Miss, Death of, . 
Method and Motive, .... 

Method in Work 

Methods of Mission Work, 
Mexican Workers, .... 
Mexico, Chapel of the Holy Cross, 
Michigan, Letters from, . 44, 

Might be Called Foreign Missionar 


Ministerial Bureau, .... 
Ministerial Necrology, 74, 154, 230, 310, 
Ministerial Relief, .... 
Ministerial Relief, Practical Needs, 
Ministerial Relief, Secretary's Address, 
Minnesota, Good Tidings, 
Minnesota, Letter from, 
Missionaries' Children, 
Missionary Anniversary, . 
Missionary Calendar, 16, 113, 177, 274, 
Missionary Committee, 
Missionary Journey in Kansas, 
Missionary Problem, 
Missionary Progress in Uganda, 
Missionary Spirit, Tardy Developmen 
Missions and Methods in Chicago, 
Missions at Home and Abroad, 
Mission to the Chinese in the Unite 

States, ..... 

Missouri, Letters from, 
Missouri, One Dollar per Member, . 
Montana, Letters from, . . : 
Montana, Work Done by Synod of, 

Monthly Concert 

Monthly Concert Topics, . 
More about Mr. Randolph, 
Mormon Church, Activity, 
Mothers' Society, .... 
Muldrow, Rev. I. M., Death of, 
Nebraska, Good News from, 




















































































Nebraska, Letters from, . 

Nebraska Still Needs Help, 

Neesima, Joseph Hardy, . 

Newest West, . .' 

New Hampshire, Letter from. 

New Hebrides Synod, 

New Mexico, Letters from, . . 134, 

New Mexico, Two Days' Work in, 

New York, Letters from, . 45, 13 

Noble Deed, A, 

North Carolina, Letters from, . 4 

North Dakota, Effects of Retrenchment, 
North Dakota, Letter from, 
Notes from the North of Chile, 
Objection to Missions Answered, 
Opium in Formosa, .... 
Opportunity, An, .... 
Oklahoma, Letter from, 
Oregon, How Marcus Whitman Saved, . 

Our Bonded Debt 

Our Duty to the Aged, 

Our Red Brothers, .... 


Overlooking the Black Sea, 

Pastor is the Man, .... 

Pastor's Opinion and Request, 

Pastor's Statement, .... 

Paull, Mrs., and the Boatwoinan, 

Peace, A Triumph of, 

"Peace! Be Still !" . 

Persia and the Shah, 

Persia, A Wise Ruler, 

Persia, Babi Faith, .... 

Persia, Boys' School in Teheran 

Persia, Bread Question with Moslem Con 


Persia, Catholic Missions in, 
Persia, Missions in, .... 
Persia, New York Tribune on Missions. 
Persia, Review of Work at Oroomiah Sta 


Persia, Sheikh-ul-Islam, 

Persia, Stamp, 

Persia, Tenting and Touring in the Moun 

tains, ...... 

Persia. The Late Shah— The New Shah, 
Persia, The Shah is Dead ; Long Live the 

Shah ! 

Persia, Visit to, ..... 
Pioneer of Rocky Mountains, . 
Policeman at the Crossing, 
Postage to Foreign Countries, . 
Preaching Christ through Korea. 
Presbyterian Building, General Assembly 

Committee, ..... 
Presb'n Endeavorers, 14:5, 222, 300, 37 
Presbyterian Extension Course, 
Presbyterianisin in Louisville, . 
Princeton University, 

Prison Sunday 

Problems before the Church in Japan, 

Program of Civilization, . 

Publication and S. S. Work before Gen 

era] Assembly, .... 
Pull All Together, .... 
Qualifications of a Missionary, . 
Questions for Missionary Meeting, 72, 150, 

Quiet Progress in Japan, .... 




Rallying Day, A Practical Talk, . . 199 
Randolph, Anson 1). F., . . . 90, 152 

Rare Vacation, 370 

Receipts of Boards, 76, 156, 233, 311, 387, 473 

Relation of Religion to the University, . 413 

Religions of the' World, . . . 4G9 
Religious Liberty in Colombia, South 

America, .23 

Remarkable Tour, 432 

Results of the Year, 35 

Review of the Work of Oroomiah Station 2(i0 

Roberts, Mrs. Oscar, Death of, . . 113 

Romanists and Mexicans, .... 369 

Royal Wedding, A, 393 

Russia, Coronation of the Czar, . . 4 

Russia, Stundists of, 162 

Sabbath-school Missionary Work, 54, 200, 337 

Sabbath-school Work, Ideal in Practical, 338 

Sabbath-school Work in California, . . 279 

Sabbath-school Work in Minnesota, . 280 

Sabbath-school Work in Missouri, . . 280 

Sabbath Reform, 393 

Secretaries, Picture of, 241, 271 

Secular Evangelism, 454 

Shah is Dead ; Long Live the Shah ! . 257 

Shall Recruiting for Ministry be Stopped? 97 

Siam Boundaries, 176 

Siam, Extension of French Influence, . 14 

Siam, Letter from, ..... 125 

Siam, Marriage of a Pastor's Daughter, . 148 

Siam, Pastor Called 307 

Siam, Yellow-clad Priests, . . . 307 

Situation in Brazil, 349 

Situation in Japan, ..... 189 

Some Phases of Self-support in Syria, . 434 

Some Reminiscences, .... 353 

South Dakota, Letter from, . . . 134 

South, The 449 

Special Evangelistic Effort in Japan, . 183 

Specific Giving for Missions, ... 67 

Speer, Robert E., Tour of Mission Fields 255 

Stanford Estate, 385 

Step Forward for the Indians, . . . 401 
St. Louis Calamity, . . . . 5, 91 

Storm and Destruction, .... 318 

Story of Sabbath-school Missions, . . 279 

Stowe, Harriet Beecher, .... 164 

Strange Burial Customs, .... 360 

Studies in Sabbath-school Missions, . . 408 

Stundists of Russia, 162 

Suggestive Words from General Assembly 49 

Sunday-schools, ...... 162 

Swede Church in St. Paul Presbytery, . 205 

Syria, Church Bible, 469 

Syria, Cornelius Van Alan Van Dyck, . 466 

Syria, Death of Consul Gibson, . . 422 

Syria, Eggs, 139 

Syria, "I Serve," 61 

Syria, Letter from, 439 

Syria, Medical Work, . . . .430 

Syria, Missions in 427 

Syria, Remarkable Tour, .... 432 

Syria, Secular Evangelism, . . . 454 

Syria, Self-support in, .... 434 
Syria, The Lebanon of 1896, . . .428 

Systematic Giving, 144 

Tardy Development of the Missionary 

Spirit, 467 

Tennessee, Synod of, .... 319 

Tenth Legion, 296 

Tenting and Touring in the Mountains, . 267 

Texas, Letter from, 215 

Texas, Resolutions of Synod, . . . 443 

Thanksgiving, Reasons for, . . . 393 

Then and Now, ...... 281 

Thy Kingdom Come, .... 64 

Time for Conservative Action, . . . 341 

Timely Reminder about Collections, . 279 

Treasury, 285 

Tree Known by Its Fruits, ... 86 

True, Mrs. Maria, Death of, 177 
Turkey, A Widow's Tithe, . . .228 

Turkey, God Rules, 4 

Turkey, H 2 0., 94 

Turkey, Martyrs, 148 

Turkey, Spiritual Blessings, . . . 175- 

Turkey, Sultan's Attitude. . . . 318 

Two Days' Work in New Mexico, . . 55 

Two Sunday Services, .... 460 

Ullmann, Rev. J. F., ... 342, 424 

United States Church Army, ... 3 

Unity Among Missionaries, ... 15 

Unsubstantial Buildings, .... 420 

Utah, Conditions in, 443 

Utah, Letter from 452 

Utah, Polygamy to the Front, . . . 206 

Value of Manses, 94 

Value of Presbyterial Committee, . . 93 

Van Dyck, Cornelius Van Alan, . . 466 

Van Rensellaer, Cortlandt, D.D., . . 331 

Viceroy Li Hung Chang, .... 244 

Victoria as an Infant, .... 372 

Visit to Persia, 306 

Volunteers, 162 

Waldensian Church 70 

Washington, Letters from, . 134, 217, 452 

Washington's Farewell Address, . . 252 

Washington, Synod of, . . . . 363 

Water for Baptism, 370 

Ways of Working, 62 

Wells, Edward, Death of, . . . . 423 

West Virginia, Letter from, . . . 293 

What Others Say, 73 

Wheeling on the Lord's Day, ... 64 

Whitman, Marcus, M.D 379, 46 L 

Why a Manse is Needed, . . . . 341 
Williams, Samuel Wells, LL.D., . . 221 
Wisconsin, Bright Outlook in, . . . 409 
Wisconsin, Letter from, .... 451 
Wisconsin, Sabbath-school Work, . . 108 
Women and Card Parties, . . . 144 
Work Done by Synod of Montana, . . 447 
Working Against Ignorance and Preju- 
dice 55 

Workmen of Oroomiah Press, . . . 260 

World's Student Conference, ... 81 

Worth Reading, . 71, 149, 229, 307, 384, 470 
Wyoming, Letters from, . . . 45, 371 

Xavier's Rock Opening at Last, . . 34 

Yankees of South America, . . . 351 
Young People's Societies and Foreign 

Missions, 14 

Young People's Societies in General As- 
sembly, . . . .. .59 

Young People's Societies, Relation to the 

Church, 61 




Adams, Rev. .I.E., . 
Adams. Rev. R. N., . 
Alexander, Rev. T. T., 
Allen, Rev. J. W., . 
Arnold, Rev. F. L., . 
Atterbnry, Boudinot C, M D, 
Bailey. Rev. T. S., . 
Bain, James M., 
Bartlett, Mrs. Franklina Gray 
Beattv, Rev. Henry T., 
Bell, Rev. Allen, 
Bickerstaph, Rev. George L., 
Blakelv, Rev. Z. F., . 
Boomer, Rev. W. B., 
Bowen, Rev. T. W., . 
Boyce, Rev. Isaac, 
Boyd, Rev. Robert P., 
Boyer, Rev.. Tames W.. 
Boy'le, President William, 
Brown, Rev. S., 
Bryan, Rev. A. V., . 
Calnon, Rev. J. C, . 
Campbell, Rev. Charles, 
Carson, Rev. H. P., . 
Clark, Rev. F. E , . 
Cleland, Rev. T. H.. . 
Coltman, Rev. Robert, 
Condit, Rev. I. M., . 
Converse, Rev. Thomas E 
Conybeare, Rev. S., . 
Cunningham, Rev. A. M., 
Currens, Rev. J. B., . 
Day, Edgar W., 
De Carvalhosa. Modesto P. D. 
Dening, Rev C. S., 
Dissette, Miss M. E., . 
Douglass, Rev. T. E., 
Duncan, Rev. Calvin A., 
Duncan, Pres. John Masoi 
Eakin, Rev J. A . . 
Eddy, Mary Pierson, M.D 
Edward, Rev. John, . 
Edwards, Rev. John EL, 
Ellinwood, Rev. F. F., 
Esselstyn, Rev. L. F , 
Everdi, Rev. John W., 
Eymer, Rev. L. J., . 
Fazel, Rev. John H . 
Fisher, Rev. S. G.. . 
Fitch, Rev. George F.. 
Forbes, Rev. F. L., . 
Ford, Harry P., 
Ford, Rev. George A., 
Frazer, Rev. Melvin, 
Freeman, Rev. A. W., 
Fulton, Rev. G. W., . 
Gale, Rev. J. S., 
Gifford, Rev. D. L., . 
Gilchrist, Rev. J. J., 
Gould, Rev. J. Loomis. 
Granger, Miss Leva Thompson, 
Green, Rev. Edward F., 
Gunn, Rev. Thomas M., 
Hansman, Rev. Henry, 
Hardin, Rev. O. J , . 
Haworth, Rev. B. C, 

119 Heberton, Rev. W. W , 

451 Henry, Rev. B. C, . 
179 Hobs'on, Rev. J. H., . 

208 Hodge, Rev. Charles. 

452 Hodge, Rev. Edward B., 
13 Holt, Rev. W. S., 

210 Honjosef, H. K., 

409 Hoskins, Rev. F. E., 

329 Hughes, Rev. J. W., 

1(56 Hunter, Miss Martha B., 

209 Hunter, Rev. Benjamin. 
301 Ishikawa, S., 
451 Jessup, Rev. William, 
359 Johnson, Gen. R. W., 

44 Johnson, Rev. T. S., 
17 Johnston, Rev. James, 

370 Jones, Rev. Caleb E.. 
101 Jones, Rev. L. E., 
407 Judson, Rev. J. H., . 

209 Kearns, Rev. W. H , 
110 Keigwin, Rev. II., . 

371 Kerr, M. II , 
130 Klose, Rev. O. R. W., 

210 Knox, Rev. J. H. Mason, 
141 Labaree, Rev. Benjamin, 

50 Laidlaw, Rev. Walter, 

45 Lane, Mr. G B., 
28 Lane, II. M., M.D., . 

168 Liddell, Rev. Robert, 

43 Lingle, Mrs., . 
440 Low-e, Rev. Edson A., 

54 Lucas, Rev. J. J., 

209 Mackintosh, Rev. John S., 
353 Marquis, Rev. John Logan 

210 Mayers, Rev. R., 
134 McAfee, Rev. Samuel L.. 

209 McClain, Rev. Josiah, 

210 McKean, J. W., M.D., 
95 McLaren, Rev. Robert F., 

125 McMillan,' Rev. D. J., 

430 Merwin, Rev. A. Moss, 

371 Millar, Rev. John W., 

38, 444 Moore, Rev. T. V., . 

244, 326, 349 Morgan, Hon. Thomas J., 

265 Nelson, Rev. W. S., . 

44 Olmstead, Rev. H. F., 
371 Paden, Rev. W. M., . 
216 Patton, Prof. J. H., . 
136 Payne, Rev. H. 1ST., . 
110 Pehland, Rev. Alfred M., 

53 Perkins, Rev. Silas, . 

460 Pettit, Rev. A. C, . 

454 Potter, Rev. J. L., . 

438 Powell, Rev. C. K., . 

213 Powelson, Rev. B. F., 

183 Pratt, Rev. S. W., . 

116 Quint, Rev. A. H., . 

440 Raynard, Rev. J. H., 

134 Reaser, Rev. J. G., . 

43 Reaugh, W. D., . 

134 Richmond, Rev. T. U., 

451 Reed, Rev. Villerov D., 

135, 210 Robbins, Rev. Edward H. 

45 Roberts, Rev. Wm. Henrj 
434 Robinson, Mrs. Albert B., 
186 Robinson, Rev. Alex., 
















61, 139 
100, 273 


224, 379, 







Huston, Rev. W. <)., . 
Bchwarzbach, Rev. C. II.. 
Schauffler, Rev. Henry A. 

Scott, Rev. II. 0., 
Sefton, Rev. James C, 
Shaw, Prof. A. F., . 
Shoemaker, Rev. .1. E., 
Shedd, Rev. .1. A , . 
Sherman, Miss Julia T., 
Sloan, Rev. J. C, 
Smith, Rev. J. C 
Smith, Rev. John Milton, 
Speer, Robert E., 
Spining, Rev. Charles M., 
Stalker", Rev. D., 
Stanley, Rev. F. J., . 
Stevenson, Rev. Francis R 
Stewart. Rev. -Geo. B., 
Stringfield, Rev. E. E.. 
Sturge, E. A., M.D., . 


209 Tucker, Rev. H. A., . 

1") Underwood, Mrs. H. G., 

290 Velte, Rev. H. C, . 

207 Vinton, C. C, M.D., . 

13, 201 Wachter, Rev. E., 

358 Waaler, Rev. H. S., . 

362 Ward, Rev. S. Laurence, 

260 Weeks, Rev. Thomas J., 

298 Wells, J. Hunter, M.D , 

45 Whiton, Rev. James M., 

44 Whittimore, Rev. I. T., 

4.")1 Willard, Miss Fannie, 

436 Williamson, Rev. John P. 

351 Wilson, Rev. Samuel T., 

209 Wilson, Rev. S. G., . 

221 Winn, Rev. Thomas C, 

452 Woods, Rev. Benjamin J. 

142 Wright, Rev. A. W., . 

217 Young, Mary Elizabeth, 


. 136 
. 122 
. 439 

114, 121 
. 109 
. 452 

268, 269 
. 217 
. 270 
. 152 
. 216 
. 216 

134, 209 
. 377 

257, 343 
. 170 
. 216 
. 451 
: 460 


American Indians in Chile, 
Baker, Rev. George D., D.D., . 
Barber Memorial, 
Bedouin Belle, .... 
Bible Institute, Campbell Hill, 111., 
Bohemian Church, Tabor, Minn , 
Boys' School at Hangchow, 
Cattell, Rev. W. C, D.D., 
Chester, Rev. Wm., D.D., 
Chinese Woman's Feet, . 
Class of Nurses before Red Cross 

(Japan), .... 
Coates College Gymnasium, 
Coates Park and Lawn, 
Crowell, Rev. James M., D.D.. 
Day Scholars in "Eschola Amerie 

Sao Paulo, Brazil, 

Eaton, O. I) 

Emperor of China, 
Girls of Fiske Seminary, 
Glasgow University, . 
Grassy Cove Academy, 
Harris, Ira, M.D., 
Henry Martyn, . 
Highland University, 
Japanese Chapel, San Francisco, 
Japanese Reading Room, . 
Japan, Map of, . 
Kin Takahashi, . 
Korea, Map of, . 



351 Korean Farm House, 

57 Korean Idols, 

419 Korean Student, 

431 Kurds, .... 
410 Li Hung Chang, 
278 "Little Injun," . 

27 Lodge in Garden of Cucumbers 

83 McAll, Rev. R. W., . 

332 McCosh, Dr., 

458 Mission School in Yokohama, 

Mohammedan Priests, 

183 MozafTar-ed-Diu, Shah of Persia, 

96 Owasco Lake, near Auburn, N 
95 Ox Cart of the Interior of Brazil, 

97 Patton, President, 
Paull, Mrs. George A., 

354 Planting Rice in Japan, 

441 Powell, Charlesworth, 

34 Princeton University, 

261 Refugees, Zeitun, 

193 Secretaries of Boards, 

276 Sheikh-ul-Islam of Salmas, 

432 Small Church, . 
303 Stowe, Harriet Beecher, . 
407 Sukel Ghurb School, Syria, 

32 Unity Presb'n Church, Clarksville, 

33 Van Rensellaer, Cortlandt, D.D., 
178 Washington Monument, . 

:!7T Wood, Rev. James, D.D., 

80 Zeitun Chief, .... 






July, i896. 



A monthly magazine in the English lan- 
guage, called The Far East, for Japanese 
readers, has jnst been started in Japan. 
This willingness to adopt and be influenced 
by our modes of thought should stimulate 
to greater diligence in bringing to Japanese 
knowledge-seekers in this country the foun- 
dation principles of the gospel. 


The Church Missionary Society was organ- 
ized April 12, 1799. On the twelfth of 
April, this year, the Society entered upon 
what is called the " Three Years' Enter- 
prise." This includes: 1. A comprehen- 
sive review of the Society's position and 
methods in the mission held and in the 
home administration of the missions. 2. 
A large increase in the Society's evangelistic 
forces. "Advance first; commemoration 
afterwards," is to be the controlling thought 
in the preparation for the coming centen- 


The British and Foreign Bible Society 
issued last year 3,970,439 Scriptures and 
portions. It is said that of every seven 
Bibles sent out by this Society, one goes to 
Russia. Since the organization in 1804 of 
this oldest of such societies, all the Bible 
Societies of the world have issued 260, 000, - 
000 copies. Though the aggregate is a 
vast number, what are all these among so 
many who are perishing for want of the 
message of life which the Scriptures contain? 


' ' Christ and Church Loyalty ' ' is the 
motto of this new organization of the 
Protestant Episcopal Church. In its rescue 
mission work and the effort to carry the 

gospel to the poor and ignorant, some of the 
methods of the Salvation Army are to be 
employed, with modifications. It will exalt 
the Church and remain under the direct 
control of the Church. No post is to be 
established in a parish without the consent 
and cooperation of the rector. Col. Henry 
H. Hadley, whose experience as superinten- 
dent of a successful rescue mission in New 
York qualifies him for such a position, is 
Army Director. 


Early in February, prominent citizens of 
Chicago recommended a consideration of 
this important question on Washington's 
Birthday. Conferences were held in Phila- 
delphia and other places both on that date 
and during the following weeks. Simulta- 
neous movements in many of our great 
cities indicated that the leaders of opinion 
were of one mind. The American Confer- 
ence on International Arbitration, held in 
Washington, D.C., April 22 and 23, 1896, 
expressed the conviction that war, as a 
method of determining disputes between 
nations, is oppressive in its operation, un- 
certain and unequal in its results, and pro- 
ductive of immense evil. It was the judg- 
ment of the Conference that " religion, 
humanity and justice, as well as the material 
interests of civilized society, demand the 
immediate establishment, between the United 
States and Great Britain, of a permanent 
system of arbitration ; and the earliest pos- 
sible extension of such a system to embrace 
all civilized nations." At the Mohonk 
Conference, held early in June, the convic- 
tion was expressed that law which establishes 
justice should be substituted for war, which 
simply demonstrates power, and that a j>er- 
maneut system of arbitration, a supreme 
court of the nations, is the essential safe- 





guard of civilization. In the course of the 
discussion the words of the late Austin 
Abbott were recalled: "Arbitration is occa- 
sional, voluntary, for the moment. The 
arbitrators are chosen for their fitness for 
the special subject. A court is permanent 
— its members are chosen under no stress of 
excitement, but because of their fitness to 
decide on international law." The accom- 
plishment of such a result in the interests of 
humanity and civilization, the establishment 
of a permanent court for the settlement of 
international controversies, would indeed be 
the crowning glory of this last decade of 
the nineteenth century. 


The men who pleaded guilty of treason, 
and who, after a fair trial, were found to 
have attempted the overthrow of the South 
African Republic, are now at liberty. The 
sentences of death were commuted and they 
have paid the fines imposed. When a dele- 
gation of prominent men from the various 
towns of South Africa visited President 
Kruger to thank him for his clemency to the 
prisoners, he pointed to a copy of the Bible, 
saying that was his guide and authority. 


Amid scenes of barbaric magnificence, 
Nicholas II placed the crown upon his head 
and proclaimed himself Czar of all the 
Russias. His grandfather signalized his 
accession to the throne by liberating twenty 
millions of serfs; and it was hoped that 
Nicholas would make this occasion memor- 
able by the proclamation of religious liberty 
to all his subjects. While the result is a 
disappointment, the burdens of the Russian 
people are somewhat lightened by the con- 
cessions made on coronation day. Land 
taxes are reduced and arrears of taxes re- 
mitted; the sentences of many exiles are 
commuted or shortened, and civil rights are 
restored to those whose lives have been 
blameless since their punishment. 


It is reported that in the expedition to the 
Soudan there is a" son of Lord Salisbury and 
also a son of the Archbishop of Canterbury. 
The memory of that noble Christian soldier, 
Gordon, who eleven years ago fell at the post 
of duty after being left in Khartoum to face 
the enemy almost single-handed and alone, 
ought to be an inspiration to the young men 

of Great Britain. If as a result of this ex- 
pedition some light of Christian civilization 
penetrates a dark corner of Africa, the way 
may be opened for good soldiers of Jesus 
Christ, armed with the sword of the Spirit 
which is the word of God. 


A writer in the Missionary Revieiv relates 
that "in 1839 the darkest hour came to 
Turkish missions, and the tyrant Mahmud 
ordered all Christian missionaries summarily 
expelled from the empire. Dr. Goodell qui- 
etly said: ' The great Sultan of the Uni- 
verse can change all this.' In July of that 
year Mahmud died. That order for expulsion 
was not only never enforced, it was never 
again referred to! " The God of nations is 
still able to make the wrath of men praise 
him. In the time his wisdom chooses there 
will be a change in the condition of perse- 
cuted Armenians; and no seed sown by 
Christian missionaries shall fail to bear fruit. 


The Mission among the Higher Classes in 
China, of which Rev. Gilbert Reid is di- 
rector, is unlike any other mission. It aims 
to be a connecting link between the ruling 
and educated classes of China on the one 
side, and all foreigners with good designs on 
the other. Its purpose is to enlighten the 
officials as to the intents of missionaries and 
the value of their work, to render them more 
favorably disposed towards Christianity, and 
bring them into friendly relations with the 
missionaries residing within their jurisdic- 
tion. The difficulties in the way of such a 
task require the exercise of great tact and 
genuine Christian courtesy. Mr. Reid has 
spent his time making and receiving calls, 
writing Chinese letters, as well as articles 
for newspapers and documents on the mis- 
sionary question and reform in China, and 
the distribution of documents and books. A 
recent document on the corruption of the 
government, which was highly commended 
by one of the Censors, emphasized moral 
rather than material reform, recommended 
the giving of fixed salaries to officials and 
the broadening of education. Mr. Reid's 
circle of official acquaintance is gradually 
extending. He reports that he has met one 
hundred and fifty men of rank, while he has 
opened communication with nearly three 
hundred and fifty. 



A terrible tornado swept across the 
city of St. Louis, Mo., on the evening of 
May 27, detailed and illustrated accounts of 
which have doubtless reached all our read- 
ers. The destruction of property and of 
life was appalling beyond all precedent in 
the history of our country. The adjacent 
city of East St. Louis, 111., on the east side 
of the river, suffered no less severely. The 
deaths in the two cities are reckoned by 
hundreds; the value of property destroyed 
was many millions of dollars — not relieved 
to the losers, as in losses by fire, by insur- 
ance. A calamity so directly from the 
hand of God, without human responsibility 
or blame, appeals peculiarly to the hearts of 
countrymen and Christian brethren. 

One phase of this appeal is emphasized to 
our readers, and to all Presbyterians by the 
facts stated in the following extract from an 
appeal to our Church from three of her 
eminent pastors in St. Louis, viz., Drs. 
Niccolls, Martin and Brookes: 

" More than twenty churches have been 
destroyed or greatly damaged in the region 
devastated by the tornado. Among these 
are four Presbyterian churches, and of the 
latter, the largest destruction of property fell 
upon Lafayette Park Church. The beauti- 
ful building is unroofed and part of the walls 
blown down ; and the hall occupied by its 
large mission school is utterly demolished. 
The damage to the church edifice alone is 
not less than $12,000. But saddest of all, 
the homes of a large part of its membership 
have been dismantled and ruined. In that 
part of our city there are thousands of 
houses that have been wrecked and the fur- 
niture and clothing of their occupants have 
been scattered by the storm. Those who in 
the morning were living in comfort, in the 
evening found themselves homeless and im- 
poverished. As ordinary insurance does 
not furnish protection against storms, the 
loss in most cases is heavy and crushing. 
Thousands of families are not able to pro- 
vide even food and shelter for themselves 
and must necessarily be dependent for a 
time upon the charity of others for support. 

' ' The magnitude of the calamity and the 
sorrow and suffering it has brought cannot 
be adequately described. While all the 
members of the congregation of the Lafay- 
ette Park Church are suffering in some form, 
pecuniarily, from the effects of the tornado, 
at least two-thirds have had their houses 

wrecked or greatly injured. The few men 
of wealth in the church are the heaviest 
sufferers. Their losses are so great that it 
is impossible for them to secure the restora- 
tion of the church building without generous 
help from others. They cannot even pro- 
vide for the necessities of those who are left 
homeless and destitute among their own 
members. ' ' 

Contributions for this church may be sent 
to Eobert Ranken, Esq., 3154 Magnolia 
avenue, St. Louis, Mo. 

Fourth of July. — One who subscribes 
her letter, " A Mother in Israel," and 
whose letter shows the spirit and wisdom 
which justify that signature, suggests the 
holding of religious services in churches on 
Independence Day, with addresses " appro- 
priate to the day, educating the people, 
especially the young men, in Christian citi- 
zenship, inspiring us all with more enthusi- 
asm and love for this blessed land of ours." 

She further suggests that if, on that occa- 
sion, a contribution of money should be 
made for home missions, " to send the 
bread of life to starving thousands who are 
flocking to our shores, our prayers and alms 
would come up before God as sweet in- 
cense. ' ' 

We gladly send this suggestion to our 
readers and we heartily thank the venerable 
" Mother" for it. 

An Injustice to Foreign Missionaries 
is unwittingly done by some of their corres- 
pondents, who either do not understand the 
postal regulations or do not observe them 
with sufficient care. 

Two thiDgs are to be carefully observed : 

1. The single rate of postage to foreign 
countries is five cents. 2. The single weight 
is half an ounce. 

We are so accustomed to the home weight 
— a whole ounce — that one may inadvert- 
ently mail a letter weighing more than half 
an ounce. 

If we do so, and put on only one five-cent 
stamp, the person receiving the letter is re- 
quired to pay double — that is ten corf*. 

Not only so, but now, a missionary in 
China informs us, the Chinese government 
doubles the charge again, to make up the 
difference between silver and gold. So, 
what would cost the sender five cents, if left 
to be paid by the receiver of the letter, will 




cost him twenty cents in silver, which equals 
twelve cents in gold. 

Of course no one who will write to a mis- 
sionary can be willing to do him such dis- 
courtesy and injustice, but it requires care 
not to do it inadvertently. 

Use thin i>aper, and never mail a foreign 
letter without weighing it or getting your 
postmaster to weigh it. 

How Women Do. — The following tells 
how a reporter for a secular paper was im- 
pressed by the proceedings of the Woman's 
Board of Foreign Missions at Portsmouth, 
Ohio, in April last: 

" It has been the duty of the writer to 
report all sorts of conventions, political, 
ecclesiastical and otherwise, where the main 

business was transacted and discussions con- 
ducted by men, and he is pleased to say 
that these ladies seem better equipped for 
the rapid and efficient dispatch of business, 
and more capable of giving what might be 
dry and arid detail the semblance and sub- 
stance of entertainment than any similar 
body composed of gentlemen whose pro- 
ceedings he ever reported. 

"All the papers were carefully and ele- 
gantly prepared, and the reports had their 
rigid forms clothed with warm thoughts and 
suggestions until they glowed with life and 
interest. The various features of the morn- 
ing programme were so timed that the space 
between 9.30 and noon was just consumed 
to a dot, a fact that required the exercise of 
no small amount of judgment." 


The number of commissioners in attend- 
ance at Saratoga barely fell below six hun- 

Although its sessions were begun, con- 
tinued and finished in a month which will 
be memorable for destruction of property 
and life in our country by fire, flood and 
tempest, there was no sudden death of a 
commissioner, nor any serious accident 
befalling any one in journeying to or from 
the Assembly. Considering lie large num- 
ber exposed to such perils, and the vast area 
over which their travels extended, this is 
surely an exemption calling for the devout 
gratitude of the whole Church. 

Quite as signally were the proceedings of 
the Assembly kept free from those exhibi- 
tions of human infirmity which would have 
marred its record and given pain to its loyal 
and devout constituency. 

The election of a moderator gave no 
indications of the prevalence of partisanship 
— certainly none of any successful partisan- 
ship. The official acts of the moderator 
and the committees appointed by him, and 
the debates and decisions of the body seem 
to us to partake of the same generous spirit. 
In the few instances in which there seemed 
to be danger of unbrotherly contention, such 
disposition of the questions involved was 
made that all concerned cordially concurred 

The effort to signalize the happy passing 
of a quarter century since the reunion of 

the Church by raising a million dollars for 
the work of the Boards has not been a 
complete success, less than half of that 
round sum having been realized, and the 
eldest of those Boards being left under a 
hindering and burdening debt. This great 
agency for carrying on our Church's work 
of evangelization over the whole continent 
is too dear to the Church to be thus hindered 
and disabled without general and painful 
regret. The Assembly could not neglect to 
apply its best wisdom to the devising of 
means for relief and invigoration of this 
indispensable agency. A special committee 
was appointed to devise such means. Sure- 
ly the whole Church will prayerfully expect 
that committee to find and show the way to 
effectual deliverance and happy progress. 

Another special committee of unusual 
importance is that which was appointed to 
advise the Boards of Home Missions and 
Foreign Missions concerning the two build- 
ings which they now own,one of which is to be 
sold and the other to be held and occupied 
for the offices of the Church Boards located 
in New York. With the two offers reported 
to the Assembly by Rev. W. H. Hubbard 
— one to take off the hands of the Boards 
the larger and costlier edifice, without pe- 
cuniary loss, and the other to furnish the 
funds for enlarging and improving the smaller 
building so as to make it sufficient and satis- 
factory for the uses of the Boards — there 
seems no reason for anxiety. It is well, 



however, and most assuring, to have se- 
cured to the Boards, to which the decision 
of the question is left, the counsel of ten 
eminent laymen, of whom ex-President 
Harrison is one. Whatever fears have trou- 
bled any mind, lest sacred money should be 
wasted or lost in these investments, ought 
certainly to be entirely relieved by this ac- 
tion of the General Assembly. 

The action of the Assembly concerning 
Theological Seminaries and Young People's 
Societies has been conciliatoiy toward differ- 
ing opinions, and leaves all those institutions 
and organizations in the enjoyment of regu- 
lated liberty, and with wholesome and gen- 
erous encouragement to earnest, industrious 
and loyal work for the dear Church which is 
the mother of them all — loyal alike to 
pastors, sessions, presbyteries and all higher 

The spirit of harmony and brotherliness 
which all observers commend must be as- 
cribed to the presence and power of the Holy 
Spirit. As human instrumentality through 
which he was pleased to work, those in at- 
tendance give prominent mention to the 
opening sermon of the retiring Moderator 
and the Sabbath sermon of the Moderator. 

The happy effects of this divine influence 
cannot be better set forth than they were in 
the Moderator's closing address. In that 
address Dr. Withrow said : ' ' Not a single 
aspirated tone has come from the lips of a 

commissioner on this floor; not one harsh 
word has been spoken by one brother to an- 
other. Not an unkind, not a hard word 
has been uttered. Could anybody claim 
that only a man or a set of men has brought 
this about ? The result has been directly 
from on high. No man of us can ever 
claim that he was the occasion of this har- 
mony. It is wholly due to him whose we 
are and whom we should ever be ready to 

trust to keep our hearts in peace 

" We have had no struggle for suprem- 
acy. We have had no rivalry for honor, 
nor any desire for precedence one of another. 
Was not all this owing to the presence of 
the Divine Spirit ? I am thankful for the 
kindness shown by all these commissioners 
to an inexperienced man like myself. I 
thank God that you could bear with my im- 
perfections as you have. And now, breth- 
ren, we will never meet together again until 
the judgment. When I heard that long roll 
called— a roll of six hundred names — the 
serious thought was in my mind that even if 
we live to four-score years and ten, we shall 
never all meet again in this world. How 
soon we shall all see the end ! But a little 
while, and the call will come to come up 
higher. Let us all so live that when our 
sun of life shall set and close to us the 
scenes of this world our eyes shall open in 
the light of God on high." 



During the past year your committee has 
directed its chief efforts to four main points: 


Immediately after the close of the former 
Assembly the chairman of the committee, 
the editors of the magazine and the business 
superintendent of the Board of Publication 
made a careful and thorough study of the 
question of costs. Every item was keenly 
scanned and searched, and earnest attempts 
were made to find out where just and wise 
saving could be effected. 

In studying this economical question and 
achieving desirable results, both wisdom and 
justice were called for. Wisdom taught that 
the high character of the magazine as to 

abilitv and fullest worthiness in relation to 
our Church must be not only maintained, 
but also advanced. Justice said that we 
must avoid the withholding of fair payments 
for fair work. 

But keeping all these aims and principles 
in view, we canvassed the whole market as 
to cost of paper, printing, binding, mailing, 
and every other part of manufacture. We 
sought and obtained bids for the whole make- 
up and out put of the magazine, not only 
in large cities, but also in rurai districts. 
And we do not hesitate to say in the strong- 
est terms that nothing was overlooked by 
which diminished cost of production could 
be won without lessening the attractiveness 
and the effectiveness of the magazine. 




Two reductions have been secured. By 
fair competition in the open market of trade 
your committee have obtained contracts for 
lower rates of manufacture, thus reducing 
very considerably the cost of make-up. 

A further reduction of our expenses is 
secured by the Editor's proposal to accept a 
considerable reduction of his salary, in con- 
nection with the lightening of his burden of 
care and labor by the most satisfactory work 
of the associate editor. 

Of course the positive effect and proof of 
these reductions cannot appear on the face 
of our present financial statement, because 
the lessened expenditures began only with 
January of this now current year, and the 
amounts submitted herewith present outlay 
up to the end of November, 1895. 

But we can say that, assuming that our 
circulation will not fall below present num- 
ber of subscribers — -a fair supposition — we 
have now so arranged matters that income 
and outlay will balance each other. 


This vital matter has engaged our most 
serious and constant attention. The past 
three years have been for your committee, 
as for all those bound to deal with the busi- 
ness of the Church and the business of the 
world, times of struggle and anxiety. We 
have had two ever-pressing difficulties to 
face and fight — the severity of the times 
and the severity of the competition. For 
us the latter has been at least as great and 
serious as the former. It would be unwise 
for your committee and unjust toward the 
Assembly to hide the fact that the persistent 
pressure of other periodicals and publica- 
tions on the attention of our ministers and 
congregations has lessened our circulation. 

This labor has fallen largely on the busi- 
ness superintendent, but chiefly and most 
constantly on the junior editor. It is but 
scant justice to say that Mr. Robinson has 
overlooked no means, no opening, no oppor- 
tunity to keep up and enlarge the circulation 
of the magazine. Without any fault-finding 
we may say that a litde more personal 
attention and a little more denominational 
loyalty on the part of our church officers 
and members would quickly lighten this 
labor and multiply our subscribers. 


To be the advocate for missions, the 

panorama of mission fields, and an inspira- 
tion to mission activity in every part of our 
broad and busy church life — such have 
been the ruling ideas kept before us from 
the very birth of our magazine. Suitability 
to these great ends and efficiency in gaining 
them have been our unwearying toil. 

To give this adaptation ami to win this 
success, special care and work have been 
devoted to the columns given up to the 
"Monthly Concerts" and to Young Peo- 
ple's Societies. As evidences of this par- 
ticular, we would remind the commissioners 
of the " Gleanings," and the special articles 
issued each month on specific missionary 
fields and labors, together with the sketches 
of our home missionary heroes. 

Again, your committee having given 
earnest attention to a demand for a particu- 
lar course, resolved that there should be 
opened a new and distinctive 


These instructions have been faithfully 
and with growing ability fulfilled in the 
successive issues since October, 1895. From 
these numbers and others, it will be seen 
that your committee have striven to furnish 
a course of study and reading for the home 
circles, and for missionary associations, in 
which the Bible, the history of our Church, 
our denominational teaching and activities 
have formed prominent topics. 

May we request the careful search of the 
supplement distributed with this report, in 
which is presented such a course. 

With the consent and direction of this 
Assembly, we hope to perfect this scheme 
into a Missionary and Presbyterian Reading 
Course, on the lines of the University Ex- 
tension system. 


Balance due Board of Publication, De- 
cember 1, 1894 $5,701 23 

Expenses for the year 20,034 52 

Amount due subscribers 1,150 77 

$26,946 52 

Receipts $19,602 72 

Assets ...3,896 00 

23,498 72 

Deficiency $3,447 80 

Average monthly circulation, 15,890 copies. 

The Board of Publication and Sabbath - 
school Work deserves the special acknowl- 
edgment of your committee. 



This Board, without complaint, pays its 
proportion of the cost of the magazine, and, 
at the same time, renders valuable assistance 
for which no adequate remuneration is given. 

We particularly desire to mention the 
continual courtesy and careful management 
of Mr. Scribner, the business superintendent 
of the Board, to whom we are greatly in- 
debted for valuable service. 


During no former year has our magazine 
gained so enviable notoriety among periodi- 
cals. Never before have so many of our 
articles been in their entirety reprinted ; 
never so often and widely been quoted in 

Frequently from our theological semina- 
ries, from mission bands, auxiliaries within 
and without our Church, and from private 
persons, have come requests for extra copies 
of some particular issue. 

Now is the time to hold fast what we have 
gained. Now is the time to give us words 
of cheer and encouragement. The pros- 
perity of our beloved Church, the advance- 
ment of the Master's kingdom, the glory of 
our King and our Father are our sole ob- 
jects. Brethren, bid us Godspeed, and 
spur us on. Where we have succeeded, 
generously own it, and give us hope for the 

It may be of interest to the General As- 
sembly to know that the new department, 
" The Study of Current Events," has 
called forth multiplying testimonies, which 
grow more and more emphatic in praise, 
from all parts of our own communion and 
from members of sister Churches. 

The Michigan Presbyterian says: " Those 
who complain that they cannot make mis- 
sionary meetings interesting should s^udy 
The Church at Home and Abroad as to 
current events." 

One of our busiest and most intelligent 
women writes: " We hail with thankfulness 
the new feature in The Church at Home 
and Abroad, viz., the study of such cur- 
rent topics as bear some relation to the 
progress of the Church ; and we heartily 
recommend that this should form a feature 
in our monthly concerts and in our woman's 
auxiliaries. We need just the information 
we shall receive monthly from our excellent 
magazine, and we venture to predict that if 
this study is persevered in we shall be able 

at the end of the year to take our places as 
liberally educated men and women." 

This testimony conies from Canada: " It 
is a pleasure to see that TnE Church at 
Home and Abroad has begun this study 
of the daily press, and is singling out for 
its readers the current events that have a 
direct relation to the kingdom of our Lord 
among the nations. But the idea is capable 
of being carried further. Why should not 
leaders of the Y. P. 8. C. E. missionary 
meetings also use it in their department ? 
The newspaper is a great power. In this 
way a considerable portion of its greatness 
might be consecrated — unintentionally on 
its part — to the service of our Lord and the 
furtherance of his kingdom." 

Dr. Stanley says in the Bulletin : 
" One of the very best monthly periodicals 

by no means sectarian, though printed by 
the Presbyterian denomination — furnishing 
a monthly summary of facts from all coun- 
tries, is The Church at Home and 
Abroad. ' Current Events and the King- 
dom ' is invaluable as a compendium of 
daily happenings the world over." 

Additional evidence of the recognized 
usefulness and popularity of our magazine 
will be given when the report is presented to 
the Assembly. 

For this improvement credit js due to our 
editors. Dr. Nelson, in his generosity, says : 
"The quality of the editorial work which 
has been done and of the contents of our 
pages must be left to speak for itself to those 
members of the Assembly who are readers of 
the magazine, and their testimony will be 
easily available for any commissioners who 
are not readers of it. In making the maga- 
zine what it has been during the past year, 
I have had the aid of the editorial corre- 
spondents, the business superintendent and 
all his assistants, and also the printers in 
the two houses, each of which has done our 
work during a part of the year, with a dili- 
gence, considerateness, and courtesy which 
merit my cordial and grateful acknowledg- 
ment. We have received many emphatic 
commendations of the magazine, emphasiz- 
ing its steady and not slow improvement. I 
am the more free to report this, because I 
can truly, as I do most cordially, attribute 
the improvement very largely to the skill, 
tact and diligence of the associate editor. 
For the educational features of the magazine, 
which have won special commendation, we 



are indebted mainly to him. He has be- 
stowed much time and labor upon correspon- 
dence concerning our subscription list." 


The Assembly Herald, having undertaken 
to print the monthly account of treasurers' 
receipts, and being able to present them to 
readers earlier than is possible for us, a letter 
was addressed to each member of the com- 
mittee, and to each of our editorial corre- 
spondents, upon the question of discontinu- 
ing the publication of the " Receipts " in 
The Church at Home and Abroad, or 
else changing the date of its issue, so as to 
make it possible for them to appear simulta- 
neously in the two publications. The 
answers to the circular letter indicated a 
general concurrence in the opinion that the 
expense of rej:>rinting the receipts in our 
pages a number of days later than they 
appear in the Herald is not justifiable. 
We have therefore decided to omit them 


from the May and June issues, referring the 
question of resuming them in the twentieth 
volume, which begins with the July number, 
to the General Assembly. 


1. We recommend the reappointment of 
the committee, with the same instructions. 

2. That the committee report to the Gen- 
eral Assembly in 1897. 

3. That the discontinuance of the print- 
ing monthly in the magazine of the treas- 
urers' receipts be approved. 

4. That the Assembly approve the Chris- 
tian Training Course in Bible Study, Pres- 
byterian History, and Doctrine, and allied 
topics, and commend it to the favorable con- 
sideration of pastors and other instructors 
of the young. 

All of which is respectfully submitted by 
your committee. 

John S. MacIntosh, 




Amid the fierce rush of life, the dashing 
aggressiveness and the innovating boldness 
of this northwestern metropolis, everything 
of good and. of evil is thrown out into bold 
relief. American successes and American 
failures are here strongly marked. 

Failures serious, fraught Avith perils 
numerous and ominous, appear in two 
directions — civic management and civic 
missions. Two prime duties confront us 
— civic emancipation from the bonds of sel- 
fish parties and civic evangelization, that 
the blast and blight of social and sensual 
pollution may be ended. 

Here is the double problem for American 
patriotism and American piety. They are 
inseparable. The citizen and the church- 
man must work together for the solution. 

The battle blast has been heard and 
bravely answered in Chicago. The awaken- 
ing there is thorough and widespread. 


Forward movements are taking place along 
the whole line of aggressive life from the 
extreme left of crassest materialism to the 
extreme right of purest spiritual and Chris- 
tian enthusiasm. The air, the papers, the 
debating forums, the clubs of communists 

and of plutocrats, the college classrooms 
and the church pulpits, all ring with these 
cries and catch -words : " Purified Politics," 
" Cleansed Cities," " Christianized Sociol- 
ogy," "Churches both Light and Salt," 
" Aggressive Religion," " Redemption of 
the Whole Man and of Human Society. ' ' 

The reformative and restorative activities 
studied now in the soup kitchens and now 
in Hull House; now iu the rooms of Ethical 
Culture with Rabbi Hirsch, and now in 
Chicago Commons under Graham Taylor; 
now with Dowie and his faith cure, and now 
with Torrey in the Moody Mission — divide 
themselves into the physical and humanita- 
rian; the educational and social ; the ethical 
and aisthetic; the evangelical and spiritual. 

Not a few earnest men and women — 
Christian and non-Christian — are found in 
each section. As to objects and plans, you 
fiud separations and divisions whereby old 
lines of distinction are wholly wiped out, 
and new alliances are formed. Yet there is 
very little friction and no antagonism. 
There are large and cheering sympathy, 
cooperation and mutual respect. 

There are two contrasting ideas : 

1. The non-religious. — Not the auti- 




religious, but the non-religious ; the mate- 
rial, the intellectual, the social, of which 
the finest and noblest type is that admirable 
institution, Hull House, ruled and vivified 
by a princess among women, Miss Jane 

2. The religious. — The spiritual and 
evangelical, in which all the evangelical 
churches arc working with church comity 
and with hallowed and generous emulation. 

Among the famous movements of the 
Chicago Protestant churches the following 
are to be specified : 

1. Church extension proper. 

2. Great central and comprehensive 
churches with large staffs of workers — some 
purely evangelical and some institutional. 

3. Rescue missions for fallen men and 
women, where to truly reformative measures 
are added restorative influences and conser- 
vative surroundings such as Prof. Graham 
Taylor used effectively in Hartford. 

4. The Christian home as an aggressive 
power planted in the midst of teeming and 
largely church- neglected populations, such 
as Chicago Commons, and the College Set- 
tlement as now widely understood and 


Two plans appear in bold contrast, and a 
third is intermediate. The Hull House, 
under Miss Jane Addams, stands over 
against the system of Dr. Traveller of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church. The former 
is humanitarian, social, educational, aes- 
thetic; the latter is evangelical, spiritual, 
regenerative, Biblical. The former believes 
in caring for the body and the mind, for the 
tastes and the affections; the latter for the 
conscience, the soul, the spiritual life, not, 
however, forgetting the body and its wants. 
The third or intermediate plan combines the 
physical, the intellectual and the spiritual. 

The adherents to this third plan are 
divided into two classes: Prof. Graham 
Taylor, of the Congregational Seminary of 
Chicago and of Chicago Commons, inclining 
decidedly to the Hull House side; and Dr. 
Hesing, of the Congregational Church Ex- 
tension Board, to the side of Traveller and 
Parkhurst. With these last the Baptist 
brethren are largely found. 

In an interview with one of the busiest 
and most thoughtful advocates of the purely 
educational and aesthetic methods of civic 
reformation, I put this question : ' ' Do you 

not, from what you have said regarding 
attendance upon your literary, historical and 
scientific classes, recognize the fact that the 
intellectual side of your work and your 
simply aesthetic efforts have been markedly 
failures, especially among the classes you 
have striven to reach by them ?' ' 

There was hesitancy — evident perplexity 
— an impulse only half concealed to say, 
" Yes." 

Then came self- recollection and slowly 
followed the somewhat doubtful answer: 
" Well, no; not altogether, I think." 

But it was conceded that the ' ' amuse- 
ment side " of the institution was the most 

The outcome was but small, and evidently 
there was disappointment vexing the souls 
of some earnest workers in this humanita- 
rian mission. 

After observation, inquiry and reflection, 
my own conclusion is that the purely intel- 
lectual and simply esthetic are ineffectual 
for large and permanent results. The 
master-soul within the men and women 
sought to be helped was not seized and 
won. The real uplift of manhood had 
not begun. The best results, according to 
the testimony of men who have been for 
years in this rescue and reformatory work, 
have been attained and made permanent 
where the spiritual was placed first, and the 
materia], physical, social and educational — 
not neglected — but made second. The 
Saviour's fundamental and far-reaching 
maxim, " These ought ye to have done and 
not leave the other undone," will with force 
and point apply here. 

We must attend first to the weightier 
matters of the conscience and the soul and 
yet not neglect to give pure water, clean 
streets, healthy homes and wholesome amuse- 
ments to the struggling classes who are 
crowding daily in larger numbers into our 
great centres of trade and industry. 

In these congested city districts and 
among these suffering masses, the churches 
of Christ and true patriots find at once their 
possibilities and their perils. The perils are 
already many and great. Daily they are 
multiplied, daily they grow more threaten- 
ing. The past four or five years have given 
each of our great cities startling lessons as 
to our civic dangers. But our possibilities 
are greater than our dangers. Fallen lives 
have been lifted up into new worlds, where 




lost manhood and blasted womanhood have 
been rewon and restored to fresh beauty. 
Broken hearts have been bound up and 
now beat healthily and happily. To-day 
the smile of the Elder Brother rests sweetly 
on many a saved sinner worshiping humbly 
in the quiet city chapel and on the blessed 
soul-winner who, Saviour-like, has sought 
out diligently and brought back with patient 
love the sheep that was lost. 

The churches of Chicago, our own preem- 
inently, have resolved that their own city 
must be their first care. For the reform and 
the regeneration of that one city, the country, 

Christendom and Christ hold them responsi- 
ble. To this unshared duty they are now 
giving themselves, while not forgetting the 
duties which they share with other cities and 
churches. In this concentration and con- 
secration lie the force, the hope, the assured 
pledge of civic reform, safety and sweetness 
in the future. The problem of the city is 
the peril of our country : let us make it the 
privilege and prerogative of the Church of 
Christ. To this question, as to every social 
and moral question, the pierced hand holds 
the answer: " Saviour, to whom shall we 
go ? Thou hast the words of eternal life." 



Our village had felt the hard times. 
The great mills, the main industry of the 
place, had been run on half time a full 
year, with frequent shut downs. Wages 
had been reduced fifteen per cent. The 
General Assembly, however, had asked 
the churches to increase the gifts to Foreign 
Missions twenty-five per cent., and we 
knew there was urgent reason for giving. 

The second Sabbath in December is our 
foreign mission day. Last year we raised 
$154. This year, when the offering was 
counted, we found it amounted to $307, almost 
exactly double the amount of last year. How 
was it done ? Our plan was as follows: 

1. Distribution of literature. The Board 
sent us leaflets (three sets) and envelopes. 
Two weeks before the taking of the offering 
one set was distributed through the pews. 
Others were handed the people as they 
passed from prayer meeting. The children 
had stories, the older folks facts, and some 
particularly strong arguments were put 
where they would do the most good. 

2. A prayer meeting was devoted entirely 
to the subject. It was a good service. Per- 
sons were seen and urged to attend. The 
room was full. A new map spoke elo- 
quently of the world's spiritual destitution. 
Our best talkers presented phases of the 
work. A choir of young people sang 
special selections and touched our hearts. 
Prayer was unusually fervent. The meet- 
ing had to be extended beyond the hour. 

3. The Missionary Committee of the En- 
deavor Society held a meeting to arrange 
for an Endeavor offering. Specially pre- 

pared envelopes were distributed two weeks 
before the day of offering, and members 
were urged to drop in a piece of money 
every day. This meeting was largely one 
of prayer, and as they knelt before God a 
blessing came upon them. 

4. An all-day offering, morning, after- 
noon and night. As the collection for for- 
eign missions comes before us but once a 
year, we do not believe in crowding it into 
one hour. We offer the people a chance to 
give more than once. We let them see the 
session is in earnest. We aim to get all 
we can. 

5. An offering from all organizations — ■ 
church, Sabbath-school, Y. P. S. C. E., 
Junior Endeavor and Pansy Band. The 
gifts of the Women's Board are separate. 
The amount was put on the blackboard of 
the Sabbath-school once during the day and 
announced from the pulpit, so the people 
could know how the offering was going. 

6. The high-water mark reached was not 
without sacrifices. One young man, a mill 
under-foreman, made a sacrifice of a pros- 
pective pleasure upon which his heart had 
been set, and literally gave all that he had. 
One member gave a much larger sum than 
usual in memory of a deceased sister. 

So glad is the church over the thing which 
God has put it into their hearts to do, that 
they look forward to the time when they 
will go still higher. 

Results: (1) Blessedness: 1 Chron. 29: 
13, 14; (2) Blessing: Matt. 3: 10. 

Thompsonville, Conn. 


china's new embassy to the west. 



His Excellency Li Hung Chang, a " Pil- 
lar of State," ex-Viceroy of Chili Prov- 
ince, wearer of the Yellow Jacket and 
bearer of many other distinguished titles, 
has just left Tien Tsin on what promises to 
be an eventful mission to foreign countries. 
For more than twenty-five years Li Hung 
Chang has been one of China's most re- 
nowned statesmen. By his ability, as well 
as through his position of Viceroy govern- 
ing the province in which is situated the 
imperial capital, he has wielded immense 
power. Trusted implicitly by the Empress 
Dowager, no matter of natioual importance 
was settled before asking his opinion. Be- 
fore the trouble with Japan began he had 
reached the pinnacle of greatness and his 
position seemed to be unassailable. 

When the Japanese first began to move 
against Corea, the stalwart Chinese affected 
greatly to desjuse them, saying that they 
were only four feet high and correspondingly 
lacking in fighting ability. As, however, 
in every engagement these ' ' dwarfs ' ' ap- 
proached nearer, their height rapidly in- 
creased until, by common report, they were 
ten feet in stature. The Chinese officials 
had a rude awakening from their dreams of 
self-satisfaction. The young emperor was 
especially chagrined at the failure of his 
trusted servant, and took away some of the 
honors formerly given with lavish hand. 
For the past few months Li has been living 
in Peking ; and many think that he will 
soon again be in full power and honor. 

The Russian minister petitioned some time 
ago that a member of the royal family be 
seut to represent China at the approaching 
coronation of the Czar. But none of the 
princes were willing to trust themselves so 
far from home. Viceroy Li was then se- 
lected as a suitable representative on the 
great occasion ; and, nothing loath to under- 
take so long a journey, in spite of advanc- 
ing years, he has started forth briskly. He 
proposes not only to go to Russia, but to 
other European countries, returning via the 
United States, thus satisfying the demands 
of foreign ministers, ever jealous of any 
points scored by one of their number. 

In receiving Viceroy Li in America it is 
to be remembered that he well deserves to 
be noticed and feted. Tall in stature, in 

spite of his seventy years still strong and 
erect, wearing his picturesque official robes, 
he is a commanding figure in any and 
every country. He has been almost the 
only high official in China to aj)prcciate 
western civilization. And his attention 
has not been turned entirely to increase of 
wealth or destruction of life; he has become 
greatly interested in foreign medicine. Two 
hospitals in Tien Tsin with a medical school 
attached bear substantial witness to the 
breadth of his sympathy. During the past 
war he aided in many ways the independent 
Red Cross Society formed to look after the 
wounded soldiers. While by no means a full 
believer in Christianity, the Viceroy has ac- 
knowledged that there is much of good in 
our religion, especially in the sympathy it 
teaches for suffering humanity. It is to be 
hoped that this powerful leader of progress 
in this great empire will be spared to report 
to his government on all the wonderful 
things he will see during the next few 
months. We trust that he also will have 
something to say about the many philan- 
thropic institutions in the lands which he is 
to visit. And it is still more to be desired 
that he may learn that these are the out- 
growth of the spirit of that religion of 
Christ which so many of his nation now de- 
spise. It will indeed be unfortunate if he, 
the first really great Chinaman to travel 
abroad, returns to his home as too many 
Orientals have done, confirmed in the belief 
that, while some western nations have made 
great progress in scientific lines, yet morally 
and socially nothing is to be learned fr 
them. This sad result with other Oriental 
travelers has come partly from the fact 
that, as they have passed from country to 
country, they have been received by a class 
of society which takes too little interest in 
pointing out what is of value from the Chris- 
tian standpoint. 

The Viceroy's trip is expected to last 
about eight months. It will be interesting 
then to notice whether or not the present im- 
pressions of western civilization held by this 
wide-awake man are confirmed or rudely 
shattered. Even the most patriotic of Ameri- 
cans, must acknowledge that there is euough 
of degradation, immorality and siu to aston- 
ish even a heathen visitor. 



Immediately after the publication in our 
last issue of the Board's action regarding 
the appointment of unmarried missionaries, 
comes the announcement of the proposed 
marriage of the Rev. R. H. Bent, of West 
Shantung, to Dr. Sarah A. Poindexter ; of 
the Rev. J. M. Irwin, of Western India, 
to Miss Helen G. Mcintosh, and of C. C. 
Hansen, M.D., of Mosul, to Miss Lillian 
Reinhart. There will be many prayers that 
these six names, which have stood for a 
very useful work in the past, may stand for 
a yet more useful work when the six names 
become three. 

The extension of French influence in 
Siam does not seem to have affected unfa- 
vorably that portion of the work of the 
Laos mission which falls east of the boun- 
dary line agreed upon between the French 
and British territory. Dr. Denman writes 
from Chieng Mai that the French influence 
at Chieng Saan, to the north, seems to have 
had no bad effect on the work, the author- 
ities having said that the people will not be 
interfered with in their religion, and have 
even appointed a Protestant Christian as 
head man in one of the villages. All but 
four families, however, have crossed the 
river into Siamese territory in preference to 
becoming French subjects. At Nan, the 
newest of all the stations, and the only one 
that falls in French territory — although 
some of the reports question this — Dr. 
Thomas writes that he was told that the 
French agent had made it clear while he 
was at Nan that our mission work was to be 
allowed to go on uninterrupted, and that he 
had even countermanded orders to the bishop 
concerning the sending of priests to Nan, 
for the present. It is to be earnestly hoped 
that this kindly and liberal feeling will con- 

half of the Board of Foreign Missions. 
The Board at a recent session took the fol- 
lowing action on the matter : 

" The Rev. James S. Dennis, D.D., 
having, because of pressure of other liter- 
ary work connected with Foreign Missions, 
resigned his position as Editorial Correspon- 
dent of The Church at Home and 
Abkoad representing this Board, the resig- 
nation was accepted, and it was voted to 
tender the thanks of the Board to Dr. Den- 
nis for the admirable service he has ren- 
dered, without cost to the Board, in so ably 
conducting the department of Foreign 
Missions in the magazine, and to express 
sincere regret that he finds it impossible to 

The service referred to covered a period of 
about three years, during which the pages 
of the magazine were greatly enriched, not 
only by Dr. Dennis' own pen, but by his 
painstaking efforts in securing material 
from other sources. 

Dr. Brown has been appointed Editorial 
Correspondent to succeed Dr. Dennis. His 
responsibility will begin with the November 

Reference was made in our last issue to 
the withdrawal of Dr. Dennis as the Edi- 
torial Correspondent of this magazine in be- 

The question is often asked by members 
of Presbyterial Committees on Foreign Mis- 
sions, and by officers of Women's Mission- 
ary Societies, " What are the relations of 
the Assembly's Board and the Women's 
Boards to each other in the missionary work 
of the Young People' s Societies ?' ' This 
question and many others were made sub- 
jects of discussion at a recent conference of 
representatives of the Women's Boards and 
the Assembly's Board, and at a subsequent 
meeting the Assembly's Board, in view of 
the discussion of the conference, adopted the 
following resolution : " While the Board has 
no desire to restrict the liberty of the Young 
People's Societies to determine for them- 
selves, subject to the advice and consent of 
their respective church sessions, the chan- 
nels through which their foreign missionary 
offerings shall be sent to the treasury of the 
Assembly' s Board, and while unhesitatingly 




conceding that all Junior Young People's 
Societies and Children's Mission Bands 
should be regarded as the proper field for 
the work of the Women's Boards, the Board 
would reaffirm the judgment expressed in its 
action of April 20, 1891, and reiterated in 
its action of July 18, 1892, that 

" ' The Board prefers that iu their for- 
eign mission work the Senior Young Peo- 
ple's Societies should, as far as possible, 
become directly allied with this Board. 

" ' The men of the Church need greatly 
to have their interest in foreign missions 
developed. This is only to say that such 
interest must be developed in the young 
men. In a few years they must outgrow 
any natural connection with the Women's 
Boards. Their direct connection quite 
early in their youthful manhood with the 
central Board of their Church seems to us 
an object much to be sought after.' 

" The Board, however, cordially recog- 
nizes the fact that the Women's Boards 
have done much to enlist the foreign mis- 
sionary interest of the Young People's So- 
cieties, that many of these societies are now 
contributing through the Women's Boards, 
and that the Women's Boards conscien- 
tiously feel that it would be injurious to the 
best interests of the cause for them to relin- 
quish their direct relations with the Young 
People's Societies. 

" The Board gratefully recognizes the 
efficiency, the value, the disinterestedness, 
and the loyalty of the work which is being 
done by the Women's Boards, and it is ex- 
tremely desirous that any policy which shall 
be adopted regarding matters which con- 
cern them shall be in harmony with their 
judgment and wishes. For the present, 
therefore, and until there shall be greater 
unanimity of opinion on this subject, the 
Board does not wish to interfere with the 
arrangement now existing between the 
Women's Boards and the Young Peojde's 
Societies contributing through them, nor to 
rescind the argeement of 1891, to ' leave 
the Women's Societies and Boards at lib- 
erty, when they see opportunity to reach a 
Young People's Society not already work- 
ing in that way (i. e., with the Assembly's 
Board), to make an effort to interest it.' 
With these explanations we ask anew the 
cooperation of the Women's Boards, trusting 
to the same spirit of generous helpfulness 

which has made their service in time past so 
fruitful of blessing." 

The influence of Dr. Nevius is likely to 
be greater than ever in the next few years 
through the circulation of his little book 
entitled Methods of Mission Work. The 
principles of work laid down in this little 
volume are the result of the experience of 
one of the wisest missionaries of our day. 
They have as their aim the establishment of 
an indigenous Christian life not dependent for 
its maintenance or extension upon funds 
from Christian lands. It was the convic- 
tion of Dr. Nevius that it would be far bet- 
ter for the Christian life in the United States 
if some such principles should have a larger 
place iu our organized Christian activity. 
Copies of the book can be obtained for 
twenty-five cents each from Foreign Mis- 
sionary Library, Room 815, 156 Fifth 
avenue, New York city. Every missionary 
should have and studv this little volume. 

" If there is any dross in a man," says 
one who has lived alone for five years 
among the Japanese, " it is almost sure to 
make its appearance when he comes into the 
foreign field." Personal idiosyncrasies are 
developed; sharp angles grow more acute; 
little differences of temperament and opin- 
ion, which would be lost at home in the large 
Christian atmosphere, are intensified and 
made bitter in some small mission circle 
where a little company ot people, who 
never knew one another until they were 
brought into the mission field, are crushed 
into closest contact by the irresistible pres- 
sure of surrounding heathenism. It is a 
marvelous testimony to the grace of ( Jod 
and his care for the missionary enterprise, 
as well as to the genuine and substantial 
devotion of missionaries, that they are able 
in spite of all this to be of the same mind 
— of one heart, of one mind. A striking 
testimony to the truth of this is furnished 
by a new missionary who went to the field 
with ideals so high that there was fear of 
the result of their contact with reality, but 
who writes from her new station : ' ' We are 
certainly very fortunate in having such 
pleasaut people to work with. The workers 
are so earnest and spiritually minded, very 
different from what one might find. Miss 
and I are living with Miss and 


in the compound where the Girls' 




School is; Mr. aud Mrs. live beside 

the Boys' School and the chapel, aud Mr. 
aud Mrs. live with them. Just im- 
agine the grace it would take for two fam- 
ilies to live in a sort of mutual housekeeping 
style in America. Some very good hus- 
bauds and wives could not do it. But these 
four people are the most gentle-tempered 
people ! Not one seems to have the least 
bit of ' hastiness.' " 

The best loved people in most cities where 
missionaries live are the missionaries them- 
selves. They are welcomed joyously when 
they return to their stations, and they are 
sent off with loving farewells when they 
leave. Mr. Miles writes from Medellin, in 
the Republic of Colombia, of the departure 
of Mr. and Mrs. Touzeau after nine years' 
work in Medellin, for a much-needed rest in 
the United States. " You will have seen 
them and learned something of their leave- 
taking ere this, but modesty will keep them 
from telling all that passed. The morning 
of their departure — August 30 — found their 
little house full of the pupils of the school, 
and some of the parents who had come to 
tell them good-by. Of course we did not 
think of trying to have school that day. As 
the Touzeaus still had some packing to do 
the morning of their departure, the children 
were in the way. They were driven out 
several times, but finally we had to lock the 
door in order to keep them out. You may 
think that the expression ' driven out ' is 
rather strong, but I assure you that it is not 
too strong. The children could not be per- 
suaded to go out, and I had to threaten, to 
call a policeman to eject them. At last all 
was ready and the procession began. I say 
' procession,' for numbers of the children 
followed on the road a mile and a half or 
two miles, crying and showing very plainly 
by their conduct that those who were leaving 
had earned their deep love. The adults were 
not so demonstrative, but their sadness at 
the temporary separation was not the less. 
The Touzeaus have gained the love of the 
children of the school and of their parents 
to a remarkable degree, and all will await 
anxiously their return." 

parts of Chili, some from Peru and Bolivia. 
It is the best missionary school for boys on 
the west coast of South America, and ranks 
well even when classed with the best govern- 
ment institutions in Chili. The school is a 
distinctively missionary school, and affords a 
great field to any young man who wishes to 
give his life to the work of a Christian 
teacher. The Board of Foreign Missions is 
seeking earnestly for a good man, and would 
be glad to hear from any oue to whom this 
may come as a possible call from God. Any 
correspondence should be directed to Mr. 
Robert E. Speer, 156 Fifth Avenue, New 
York City. 

Mr. William A. Booth, for twenty -five 
years a member of the Board of Foreign 
Missions, lying sick of pneumonia and at 
death's door, at the age of ninety, remarked 
to his son shortly before he passed away : 
" My thoughts are dwelling much on the 
subject of eschatology. I am perfectly ad- 
justed to that other world, but I should like 
to stay a little longer in this in order to be 
of some further use to the cause of Foreign 

At Santiago, Chili, there is a boys' school 
of about one hundred and twenty scholars, 
some of whom are day pupils and the rest 
boarders. Many of these come from remote 



April 8 — From San Francisco, to join the 
Korea Mission, Miss Catherine C. Wom- 

April 16 — From San Francisco, return- 
ing to the Central China Mission, Rev. and 
Mrs. J. H. Judson and family. • 

April 30 — From New York, to join the 
Chili Mission, Rev. and Mrs. Webster E. 

May 12 — From San Francisco, returning 
to the West Japan Mission, Rev. and Mrs. 
David Thompson, D.D. 


May 5 — At New York : from the Korea 
Mission, Miss V. C. Arbuckle; from the 
Siam Mission, Rev. J. A. Eakin ; from the 
Western India Mission, Rev. J. M. Goheeu 
and Mrs. Goheen and family. 


From the Korea Mission, Miss V. C. 

From the Western Persia Mission, Rev. 
J. C. Mechlin. 






Something which cannot but arrest 
the attention of the tourist in the Mexican 
republic is the large number of heaps of 
stones surmounted by a rude wooden cross 
and weather-beaten shrines to be seen by 
the roadside. Inquiry as to their meaning 
will perhaps call out quite a eulogy on the 
miracles which have been wrought through 
the judicious use of money, silver images or 
such like, or by the faithful fulfillment of a 
heavy penance imposed by the priest, such 
as walking on bended knees from the 
neighboring village, perhaps a half-mile or 
mile, over the rough, stony, sometimes flinty 
ground. One of these shrines, known as 
the " Holy Cross," is situated on a high 
knoll overlooking the city of Parras, State 
of Coahuila. 

The main part of the city of Parras is 
built on a steep hillside connecting two 
plains lying at some two hundred feet differ- 
ence of elevation, around the magnificent 
water spriugs which gush forth just at the edge 
of the higher plain. To the southeast of 
the city this plain extends to the foot of 
the mountain range distant perhaps a 

The face of the plain is broken by a num- 
ber of hillocks rising abruptly from fifty to 
two hundred feet above its general level. 
On the highest of these is situated the chapel 
of the ' ' Holy Cross, ' ' or the ' ' Holy Wood, ' ' 
for it is known by both names. The for- 
mation of the hill is peculiar. It is conical 
in shape, perhaps four hundred feet in diam- 
eter at it base, and two hundred feet in 
height. Its apex is only about thirty «feet 
in diameter; but this is surmounted by a 
rocky crown about forty-five feet in diame- 
ter and some twenty feet in thickness. The 
mound or hill proper is composed of earth 
and disintegrated rock, while the upper sur- 
face or crown is composed of an extremely 
hard, porous, limestone formation. The 
loose earth underlying this has been worn 
away by the rain and wind, thus undermin- 
ing the rock, and has left it projecting be- 
yond the apex on all sides a distance of 
seven or eight feet. As one looks up at the 
mound the rocky crown seems to be delicate- 
ly balanced on the hillock and in imminent 

danger of toppling off its narrow resting- 

Tradition has it that about three hundred 
years ago the Catholic priests on reaching 
the site of Parras scaled this rock, as it com- 
manded a view of the whole region to the 
north and west and there celebrated the first 
mass. Gradually an Indian village gathered 
about the spot, and as the priests gained influ- 
ence over them, they looked for a centre of 
worship. The holy fathers were equal to 
the occasion ; one morning as the simple vil- 
lagers gazed up at the hill above described, 
a new object met their eyes. A cross stood 
out in bold relief on the summit of the 
rock. " Whence came it ?" was the ques- 
tion asked by the Indians, and the fathers 
answered: "From heaven." This was ac- 
cepted as a sufficient explanation. 

But the matter did not end with this: 
experiment showed that the cross was pos- 
sessed of wonderful miraculous healing 
power. An offering to the cross was the 
only requisite in order that its supernatural 
power should be made manifest. Its fame 
spread throughout the whole surrounding 
region and long pilgrimages were made to it 
by the credulous Indians for healing. 

As time passed the wooden cross began 
to show signs of decay; but the fathers 
guarded against the possibility of the In- 
dians being left unprotected against the ills 
of flesh, and of their losing the large rev- 
enue resulting from the offerings made to 
the holy cross. A stupendous miracle was 
wrought. In the night season the old cross 
disappeared, and a much larger one, direct 
from heaven, so it was affirmed, took its 
place. This cross was found to be possessed 
of even greater miraculous power than its 
predecessor; and the revenues naturally 
were greater, and so for a period of some 
two hundred and fifty years, as occasion re- 
quired, miracles were performed for the con- 
tinuance of the holy cross on the hill. 

For the convenience of the pilgrims a 
winding stairway was cut through a rift in 
the crowning rock leading to the top. 
Later, to avoid the necessity of replacing at 
such frequent intervals the cross, it was deter- 
mined to protect it by a chapel. This was 
carried into effect some forty years ago. The 
cross thus protected has lost none of its powers ; 
the rather it has been increased. Instead of 
yielding to the influence of time and falling 
into decay, it began to show signs of life — 




it began to grow. It was painted a brilliant 
green, thus indicating that it was a living 
cross; and so great is its vitality that the 
sacristan will assure you solemnly that in 
order to avoid the destruction of the roof of 
the chapel, the cross has to be cut off each 
year, and sometimes oftener. 

It is sad indeed to see the depth of super- 
stition prevalent among the more ignorant 
classes with regard to this chapel and cross. 
It is more than a quarter of a mile from the 
outskirts of the city to the cross, and from 
the centre of the city it is three-quarters of 
a mile, up a steep, winding, stony path, 
to the chapel, yet it was formerly common, 
and even now can scarcely be said to be un- 
common, to see devotees toiling up the path- 
way leading to the chapel on their knees. 
And not only this : in either hand you may 
notice a tall wax candle, which will be 
lighted on entering the holy (?) precinct, 
and the penitent cannot rise from her knees 
until they are burned out. Men do not do 



In the picture on page 27 there are forty- 
four boys ; there should have been fifty, but 
six could not come to have their pictures 
taken. They are the inmates of the Hang- 
chow High School. Every one knows what 
we desire to make of these boys. Of course 
we desire, first of all, the salvation of their 
souls ; we desire also to enable them to get a 
living among men, and so to elevate their 
characters that they will be very useful and 
influential citizens in their native land, and 
be witnesses for the Master. 

Not many years ago the greater number 
of these boys came from purely heathen 
families; indeed, when the school was first 
started at Ningpo, the parents and relatives 
of every boy in the school were heathen. 
The boys were brimful and running over 
with all the vices which heathenism can give 
birth to. But time has wrought a great 
change; during these years the gospel has 
been preached and many have accepted it, 
so that a large proportion of the boys who 
are received into the school now have Chris- 
tian parents or Christian relatives, and 
many of them have been baptized. Even 
with the material of the earlier days young 

men were turned out who became evangelists 
and pastors and did good work for the Mas- 
ter. Some of them are still living and still 
working. With the material now available 
we hope to realize more and better results. 
It must be remembered, nevertheless, that 
the Christian homes from which these boys 
come are not as full of Christian teaching 
and good influences as are the homes in our 
land ; at least it could hardly be expected, 
for the parents themselves are only babes in 
Christ. Now and then there is a boy who 
comes to us from one of these Christian 
homes who is well versed in the Bible and 
has been taught from his infancy to pray 
and to love Jesus. In the picture there is 
one whose name is Kym-wa. When his father 
brought him he said : ' ' This boy is always 
praying." His father seems to have told 
the truth, for Kym-wa has been in the school 
about six years and has been seen many times 
praying, and is now an active member in 
the school's Society for Christian Endeavor. 

There are other faces in the picture of 
boys who came with a fair knowledge of the 
Scriptures and a good start in the Christian 
life. There was one, a pastor's son, whose 
face is not seen, for his heavenly Father 
called him home before this picture was 
taken. He, too, was an earnest praying 
boy, and was looking forward to the time 
when, his studies completed, he could go out 
and witness for Christ. 

But a large number of these boys, though 
they do come from Christian homes, have 
not received much Christian instruction. 
The material which must be transformed 
into Christian character and be made useful 
for future work is exceedingly raw. Some 
of the old superstitions, believed in and 
practiced by their ancestors, still cling to 
them. The custom of reverencing any 
piece of paper with one or more Chinese 
characters written upon it is clung to most 
tenaciously. Before we are aware of it the 
boys will have hung up in the schoolroom 
the baskets furnished by societies who em- 
ploy men to go about gathering " lettered 
paper," and even when the baskets are dis- 
covered they will collect the paper in some 
other vessels and have a time burning it 
once every few weeks. 

One of the greatest evils with which we 
have to contend is lying or deception. This 
is a chief characteristic of all the Chinese ; 
the most natural thing for them is to be de- 




oeptive. These boys are ' ' chips from the 
old blocks." It is most difficult to even get 
at the bottom of anything that may trans- 
pire in the school. "Whenever any misde- 
meanor is committed there is no use asking 
the boys as a whole who did it, or any one 
boy if he did it. Upon one occasion the 
door of the room where apparatus is kept 
was left unlocked. A few of the boys went 
in and had a grand time squirting water 
with a little force pump and wetting things 
in general. When the whole school was 
assembled and each one called by name and 
asked, " Who did it '?" the invariable an- 
swer was, " I don't know." When a boy 
fails to have his lesson there is no satisfac- 
tion in asking him the reason why ; his reply 
will be given in some equivocal language: 
" hadn't time," or " haven't got any rea- 
son," or " haven't prepared." 

During the Chinese New Year holidays 
most of the boys remain during the vaca- 
tion in the school buildings instead of going 
home. Though the school is not in session 
they must be kept within certain limits of 
discipline, and not be allowed to go out 
upon the streets as they please. Often as 
an excuse to get out they would say they 
were going to call on a friend. It was re- 
quested of them that they should bring a 
card or a note from their friend on whom they 
were going to call. One evening one of the 
boys, whose face is in the picture, returned 
after being out a great part of the day and 
brought to me a big red card (Chinese call- 
ing cards are always large slips of red 
paper), and said, " Here is my friend's 
card." Looking at it I recognized it at 
once as a card received from a small mili- 
tary official a few days before. When the 
boy was told so he simply remarked, " Oh ! 
I have made a mistake in the card." «He 
went away to his room, returning in a few 
minutes with another red card. I did not 
recognize the name on this one, but thought 
it best to make inquiries from the head na- 
tive teacher. Upon doing so, this second 
card, much to the boy's chagrin, was found 
to be one left by a gentleman calling at the 
school a few days previous, and was a stran- 
ger to the boy. It is needless to say that 
that boy received a good sound punishment 
for his deception. To teach them truthful- 
ness and straightforwardness in word and 
deed is one of the great things to be accom- 
plished in our work Avith them. 

These boys come to us when they are 
about thirteen. With the exception of 
having memorized part of the native classics 
and acquired some religious instruction if 
they come from Christian families, they know 
almost nothing. Perhaps they may be able 
to add and subtract a little in mental arith- 
metic, but of a written arithmetic they never 
have heard. They know nothing of geog- 
raphy or history ; they have never seen a 
steam car, or even an old-fashioned horse 
car; indeed they have never seen a steam 
engine of any kind, or a telegraph or tele- 
phone wire, unless perchance they may have 
been to Shanghai or Ningpo. Not only 
have they never seen them, but they have 
not even read about them. Committing to 
memory many pages of their native books 
has not enabled them to read even veiy sim- 
ple articles on general subjects. They are 
far behind the times when compared with 
the average American boy of the same age. 
But they are very quick, especially in 
memorizing. We have to be continually 
on our guard lest they be able to repeat the 
words of the book without understanding 
anything of the meaning. 

We might say a great deal more about 
these boys, but this will suffice to give you a 
little idea of the material with which we 
have to work and out of which we hope to 
make useful men. 



Such a title might well be prefixed to the 
Annual Report of the Board of Foreign 
Missions. Mark some of the features of 
these modern missionary transactions which 
reveal a vital connection between them and 
the original " Acts of the Apostles. ' ' 

Was there not something to remind of 
apostolic days in the early part of this year, 
when so many young prophets and teachers 
in the Church were halted for the lack of 
means with which to go forth, and the Holy 
Spirit said to one and another church, or to 
individuals in the churches, " Separate me 
these young men and women for the work 
whereunto I have called them;" and then, 
with much self-denial and prayer, the hands 




of the Church were laid on them and they 
Avere sent away ? 

It was an inspiring revelation of the Holy 
Spirit's continued presence and power in the 
Church, and of his watch and care over this 
foreign mission enterprise. And as his ben- 
ediction rested on the Church at home in 
its sending out of these new prophets and 
teachers, so has it abode with the great com- 
pany of missionaries previously on the field 
in this last year of their toil. 

There were 635 missionaries under com- 
mission from the Board last year, of whom 
195 were ordained men. Our Presbyterian 
Church sends out more missionaries into 
foreign lands than any other missionary so- 
ciety in America. With these are associated 
nearly 2000 native laborers, many of them 
much blessed of God in the winning of 
souls. And there is gratifying evidence 
that the self-same Spirit of God has worked 
in the hearts and through the lives and en- 
deavors of these servants of the Church as 
in apostolic times. One from India writes 
that the past year has been the happiest of 
his fife as a missionary. Another writes of 
having received a quickening and uplifting 
in his spiritual life. Another writes: " I 
wish every minister enjoyed his life work as 
I enjoy mine." Another, summing up some 
of the encouragements of the past year, 
says: " And last, but not least, we believe 
we missionaries are awaking to the possi- 
bility of living nearer to our Master 

We are willing to be content with nothing 
else than the ' mind of Christ ' itself. ' ' And 
we believe that the same hungering and 
thirsting after righteousness widely prevails 
through the mission fields and may well 
inspire us at home to covet earnestly the best 
gifts in like manner as these our brethren 


As in the early days of the Church, so 
in this past year the messengers of the gos- 
pel have been in frequent jeopardy from 
political convulsions and from men who op- 
pose this ' ' way. ' ' It was a year of much 
turmoil and anxiety in many lands. Dis- 
tressing calamities have overtaken some mis- 
sionaries of other Boards in China and Tur- 
key. Unusual perils and fears have com- 
passed about some of our missions in those 
same lands. Sickness and death have re- 
moved an unprecedented number from the 

rolls. But the hand of violence has not 
brought grief to any of our beloved brethren 
and sisters. Out of the stormy conditions 
which threatened them at times, they have 
heard again the reassuring voice which 
spake to Paul in a vision, " Be not afraid, 
but speak and hold not thy peace, and no 
man shall hurt thee, for I have much people 
in this city." And so they have continued, 
speaking boldly in the name of the Lord. 
Mr. Lingle, who was roughly handled, in 
the province of Hunan, in the early part of 
the year, did not hesitate to return there 
later with his wife, and was treated with a 
courtesy which gives much promise of future 
success for the gospel. In the Turkish city 
of Mosul, where rumors of coming mas- 
sacres were rife, the brethren have been kept 
in perfect peace and security. In Syria the 
storm of violence has raged very near our 
missionaries, but God has mercifully pre- 
served them. 


It is apparent that many of the commo- 
tions which have happened to our missions 
" have fallen out rather unto the further- 
ance of the gospel." No serious check to 
missionary operations has come anywhere 
for more than a brief period, and the tem- 
porary interruptions have often simply 
diverted missionary energy into other im- 
portant channels for a time. The bom- 
bardments of Tungchow created friendly 
relations between the missionaries and their 
Chinese neighbors which they were delighted 
to cultivate. Threatened disturbances in 
Nanking, Paotingfu, Hainan, and some 
other districts, drew from the local magis- 
trates most timely proclamations, favorable 
to the missionary cause. In Persia friendly 
rulers have stood between the messengers 
of the cross and evil-minded devotees of 
Islam. A striking instance of blind opposition 
to the gospel overreaching itself is given in 
the report of the Colombia Mission, as fol- 

Not the least encouraging feature of the year's 
work was the proclamation of the archbishop of 
Bogota, in which he bitterly denounced Protes- 
tants, and threatened to excommunicate any who 
attended their services or bought their books or 
attended any funeral conducted by them. Instead 
of accomplishing its purpose, the proclamation re- 
sulted in many expressions of interest and sympathy 
on the part of that increasing class which is unwil- 
ling to be held in subjection to the bondage in which 
the Jesuits have fettered Colombia for years. 





One fact which arrests our attention in 
this survey of missionary operations, is the 
vast amount of itinerating work done in al- 
most every field. Itinerating is hard work. 
It is a severe tax upon the physical energies. 
To be qualified for it there must first be a 
stern discipline of stomach and nerves and 
delicate senses. And after these are well 
toughened, the depressing influences of 
climate and social environments, and the 
pressure of ever-abounding station work 
must be resolutely surmounted, and the 
plunge be boldly made off into the uncon- 
genial conditions of native village life. 

In spite of all the hindrances to this line 
of work, the past year has witnessed a 
marked increase of zeal in touring. An un- 
precedented area of the world has been cov- 
ered by the seed sowing. Long and toilsome 
journeys, protracted absences from home, 
weeks and even months of sojourn in native 
houses or in tents, in close contact with much 
that distresses the American sense of sweet- 
ness and propriety and comfort, have been 
more frequent than perhaps ever before. 

One missionary party in Siam reports 
traveling 4000 miles, through six different 
provinces, on elephants and on foot, in 
steamboats and canoes, preaching the gospel 
to great numbers, healing hundreds of sick, 
selling thousands of portions of the Bible 
and tracts. In Hamadan, Persia, with a 
small force, the absences from home during 
the year aggregate the equivalent of one 
man's whole time for fourteen months. 
Mr. Hoskins, of Syria, records more than 
3000 miles traveled by him, over 2000 of 
them on horseback, and he was away from 
home 216 days. Mr. Campbell, of Mex- 
ico, traveled 2500 miles on horseback, and 
1613 by rail, and was absent from hpme 
196 days. These instances serve to exhibit 
the indomitable energy of both men and 
women in our mission fields, pressing out 
' ' into the highways and hedges ' ' of the 
nations with the invitation to the marriage 
supper of the Lamb. 

We have sometimes had presented in the 
pages of The Church at Home and 
Abroad photographs of missionary parties 
just starting on a tour, in their strange equip- 
ment. Wbat a motley company we should 
have could all the itinerating parties of 
many lands be massed into a single picture 
before us, on their elephants and their don- 

keys, in Hindu camel carts and bullock 
carts, and now and then in a Studebaker 
express wagon, in Japanese jinrikishas and 
Chinese wheelbarrows, in water craft of 
many a grotesque model, and then a long 
procession of men and women on foot, be- 
grimed with the dust of hills and plains, or 
soiled from the sloughs of mud or bridgeless 
rivers. And could we follow them in their 
toilsome way we should see them entering 
alike the abodes of Korean royalty, Hindu 
rajahs, Chinese noblemen, and the huts of 
poverty of all nations, telling to the few and 
the many who gather to listen of the blessed 
" Only Name." 

For further interesting details examine 
the pages of the Annual Report. 


At the same time that there has been ex- 
traordinary activity in sowing the seed of 
gospel truth, there has also been much en- 
couragement in the friendly reception which 
the sowers have met. 

One writes from India : 

We are simply overwhelmed with the possibilities 
of the field compared with our meagre resources by 

means of which we hope to develop it It 

is a glorious work, a productive field ! 

Regarding Mr. Robert P. Wilder' s work, 
the statement is made : 

What we saw and heard of the Students' Move- 
ment in Poona convinced us that the young Brah- 
mans are waiting to be spoken to, and sympathized 
with, and helped forward into an open profession of 
Christ. Very many of them are really anxions in- 
quirers, many are Christians in secret. 

The movement among the low castes of 
Northern India towards Christianity is 
yearly gaining force. 

From Siam we are told the outlook was 
never more encouraging. Of one itinerat- 
ing party the Report says : 

They spent eight days at the two places last 
named, and found the people remarkably friendly. 
Paknampo is a large town where the head priest 
of the temple and the postmaster of the town re- 
ceived them with great cordiality, and urged them 
to establish a school there. A Buddhist priest, 
near Pankampo, declared that he had been using 
Christian books for text-books in teaching the boys 
in the temple under his care. 

At Kam-pang-pet tbey found a great eagerness 
to buy books and to hear religious instruction. 

The people at Raheng insisted on buying books 
so rapidly that there was little opportunity to ex- 
plain their contents. 

From Laos Dr. McGilvray writes that the 




temples and homes are always open to the 
preachers of Christ. 

Of the Bules of Africa, Mr. Fraser 
writes : 

Wherever I have gone during the year the na- 
tives, though at first suspicious, have yet been 
friendly in their way, and their almost uniform 
readiness to listen quietly to the words of God, for 
which they sometimes ask, is impressive and en- 

Even in Japan, where it has been thought 
there was a cloud over the missionary work, 
there are some very bright and encouraging 
sections. The Report says : 

The Hokaido (Yezo) continues to impress one as 
the most alive and progressive, urgent and hopeful 
field in the empire. The spirit of the people is 
free, and like that of our West. Buddhism is com- 
paratively weak ; vice is strong. Our church work 
is located at six or seven important centres, and 
from them other places are evangelized by the 
Japanese workers. Accessions and active interest 
are reported from most of these places. 

Testimony might be quoted from other 
mission fields to demonstrate how " a great 
door is opened" unto these gentile peoples 
for the ambassadors of Christ. 


The Report repeats the story told in the 
early history of the Church of the apostles : 
" So the churches were strengthened in the 
faith and increased in number daily ' ' 
(Acts 16: 5). Not all the churches have 
grown in numbers the past year. The po- 
litical and social and religious upheaval in 
Japan has seriously retarded the develop- 
ment of the Church in that land. Yet calm 
observers believe that the Church is passing 
through a process there which is assuredly 
adding to its strength and preparing it for a 
new period of eminent growth. 

In China also the engrossing material 
questions raised by the war have diverted 
attention from spiritual concerns, and cre- 
ated prejudices against foreigners, affecting 
somewhat additions to the churches, but 
there are already evidences of a coming re- 
action favorable to the Christian religion. 

Again, in the most of our mission fields 
the churches have been stirred by discussions 
over the question of " self-support," pressed 
upon them from the Board at home. This 
has caused the falling away of some, and 
held back Church growth, like the effects of 
a chill day in early summer upon advancing 

But in contrast with these conditions the 

Report brings the cheering intelligence from 
Northern India of an unprecedented num- 
ber added to the Church. Taking the two 
last years together, the accessions mount up 
to above one thousand. How encouraging 
the outlook is among the low-caste peoples 
may be gathered from the following passage 
in the Report : 

In the two outstations of Bindki and Abbornag- 
gar the people not only hear the gospel gladly, but 
at Bindki there are a few very hopeful inquirers, 
while at Abbornaggar a large (^hamar community 
seems to be turning to the Lord en masse. While 
there may be disappointments ahead, the outlook 
seems favorable to scores, if not hundreds, of these 
Chamars receiving baptism in the near future. 

In Guatemala the little church has almost 
doubled under a precious shower of spiritual 

In West Shantung, at one station, 200 
adults were baptized during the year, and 
three new churches formed. 

From Chile, Mr. Garvin writes of the 
Valparaiso station: 

On the whole I think the year has been more 
satisfactory, both in a spiritual and material sense, 
than any previous year of my labors in Chile. 

And Mr. Bloomer, of the same mission, 
writes : 

The state of the work in Chilian itself has been 
more encouraging and flourishing apparently than 
at any previous time. There has been improve- 
ment in almost every line. While the work has- 
broadened, it has also deepened. In the church 
there has been a gain in attendance at all of the 
meetings, an increase in the number and variety of 
the meetings, an enlargement of the knowledge and 
appreciation of Christian truth, a new spirit of 
prayer, or a more general diffusing of that spirit, a 
greater zeal and effectiveness in evangelistic work, 
and a more liberal spirit in giving, and a consider- 
able increase in the membership, both of the Sun- 
day-school and of the church. 

Beside this growth in numbers, the native 
churches have shown much activity in the 
extension of Christ's kingdom among their 
countrymen. Regarding the remarkable 
movement among the low castes, the Lodi- 
ana report says : 

A few years ago we would have regarded this in- 
crease as phenomenal ; now many other sections 
have like blessings. It should further be noted 
that this work and attendant blessing is largely due 
to native agency. Foreign missionaries have led 
but few of these converts to Christ. We have bap- 
tized and superintended, but the direct contact with 
the people has been brought about by the sons of 
the soil themselves. They have not as yet the or- 
ganizing power, and this is a necessity among the 




people of the district. The foreign missionary can- 
not be dispensed with, but the life-saving power is 
largely in the hands of our native brethren. 

The General Report contains other inci- 
dents along the same lines, like the follow- 

From Syria : 

The Hums church has received twenty new 
members, and now enrolls 140 communicants. It 
is a flourishing church, and has not only raised the 
money for the enlargement of its building, but has 
contributed to the assistance of the poorer churches 
in the neighborhood. It is manifesting an excel- 
lent missionary spirit, and is about to start a new 
work in a village on the borders of the great Syrian 

From Peking : 

A class of ten men, from a circuit of twenty 
miles, have recently spent a month at Ling Shang 
in the study of the doctrine, the church in that 
region contributing fully half of the support of the 
class. Several earnest Christians, who receive no 
pay, are holding regular Sabbath services in their 
own villages as well as using every opportunity to 
lead friends and neighbors to Christ. Thirteen 
adult men have recently been baptized by Mr. 

But the clearest mark of growth in the 
native churches during the year was in re- 
spect to " self-support." This subject, 
which has proved a stumbling-block to 
many, has, in most of our missions, stirred 
the churches to higher purposes and new 
vigor. A sense of responsibility in this 
line, not known before, has been developed. 
One of the native helpers in Persia said : 
" This reduction is not to be looked at as a 
calamity that has befallen us, but the begin- 
ning of a new era, and we must face it." 
Space does not allow our quoting the many 
cheering items found in the report showing 
how the native Christians are disposed "to 
face ' ' this call to duty. If one or two fields 
have not responded hopefully it makes all 
the more marked the general falling "into 
line for a movement forward. 

It is too early to look for a large increase 
in the contributions of these native churches; 
such fruit will ripen slowly and only with 
much patience in the culture. Still it is 
significant that the Report shows an actual 
increase in the native contributions of about 
seven per cent, over last year. 

And here we must stop. Perhaps an- 
other time we may sum up from this closely 
packed report the facts regarding the depart- 
ments of education and medical work which 
crop out on almost every page and mark 

the increasing sweep of the gospel's influence 
in all lands. 

But with the record above given of seed 
sowing and harvest, have we not strong con- 
firmation of the Saviour's promise being 
fulfilled ? His Spirit has rested on the labors 
of his servants as in apostolic days, if not 
in miraculous gifts, yet in the manifest 
building up of his church among the Gen- 


Religious liberty may properly be de- 
fined as the right guaranteed by the laws 
of a country to each one of its citizens 
to maintain and propagate any religious 
opinion, and to celebrate any form of wor- 
ship he may think proper, provided those 
opinions and that worship do not conflict 
with the fundamental ideas upon which 
civil government is based. This has been 
called " the noblest innovation of modern 
times," and yet this has not been fully in- 
corporated in the laws of some of our sister 
republics, or if it has been there, it has been 
virtually removed by other laws that make 
it inoperative. This latter seems to be the 
case with the laws of the republic of Co- 
lombia to which attention is called in this 


There are some facts that seem to look as 
if the principle were fully incorporated in 
the Constitution of the republic and in the 
treaties made with other nations, and a fair 
understanding of these facts is necessary in 
order to any complete understanding of the 
actual conditions. 

In 1863 Colombia adopted a Constitution 
that embodied in its fundamental provisions 
the principles of modern liberty, granting 
religious, educational, literary and com- 
mercial freedom, but the lack of a form of 
government sufficiently centralized to defend 
itself occasioned its downfall, and in 1886, 
after another revolution, the Liberal Consti- 
tution was abolished, and the one that is 
actually the organic law of the land was 
adopted. The articles that bear upon the 
subject of religious liberty read as follows: 

Art. 38. The Roman Catholic Apostolic Religion 
is that of the nation. The public authorities shall 
protect it, and cause it to be respected as the es- 
sential element of social order. 




It is understood that the Catholic Church is not 
and shall not be official, and it shall preserve its 

Art. 39. No one shall be molested on account of 
his religious opinions, nor compelled by the author- 
ities to profess beliefs or to observe practices con- 
trary to his conscience. 

Art. 40. The exercise of all worship that may 
not be contrary to Christian morals or to the laws is 

Acts contrary to Christian morals or subversive of 
public order, which may be occasioned under the 
pretext of worship, shall be judged by the common 

Art. 41. Public education shall be organized and 
directed in accord with the Catholic religion. 
Primary education at public expense shall be free 
but not obligatory. 

Art. 56. The Government may make concordats 
with the Holy Apostolic See for the purpose of 
arranging the pending questions and defining and 
establishing relations between the civil and eccle- 
siastical powers. 

These #re the chief constitutional pro- 
visions that bear on the subject, and at first 
sight they seem to grant all that can rightly 
be claimed on behalf of dissenters from the 
religion that is said to be that of the nation. 
Especially Articles 39 and 40 seem to grant 
the very principle above defined as religious 
liberty, and were it not for the influence of 
the privileges granted to the Roman Catholic 
Church in the other articles, and the use 
that is made of them, religious liberty would 
exist in Colombia. 

In addition, the treaty between the United 
States and Colombia grants a well-defined 
liberty to the citizens of the United States 
resident in Colombia. Art. 14 reads: 

The citizens of the United States residing in the 
territory of the Republic of New Granada (now 
Colombia) shall enjoy the most perfect and entire 
security of conscience, without being annoyed, pre- 
vented or disturbed on account of their religious 
beliefs. Neither shall they be annoyed, molested, 
or disturbed in the proper exercise of their religion 
in private houses, or in chapels or places of worship 
appointed for that purpose, provided that in so 
doing they observe the decorum due to divine 
worship and the respect due the laws, usages and 
customs of the country. Liberty shall also be 
granted to bury the citizens of the United States 
that may die in the territories of the Republic of 
New Granada in convenient and adequate places to 
be appointed and established by themselves for that 
purpose, with the knowledge of the local author- 
ities, or in such other places of sepulture as may be 
chosen by the friends of the deceased, nor shall the 
funerals or sepulchres of the dead be disturbed in 
any wise nor upon any account. 

With these clear statements in the or- 
ganic law of the land, and in the treaties 
(for the treaty with England is in almost 

the same words as that with the United 
States), it would seem that there could be 
no doubt that the spirit of religious liberty 
was firmly established in Colombia, but we 
shall see how far it has been modified by 
subsequent developments growing oat of the 
intimate relations acquired with the Roman 
Catholic religion and Church. 


In accord with the power granted to the 
Government by Art. 36 of the Constitution, 
Colombia entered into a concordat with the 
Pope of Rome, which was approved by the 
Government on February 27, 1888, and of 
which the following are some of the chief 
provisions : 

Art. 1 recognizes the Roman Catholic religion 
as that of Colombia, and obliges the Government to 
protect it and cause it to be respected in all its 

Art. 2 reads : ' ' The Catholic Church shall pre- 
serve its full liberty and independence of the 
civil power, and consequently, without any inter- 
vention from the civil power, it can exercise freely 
all its spiritual authority and ecclesiastical jurisdic- 
tion, and conform its own government to its own 

Art. 3 provides : "The canonic legislation is in- 
dependent of the civil law and forms no part of it ; 
but it shall be solemnly respected by all the author- 
ities of the Republic." 

Arts. 4, 5 and 6 grant the Church the right to 
hold property. 

Art. 7 exempts the clergy from civil and mili- 
tary duty. 

Art. 8 reads: "The Government is obliged to 
adopt in the laws of criminal procedure dispositions 
that will save the priestly dignity, whenever for any 
motive a minister of the church may have to figure 
in a process. ' ' 

Art. 9 grants to the Church the right to collect 
by law dues, etc., from the faithful to whom service 
is rendered. 

Arts. 10 and 11 allow the Church to freely estab- 
lish religious orders and to govern them according 
to its own regulations, and pledge the Church to co- 
operate with the Government in works of charity, 
education and missions. 

In regard to the provisions of this con- 
cordat, so far as we have noticed them here, 
it is evident that they bear on the question 
of religious liberty only so far as they may 
grant to the Church the right to curtail, or 
may lead the Government to curtail, the 
rights granted to dissidents in the Constitu- 
tion, or may impede the Government in 
carrying out the fundamental ideas upon 
which civil government is based. In the 
sequel of this article we shall see some of 
the practical results of this unnatural union 
of the ecclesiastical and the civil power. 




At least two other items in the concordat 
bear on this question of religious liberty, and 
they will be given entire. 

Arts. 12, 13 and 14 refer to the subject 
of education, and read as follows : 

In Universities, Colleges, Schools and other cen- 
tres of instruction, public education and instruction 
shall be organized and directed in conformity with 
the dogmas and morals of the Catholic religion. 
Religious instruction is obligatory in these centres, 
and the pious practices of the Catholic religion 
shall be observed in them. Consequently, in such 
centres of education, the respective diocesan authori- 
ties, either themselves or by means of special dele- 
gates, shall exercise the right of inspection and re- 
vision of text-books, in all that refers to religion 
and morals. The Archbishop of Bogota shall desig- 
nate the books that are to serve as texts of religion 
and morals in the Universities ; and with the object 
of securing uniformity of instruction in the said 
matters, this Prelate, in accord with the other 
diocesan authorities, shall elect the text-books for 
the other establishments of official instruction. The 
Government shall impede the propagation of ideas 
contrary to Catholic dogma and to the respect and 
veneration due to the Church, in the instruction 
given in literary and scientific as well as in all other 
branches of education. In case that the instruc- 
tion in religion and morals, in spite of the orders 
and preventions of the Government, shall not be 
conformed to Catholic doctrines, the diocesan au- 
thorities can deprive the professors and teachers of 
their right to give instruction in these matters. 

This provision of the concordat places 
the public schools in all their branches in 
the hands of the Catholic Church ; and it 
also makes it almost impossible for any one 
except a Catholic to secure a position in any 
branch as a teacher or in any school sup- 
ported by the State. The bearing of this 
on schools conducted by dissenters will be 
noticed in the sequel. 

Arts. 17, 18 and 19 refer to marriage, 
and read as follows : 

Marriages to be celebrated by those that profess 
the Catholic religion will produce civil effects in 
regard to the persons and property of the contract- 
ing parties only when celebrated in accord with the 
dispositions of the Council of Trent. A civil offi- 
cer, to be determined by the law, shall be present 
at the celebration of marriages, only for the purpose 
of verifying the inscription of the marriage in the 
civil register, except in the cases of marriage " in 
articulo mortis," when this formality may be dis- 
pensed with, if not easy to comply with, and the 
lack shall be replaced by other evidence. It is the 
duty of the contracting parties to secure the interven- 
tion of the civil officer for the purpose of registering 
the marriage, and the duty of the priest is limited 
to notifying the parties of the obligation the civil 
law imposes on them. In regard to marriages cele- 
brated at any time in accord with the dispositions 
of the Council of Trent and that should produce 
civil effects, the proofs of ecclesiastical origin shall 

be admitted before all others. The ecclesiastical 
authorities shall have exclusive control of matri- 
monial questions that affect the bond of marriage, 
the cohabitation of the parties, as well as those that 
refer to the validity of promises of marriage. The 
civil effects of marriage shall be governed by the 
civil law. 

If there should be any doubt on the sub- 
ject of the binding effect of the concordat 
on the Republic of Colombia, it would be 
set at rest by one of the last provisions, 
which reads : 

Art. 32. By the present Concordat all laws, 
orders and decrees, which at any time or in any 
manner may have been issued, are hereby dero- 
gated and abrogated in the part that may contradict 
or oppose this agreement whose force in future shall 
be firm as a law of the State. 

III. ** 

The last article quoted from the concordat 
shows that its provisions are now incorpo- 
rated iu the legislation of Colombia, and if 
any one should be in doubt in regard to 
what the supreme authority of the Church 
would wish to incorporate in the laws of 
other countries if it could be done, some in- 
formation may be secured from what it has 
placed in the laws of Colombia; for exam- 
ple, the exclusive right of Romanism to 
recognition by the civil power, the complete 
independence of the Papal hierarchy, its 
complete control over education, science and 
literature, and its absolute control over 

The Government of Colombia, of course, 
submitted to these requirements, and in 
attempting to carry them out had to adopt 
laws, issue orders, and make regulations 
that are striking commentaries on the ten- 
dencies of these principles. 


The marriage laws of any country, of 
course, bear directly on the question of re- 
ligious liberty in that country and while 
there is a civil marriage law in Colombia 
for dissenters from the Roman Catholic 
Church, the validity of the marriage cele- 
brated under the civil law is exposed to be 
destroyed at any time by either of the par- 
ties. The same may be said in regard to a 
marriage contract under the laws of the 
United States, if the said marriage should 
not have been in accord with the provisions 
of the Council of Trent, and the parties 
live in Colombia. 




( 'olombian Law No. 30, of the year 
1888, contains the following articles: 

Art. 34. Marriage contracted in conformity with 
the rites of the Catholic religion annuls "ipso 
jure" the purely civil marriage contracted before by 
the parties with other persons. 

Art. 35. For merely civil effects the law recog- 
nizes the legitimacy of the children conceived before 
a civil marriage is annulled in virtue of the pro- 
vision of the previous article. 

Art. 36. The man who having been married 
civilly, afterwards marries another woman accord- 
ing to the rites of the Catholic religion, is obliged 
to furnish proper support to the first woman and 
the children had by her so long as she does not 
marry according to the Catholic rite. 

It may be seen by a careful examination 
of the provisions of the concordat and of 
this law, bearing on the subject of mar- 
riage, that the whole matter is placed in the 
hands of the Catholic Church, and as the 
canonic legislation that applies to countries 
wholly Catholic is in force in Colombia, 
the only marriage possible for non-Catholics 
is the civil rite, and such a marriage is canon- 
ically considered as a state of concubinage, 
that ought to be dissolved at once and that 
forms no impediment to a subsequent mar- 
riage of either of the parties by the ecclesi- 
astical authorities. In this manner the 
Church controls the State, and if the rights 
of a dissenter should be violated the State 
would be impotent to correct or punish it. 


All public education by the State has 
been placed under Church control, and some 
curious results may be noted. As the 
Church authorities are granted the right to 
insist that all teaching in institutions sup- 
ported by the State shall conform to Catho- 
lic dogma and morals, no one is allowed to 
teach in the universities, colleges or schools 
who is not satisfactory to the Church ; and 
more repressive yet is the regulation, en- 
forced in some of the State colleges and said 
to be enforced in all, that students are abso- 
lutely required to go to the " confessional," 
as well as attend the services of the Church. 

If it be objected to, students may attend 
private institutions, and while there is noth- 
ing in the legislation that prevents the es- 
tablishment of these private schools, their 
diplomas have no legal force whatever, and 
in addition to this inconvenience, the insti- 
tution itself exists in constant danger of 
being closed by an administrative order from 
the government authorities at any time. 

Law No. 61, of 1888, grants to the Execu- 
tive some extraordinary powers. 

The President of the republic is granted the 
power: 1. To prevent and repress administratively 
the offenses and crimes against the State that may 
affect public order, with power, according to the 
case, to impose the penalties of confinement, ex- 
pulsion from the territory, imprisonment or loss of 
political rights for the time he may think neces- 

Art. 2. The President of the republic shall ex- 
ercise the right of inspection and vigilance over 
scientific associations and teaching institutions, and 
is authorized to suspend, for the time he may con- 
sider convenient, any society or establishment which 
under scientific or doctrinal pretext may be a centre 
of revolutionary propagandism or of subversive 


The Constitution, Ait. 42, says : " The 
press is free in time of peace; but responsi- 
ble in accord with the laws, when it may 
attack the honor of individuals, social or- 
der, or the public tranquility." In a de- 
cree of the Chief Executive of the nation, 
that has all the force of law and that has 
been in force for several years, there is one 
article that makes it a criminal offense to 
" attack the Catholic religion," and one of 
the most prominent of the late public writers 
of Colombia supported the law in this way : 
" We have been asked if the text and spirit 
of this Art. 42 authorizes the lawmaker to 
make a law that will consider as offenses ob- 
scene writings, and those that involve blas- 
phemy, and evident attacks on the Catholic 
religion. We answer most decidedly, Yes; 
such was the intention of the Constitutional 
Convention, and it is supported by two con- 
siderations : First, that as Art. 38 declares 
the Catholic religion to be the essential ele- 
ment of social order, therefore blasphemy 
and all attacks on Catholicism can be consid- 
ered as contrary to social order; and, sec- 
ond, because Art. 40 gives the force of a 
constitutional principle to Christian morals ; 
and if whatever offends Christian morals 
can be made a crime or offense and punished, 
the same thing can be done if executed 
through the press, given that the said acts 
are contrary to social order. ' ' 

The press laws are contained in an "Ad- 
ministrative Decree' ' and are enforced with- 
out process of law, that is administratively 
rather than judicially. But the administra- 
tive officers of Colombia have never yet, so 
far as we know, interfered with the lib- 
erty of public or private worship. 





Concert of Prayer 
For Church Work Abroad. 

JANUARY General Review of Missions. 

FEBRUARY Missions In China, 

MARCH Mexico and Central America. 

APRIL Missions in India. 

MAY Missions in Siam and Laos. 

JUNE Missions in Africa. 

JULY . . Hainan ; Chinese and Japanese in U. S. 

AUGUST Missions in Korea. 

SEPTEMBER Missions in Japan. 

OCTOBER Missions in Persia. 

NOVEMBER .... Missions in South America. 
DECEMBER Missions In Syria. 


San Francisco : Mission begun 1852 ; mission- 
ary laborers — Rev. I. M. Condit, D. D., and Mrs. 
Condit, Miss Maggie Culbertson and Miss J. E. 
"Wisner ; 3 teacbers in English, 1 ordained native, 3 
native teacbers and helpers. 

Among the Japanese: E. A. Sturge, M.D., and 
Mrs. Sturge ; 1 native superintendent, 1 native 
teacher, and 1 native helper. 

Oakland : Mission begun 1877, 2 teachers. 

Portland, Oregon: Rev. W. S Holt, D.D., 
and Mrs. Holt, and Mrs. Clarkson ; 1 native 

New York : Rev. Huie Kin. 


Missionaries and Assistants. 

E. A. Sturge, M.D., General Superintendent. 

Mrs. E. A. Sturge. 

Mr. S. Ishikawa, General Secretary of Japanese 
Y. M. C. A. 

Rev. K. Inazawa, Superintendent of Japanese Mis- 
sion Home, N. W. corner of Sacramento Street 
and Prospect Place. 

Mr. T. Okuno, Educational Work. 

Mr. S. Kimishima, Assistant Teacher. 


One church, organized December, 1884. 
Whole number received from beginning, 189. 
Received during the past year, 27. 
One Y. M. C. A. with 100 members. 
One Mission Home with 40 members. 
Two day schools. Two Sabbath- schools, etc. 



It is quite natural tbat the western coast 
of the United States, being one of its easiest 
parts to reach from the Island Empire, Ja- 
pan, should receive more of the knowledge- 
seekers from that newly rising country than 




other places. Consequently we find San 
Francisco having, as early as 1886, a thou- 
sand of them. Here comes in a social dan- 
ger. For few will ever question that young 
men, as a class, are peculiarly exposed, 
especially when they are away from home 
and its restraints, having no one to look 
after their best interests. But on the other 
hand what effort is made for the proper 
care of these young men ? Hon. Chauncey 
M. Depew said: "After a young man has 
been launched into the world, to win his way 
as best he may, the State takes no further 
care than to furnish a policeman to arrest 
him in case he goes astray." This is the 
reason why some of the thoughtful Japanese 
of San Francisco realized the necessity of 
starting a Christian Association, for the im- 
provement of the moral condition of their 
young fellow-countrymen, under Christian 
discipline. Consequently they organized this 
Japanese Young Men's Christian Associa- 
tion in August, 1886. 

From a feeble to a firm, from a firm to a 
healthy, from a healthy to an energetic con- 
dition, our Association has constantly pro- 
gressed and reached the present stage. Our 
reading-room, a glimpse of which is shown 
in the cut on page 33, contains a well- 
sorted variety of both Japanese and English 
daily, weekly and monthly papers, and has 
been visited by over sixty persons daily. 
The library of over twelve hundred vol- 
umes is also considered very useful. Dur- 
ing the past twelve months over one hun- 
dred and fifty situations were secured for 
members. Thus we try to do our human 
part, while we pray to our heavenly Father, 
" Give us this day our daily bread." 

Our work is by no means one-sided, but 
symmetrical, being founded on the triangu- 
lar base — physical, mental and spiritual cul- 
ture. For we believe this to be the only 
sure foundation of true character. We are 
quite proud to say that the Association has 
already sent back a number of Christian 
young men to the home land, who are now 
manifesting God's glory in several lines of 
professional work, according to their own 
talents. We are still continuing to publish 
our monthly religious magazine, in Japan- 
ese, for distribution among our countrymen. 

The Association has raised and expended 
about seven hundred dollars during the past 
year, for rent, gas, water, janitor and paint- 
ing the building. The members have also 

contributed one hundred dollars to send two 
poor, sick young men back to Japan. 



August 3, 1895, marked the twenty-fifth 
anniversary of our labors in this field. The 
occasion was celebrated by the gathering, in 
our church, of a large number of Chinese 
men, women and children ; and in addition 
to this, many of our American friends 
cheered us by their presence. Letters of 
congratulation were received from the Chi- 
nese Christians at the different stations in 
the State. Many kind words were spoken 
and valuable gifts received expressive of 
their gratitude and of their appreciation of 
our work among them. 


Twenty-five years ago there were only one 
or two stations outside of San Francisco; 
and now there are ten. At that time the 
work was largely itinerating, while now it is 
organized into a regular system. Then 
there were but few schools, while now Ave 
have Sabbath and evening schools at every 
station. Scarcely anything was then done 
among the women, and the sight of one in 
our audience was a rare thing; to-day a 
systematic work is carried on among them, 
and more than a hundred of them are often 
seen in our church on Sabbath. Twenty- 
five years ago but few children were to be 
seen in Chinatown, and the starting of a 
little school for them was quite an event; 
now the streets are alive with children who 
number thousands, and they are gathered 
into many schools. At that time a Chris- 
tian family was hard to find, and considered 
quite a curiosity ; now Christian homes are 
numbered by the score. We have three 
regularly organized churches; six Christian 
Endeavor Societies, a Young Men's Chris- 
tian Association with its branch at every 
station, a Circle of King's Daughters, in- 
teresting missionary societies, and even a 
mission paper. The work has its draw- 
backs and discouragements, but for all that 
shows many marks of healthy progress. 


A petition has gone up to the Chinese 
Consulate from the various missionaries, ask- 




ing them to aid us in the opening of a hos- 
pital for the poor, sick Chinese, and espe- 
cially to assume its pecuniary support. 
Every hospital in this city is closed against 
them, the pest house being the only door 
open to receive Chinese. When a poor 
Chinaman falls sick, God pity him ! There 
is not a fit place to which he can be taken, 
where he can be cared for. The Six Com- 
panies have some wretched deadhouses 
where they send their poor sick men to die. 
They are left there almost unfed and unat- 
tended, amid coffins, corpses and dry bones 
of the dead. The places are called by 
fanciful names, such as, " Chamber of Tran- 
quility," " Quiet Nursing Home." But in 
one a dead body was found with the face 
partly eaten away by rats. In another the 
attendants were themselves poor, sick ones 
who were of little use to care for the wants 
of others, waiting patiently for death to end 
their sufferings. In one place was found a 
solitary dying inmate in a dark foul room, 
along with a dead body. In another morgue 
three dying men were found lying on hard, 
bare boards. One of them when asked 
what he would like said, " Just something 
to lie on, as the bare boards make my bones 
sore." He was furnished by a missionary 
lady with a blanket and some matting. 
One man, with paralyzed lower limbs, who 
had been for months supported by his rela- 
tions, was found abandoned by them, as 
they became tired of helping him so long. 
Our Christian Chinese carried him food 
from their own table, and got others enlisted 
in helping to do for him. One of our 
young men went early every morning to 
care for a poor man who was left to die. 
Under kind attention he got well, and came 
to church deeply grateful for what was done 
for him. * 

Is there not crying need for a hospital? 
Should it not be one under the control, not 
of merciless heathen, but of Christians with 
hearts to pity and hands to help ? It is to 
be devoutly hoped that in the very near 
future a suitable place will be had, and pro- 
vided with those surroundings which will 
bring some measure of comfort and medical 
attendance to these poor, sick, helpless Chi- 

To the credit of the Chinese it should be 
said that, some years ago, wealthy ones 
among them subscribed a large sum of 
money, and purchased a lot on which to 

erect a hospital. The movement fell 
through, however, because the Board of 
Supervisors refused to allow the erection of 
such a building in that part of the city. 
The authorities will not oppose our present 
movement to open one in Chinatown, to be 
under our control in its various regulations. 


Slavery is not yet dead in our land. 
Slaves are bought and sold almost even- 
day in Chinatown. Many means have been 
devised to put an end to this importation of 
woman slaves; but while corrupt officials 
hold the sway it is impossible to be done. 
Good people are surprised that under our rigid 
exclusion laws this traffic is still carried on, 
and the prohibited class are allowed to enter. 
They do not understand the wondrous power 
money has to open wide the gates. When a 
better class of persons desire to enter, the law 
is very strict. If the least flaw is found in 
their papers they are turned back to their 
own land ; but the gates open very easily and 
very wide for the worse element to walk in. 
The necessary papers are made all right 
upon their face; the forgeries are well exe- 
cuted; the perjured witnesses, Chinese and 
white, are ready at hand; the story the 
woman is to repeat has been faithfully 
taught and well learned — she was born here, 
or had lived here before with her husband, 
or is the wife of a merchant. Five hundred 
dollars will get a woman in without much 
trouble. This is a fact well known throughout 
Chinatown. One old slave-holding woman 
used to boast that she had no need to go down 
to the wharf to look after her chattels, as on 
the payment of the price they would be de- 
livered at her door. Probably not a steamer 
arrives from China which does not bring in 
some of the slave women or girls. The fact 
that a ten -year- old girl can be bought in 
China for $200, but the same girl here, at 
the age of twelve or fourteeu, is worth 
$2000 or $3000 is evidence of how much it 
requires to land them. It is a well-known 
fact that certain officials who were poor when 
they were appointed to their places, were 
soon possessed of a handsome fortune. 

Great cruelty used to be practiced upon 
these unfortunate ones. They were even 
placed upon an auction block, in a nude 
state, and sold to the highest bidder. For 
the most trivial cause they were beaten with 
bamboo rods, seared with hot irons and 




treated in many cruel ways. But when our 
Rescue Home was opened, these slave girls 
learned of it, and escaped to it as a haven 
of refuge. This has led slave owners to 
change their mode of treatment to one of 
pretended kindness. They are loaded with 
cheap jewelry and fine clothes, and allowed 
to go to the theatre. By this means many 
of them are led to be contented with their 

To remedy this slave importation is a very 
•difficult thing. If punishment were meted 
out to the guilty; if there was an honest 
enforcement of the law against the pro- 
hibited class ; and if police regulations 
against the vagrants were carried out, there 
would certainly be a far better state of 


The Salvation Army has come to China- 
town, and the Jesus' Army has also opened 
out in close proximity. As when the public 
school for Chinese children was begun years 
ago, some of our brightest children, on whom 
we had bestowed much labor, were lost to 
us, in somewhat the same way these new 
workers use material which we have pre- 
pared, and build on foundations which we 
have laid. But we earnestly hope that good 
may come from what they do. The drum 
and uniform draw many to the chapel which 
they have opened on one of the Chinese 
thoroughfares. If they can only beat some 
truth into the minds and consciences of these 
hardened ones, it will be a happy thing. 
We try in various ways to reach the thou- 
sands who throng the streets of the Chinese 
quarters, and if Salvation Army methods 
will help to save those we have failed to 
reach, we will rejoice. I trust they will 
realize that the Chinese need more than ex- 
hortations to repent and confess Christ. 
They need solid instruction in the truths of 
God's word. Our preacher, Rev. Nam Art, 
was present one night. A young man, 
when they were urging them to come and 
be saved, said that he wanted to be saved. 
Thev brought him forward, and he after- 
ward stood up and said, " I want to be a 
Christian. I want Yoke Tye to help me to 
be good." Yoke Tye is one of the princi- 
pal gods of the Chinese, and yet this man 
was reckoned as one of their converts. 

Our mission is made glad by the recent 
arrival of a new helper from China. He 

is one of the non -laboring class who are 
permitted to enter. But his papers being 
not quite regular, the authorities here said 
he could not be let in; and we had no money 
or disposition to buy him in. Fortunately, 
however, he was still up in Victoria, and the 
authorities there, looking at the spirit of the 
law, and being abundantly satisfied that he 
had a right to enter, let him come. He is 
a graduate of Dr. Kerr's hospital in Can- 
ton, and we trust this may be turned to 
good account on the opening of our hospital. 
He is a fine Chinese scholar, which com- 
mands for him great respect from his peo- 
ple. But better than all, he is an earnest 
Christian and effective speaker. We hope 
for good things from his work among us. 

Our Chinese missionary societies have just 
sent $400 of their money to China for home 
mission work; $200 of this is a year's sup- 
port of the colporteur whom they employ, 
and $200 is the yearly salary of a preacher 
in the new Sun Neng Church, which tbey 
have built with their own money. This is 
one of the cheering features of our work. 
Rev. A. A. Fulton says: "It will be the 
finest chapel in the province. I trust the 
good Lord will permit me to spend many 
weeks there holding services. There is no 
doubt of the future success of our work, 
after we get this chapel. ' ' 



There are about 12,000 Chinese scattered 
through the cities and towns of Oregon, 
Washington and Western Idaho. This 
territory is assigned to the mission which 
has its headquarters at Portland. The 
problem presented by the vast area, and the 
small number of Chinese in any one locality 
outside of Portland, is a difficult one. But 
work has become settled in a few definite 
lines, and these we try to push to the best 
of our ability. Of the departments of 
work which we try to maintain the first is 


This simply means preaching and teaching 
the gospel. The missionary in charge 
travels from one part of the field to another, 
visits the parishioners in their shops, laun- 
dries and habitations of various sorts, and 
endeavors to establish friendly relations. It 




is very interesting to note how readily his 
advances are responded to when it becomes 
clear that he is speaking the mother tongu« 
of these strangers. 

This spring for the first time, Lewiston, 
Idaho, was visited. It is so far to this city, 
and the Chinese population is so small, that 
it has not seemed wise to spend the 
time or money necessary to go there until 
now. Indeed this visit would not have 
been made if there had not been a double 
opportunity. The Presbytery of Walla 
Walla was holding its spring meeting with 
the Lewiston Church, and the pastor kind- 
ly arranged 10 give up Sabbath evening to 
a popular meeting in the interest of foreign 
missions. This, with the chance to meet 
the Chinese, was sufficient inducement to go. 

It was unknown to the Chinese there that 
there was a white man in this part of the 
country who could speak their language, 
until the Lewiston pastor told his laundry- 
man that the missionary was coming. This 
proved to be sufficient to arouse some inter- 
est, so that when a visit was paid to the 
laundries and to some other places where 
Chinese were to be found, and a few words 
were spoken, the question was asked, 
* ' Are you the Jesus devil of whom we have 
heard ?" It was confessed that the mis- 
sionary was known as a Jesus devil. We 
were standing on the street with a few 
Chinese, immediately in front of one of the 
best residences in the city, when a Chinese 
servant came out on to the veranda to 
sweep. At once he was hailed as follows: 
" Come over here. This is the Jesus 
devil." The man came over. He also 
knew of the expected visit. He welcomed 
the missionary, and said he himself was a 
Christian, and a member of the Methodist 

It is our plan wherever we go to arrange 
for meetings for preaching in the churches, 
so that the Chinese may learn that it is 
through the Church that anything is done 
for them. There has never been an unsuc- 
cessful attempt to secure an audience. This 
fact is not misinterpreted into a longing for 
the gospel, but it is understood to mean that 
there is curiosity enough to hear the white 
man who has visited them talk. These 
audiences are always very responsive, and 
do not hesitate to show that they understand 
what is said by nods or smiles, or by out- 
right talking back. 

There is no objection to this, for it shows 
the preacher that he is reaching his hearers, 
and that they are paying attention. Ot 
course, for the most part, these visits are few 
and far between. But they are always 
accompanied with the distribution of some 
portion of God's word, and sometimes it is 
read, although there are very many of the 
Chinese here who cannot read a word un- 


Another definite line of work is in 
schools. There are always, and every- 
where, some who have often thought about 
the claims of these strangers, and have 
wondered what can be done for them. 
The school for teaching English furnishes 
an opportunity for doing something. It is 
a long road to travel to reach the desired 
goal, but it is a road, and one which may 
be traveled to advantage. In every com- 
munity there are some Chinese who wish to 
learn to read and speak English so that it is 
possible to have a school if teachers can be 
found. Of the value of these schools there 
is no sort of doubt. Their success has been 
sufficient to show that they are a means of 
bringing the gospel to the Chinese where 
nothing else can be done. Indeed, where 
there is the living preacher who can use the 
language, it has not been found possible to 
leave out the school. 

Our aim in this part of the field is to 
have the local church carry ou the school, 
as one of its own agencies, for spreading 
the gospel. 

We have so far succeeded that every 
school started outside of Portland has been 
under the care of the local church and 
maintained by it. It is recognized as for- 
eign missions at home, and these efforts 
always receive the sanction of the pastors 
and sessions, and all possible cooperation is 
given the teachers, and the missionary in 
his visits. This is one of the delightful 
experiences of the foreign missionary here. 
He is cordially welcomed, the church is 
open to him to talk on his great theme, and 
interest and sympathy are shown in all his 


In the city of Portland, in addition to the 
regular preaching and the night and Sab- 
bath-schools, are the well-known Chinese 
Woman's Home and the free dispensary. 




If this mission had never done anything 
except to start the Home, it would have 
earned its right to exist. It stands a men- 
ace to all evil-minded men who live on the 
sins of the poor women whom they control. 


It has interfered so wholly with the impor- 
tation of Chinese women for immoral pur- 
poses that the greatest care and the most 
unblushing fraud are necessary in order to 
land such Avomen. The owners of those 
who are here never know when some source 
of wealth is quietly and permanently to dis- 
appear, a total financial loss. 

Then those who have come under its shel- 
tering care have not only received protec- 
tion, but they have been lifted out of a very 
miry clay and been set upon a rock. The 
most of those who have spent any time in 
the Home have become Christians, and 
have gone out to live their religion. 

The dispensary has been a source of 
relief to many poor sufferers. We have the 
gratuitous services of the best physicians of 
the homeopathic school in the city. No 
matter how miserable the man or woman 
may be, nor what the trouble, these ladies 
and gentlemen show them every attention. 
Naturally we get many incurables, but we 
have had many who have been treated until 

they were we'll, and they have come back 
to thank us for the help they have received. 
"We have given about 1000 prescriptions, 
have had a number of surgical operations, 
and a few eases^ which have required the 

care of the 
hospital. We 
owe a debt of 
gratitude also 
to the Good Sa- 
maritan Hos- 
pital, under 
the control of 
the Episcopal 
Church, for 
kindness often 
shown. The 
doors of that 
hospital have 
always been 
open for the 
poor without 
charge, and 
the kind atten- 
tion received 
has merited the 
thankful n e s s 
of the mission, 
and of the pa- 

The dispen- 
sary has never 
been any expense to the Church since it 
was opened. Then we expended about $40, 
but since then all our outlay has been met 
by gifts from the Chinese. 


E. A. STURGE, M. D. 

Nearly thirty years ago a few Japanese, 
who were sailors on whaling vessels, were 
landed in San Francisco against their wills. 
These were soon followed by a small number 
of students of the Samurai class, who were 
attracted by our superior educational insti- 
tutions. The Japanese in California now 
number about six thousand. There has 
been no perceptible increase since the begin- 
ning of the Chi no- Japanese war. During 
the hostilities many patriotic young men 
returned to take part in the struggle, and 
since the declaration of peace many more 
have gone to try their fortunes in their 
newly acquired territory — Formosa. But 
while many have left California, every 




steamer entering the Golden Gate from 
Japan brings a number of the Mikado's 
subjects, who are in search of knowledge or 
adventure. Nearly all the Japanese in the 
United States are supposed to be here for 
the purpose of 
study, and proba- 
bly more than one- 
half of the entire 
number are devot- 
ing all the time 
at their disposal to 
the acquisition of 
English or some 
useful branch of 
knowledge. There 
are a dozen of 
these bright young 
men in the two 
California univer- 
sities, and many 
more are taking a 
preparatory course 
in our high schools 
and academies. 
The majority of 
those who are not 
students come here 
from Hawaii or 
from the western 
provinces of Japan. 

Of the six thousand Japanese in Califor- 
nia, one-half are in San Francisco, while 
the rest are scattered all over the State, 
especially in the fruit-raising sections. 

With very few exceptions the Japanese 
in the United States are young men without 
settled homes. This is one of the unfavor- 
able features in the work. On the other 
hand, they are earnest inquirers after truth, 
and most of them listen to the gospel with- 
out prejudice. Probably not more than 
one-tenth of their number have been truly 
converted, though a larger proportion have 
professed their belief in Christ and have 
united with various Protestant churches. 
There are in California four missions for the 
Japanese, established in the order men- 
tioned: Methodist, Presbyterian, Seventh- 
Day Adventist and Episcopalian. The 
first is about thirteen years old and the last 
is less than a year. All these missions are 
successful and all are partially self-sup- 
porting, though none of the others are 
doing so much in this direction as our own. 
With the exception of our Methodist breth- 

ren, who have stations at Sacramento, 
Fresno, Los Angeles and other places, the 
work for the Japanese is confined to San 
Francisco. The Roman Catholics, though 
so aggressive in foreign fields, make no 


attempt to convert the Chinese or Japanese 
in this country. The Japanese who do not 
come under Christian influence, though they 
doubtless derive some benefit from coming 
in close contact with western civilization, 
receive on the whole more injury than good 
from their sojourn among us, as unfortu- 
nately the example set them by the majority 
of Californians is far from helpful. Such 
young men lose much of their native polite- 
ness and acquire instead blunt, western 
ways, which can hardly be considered an 
improvement. The greatest danger, how- 
ever, lies in the improper use they make of 
their increased freedom. They are far from 
home and its constraints, in what they like 
to call " the land of liberty," and having 
a false notion of what constitutes true free- 
dom, many of them go astray and waste 
their time and money in sinful pleasures. 
There are many Japanese prodigals in this 
far country wasting their substance. But 
those who become Christians save their 
money, spend their time in study, and 
sooner or later return to their own laud, to 


nc n:. .- u :.i- i» ■ >. ... .. __ 




exert a helpful influence in the cause of the 
Master. Many such have gone hack from 
our own mission and mauy others will fol- 
low. From our little church here have 
come four ordained ministers, two others 
who preach occasionally, one Sunday-school 
superintendent, two earnest Christian physi- 
cians, one professor, in the Government 
Agricultural College and many others who 
may hold positions as important, hut who 
have passed beyond our ken. These are 
simply mentioned to show the importance of 

the work on this coast, which cannot be 
realized, unless we look beyond the Pacific, 
and note what our former members are 
doing in their own land. None of the 
Japanese come here with the intention of 
remaining many years, but coming as they 
do from all parts of their country, and such 
a large proportion of them belonging to the 
student class, if we can be the means of 
giving them that knowledge which is able to 
make them wise unto salvation, their influence 
upon Japan must be great and far-reaching. 



Mrs. Lingle, of Sam Kong, China, writes : It 
was with many regrets that I bade farewell to 
Tungchow and my friends there, especially the 
students in the College, for I was exceedingly fond 
of my work there. However there is enough work 
to do here to keep me very busy. The change from 
old, established work to this new, pioneer work is 
very great, but I am sure I shall enjoy it, for it is 
all the Lord's work. 

I find a great deal of use for my Mandarin. 
Lien Chow station being on the border, as it were, 
of Hunan, the Mandarin has leapt over the moun- 
tains, and a great many here speak Mandarin. I 
have had no difficulty in being understood even by 
the women, a class of whom I have each Sabbath. 
I had no difficulty in understanding or being under- 
stood during our recent trip to Hunan. Hunan is 
altogether Mandarin. It was with a little hesita- 
tion that we decided on my venturing into that 
province, as no foreign woman had ever been 
through there before, certainly not from the south, 
and probably not from the north. There are no 
separate rooms in the inns there, as there are in 
Shantung, but we were taken care of, for we were 
given the room of the proprietress every night but 
one, and that night we curtained off a space and 
fared very well. We felt a little afraid of the 
rowdyish city of Sing Tsi, in this province, through 
which we had to pass ; but although we heard 

"foreign devil wife," and many vile epithets on all 
sides, there was not a stone thrown. 

Our first destination was Lin Wu ( or Lum Mo in 
Cantonese). I had an ovation such as I never had 
before in my life. The moment we reached the 
inn, the place was literally packed with people — 
wealthy people, poor people, scholars and ignor- 
ant, jostled one another to see the wonderful foreign 
woman. It was my feet they wanted to see more 
than my face. In conversing with some of the 
"scholars" last summer Mr. Lingle told them that 
I had been teaching a college in Shantung. Sev- 
eral of these literary graduates approached me at 
once, and asked if I would teach them foreign 
mathematics. They said if I would they would get 
up a class of twenty, and provide a hall, and a place 
for us to stay. The wealthiest man in Lin Wu 
called, as did also the numerous women of his 
household. We were invited to their home the 
next morning for breakfast, and to photograph 
them, for I had my camera along. We walked all 
over the city, and I was invited to many homes, 
wealthy and poor. There was not a stone thrown 
while we were there, and we had opportunity to 
tell the gospel to many. 

From Lin Wu we went on to Kia Hwoa, where 
there are more than twenty Christians, and most of 
them young women. We were warmly welcomed, 
and especially the women seemed very grateful to see 
one of their own sex who had gone so far to teach 
them. My fame had increased to such an extent 
that many literary graduates came from the city of 
Kia Hwoa to see the great mathematician ! and 
many wanted me to teach them the western mathe- 
matics and sciences. The students are intensely 
eager to study these. Of course it was impossible 
for me to stay up there and teach them, and so it is 
probable that a few will come here for a while to 
study. The great difficulty is to make them realize 
that these things, especially mathematics, are not 
to be learned in a month. I firmly believe that if 
we were to open a college in the southern part of 
Hunan (of the northern part I do not know) it 
would be crowded. I hope that we may be given 
permission to establish ourselves in Hunan within 
the next few years, for the work there is exceed- 
ingly encouraging, and when we have Hunan, we 
have a large portion of China. I expect to visit 
Kia Hwoa again in April to spend a month with a 
class of women. 


The Board of Home Missions, at its May 
meeting, having fully met the obligation 
under which it was compelled to refrain 
from ' ' new ivork, ' ' resolved to remove that 
restriction and to entertain hereafter applica- 
tions for any work upon condition that the 
aggregate of amounts appropriated to any 
presbytery shall not exceed that of last year. 
This action of the Board was unanimously 
approved by the General Assembly. 

Hereafter when the Board finds it neces- 
sary to grant less than the amounts asked 
the several cases will be referred back to 
the presbyteries with the Board's recommen- 
dations for the adj ustment of the ' ' cuts. ' ' 
The Board is glad to have the Assembly's 
sanction and its authority in pressing upon 
the presbyteries their responsibility in such 

The Board received for current work last 
year $729,977.28, a sum about $200, 000 less 
than it received during the prosperous year 
1892-3. If the fiscal year upon which the 
Board has just entered brings it as much as 
1892-3 did, it will close the year without 
debt, and with a record of advance into 
some neglected fields. 

Representative home missionaries from 
twenty-five synods met the Junior Secretary 
in his room during the Assembly, and after 
a free interchange of views decided to advo- 
cate the holding of Home Mission Confer- 
ences in the synods and presbyteries next 
autumn. The reduction of the old debt and 
the prospect of better times encourage the 
hope that the Board will have a good year 
and go to the next Assembly with a splendid 
financial showing. 

Several speakers at the General Assembly 
labored under a strange misapprehension as 
to the expense of administering the affairs 
of the Board of Home Missions during the 
past year. On page 54 of the annual re- 
port it is plainly stated that the cost of 
administration was $40,300.50, and on page 
55 the statement is itemized. 

The condition of the Board's treasury is 
one of the great burdens on the heart of the 
Church to-day. It is at present the barrier 
that stands in the way of progress. On 
account of the debt several hundreds of 
communities, which might early become 
sources of income to the Board, are now 
neglected, and the chief function of the 
Board of Home Missions must fall into tem- 
porary disuse. 

The Board has not exceeded its instruc- 
tions. It has kept well within the limits of 
expenditure authorized by previous Assem- 
blies and far below the demands of the 
presbyteries through all these years of in- 
creasing indebtedness. 

Concert of Prayer 
For Church Work at Home. 

JANUARY The New West. 

FEBRUARY The Indians. 

MARCH The Older States. 

APRII, The Cities. 

MAY The Mormons. 

JUNE Our Missionaries. 

JUI/Y Results of the Year. 

AUGUST Romanists and Foreigners. 

SEPTEMBER The Outlook. 

OCTOBER The Treasury. 

NOVEMBER The Mexicans. 

DECEMBER The South. 


The Board entered upon the year under 
depressing circumstances. A debt which 
had been growing five years had reached 
the unprecedented sum of $364,850.05. 
In addition to this great burden, $41, 000 were 
due to missionaries on salaries for the former 
year. The receipts through the summer 
and early autumn were lighter than for the 
corresponding period of the preceding year, 
while many of the aid-receiving churches 
and missions, instead of relieving the Board 
by advancing to self-support, were obliged 
to ask additional help. Many churches 





and individuals who had been generous in 
their gifts to our treasury were compelled 
to reduce their customary contributions or 
to discontinue them altogether. Under 
these conditions the Board deemed it nec- 
essary to decline all applications for the 
support of new churches and missions in 
new fields. 


Notwithstanding the unfavorable condi- 
tions under which the work of the year has 
been conducted, and the consequent evils of 
retrenchment, there are gratifying evidences 
of progress. The resolute lesson of self- 
help has been thoroughly learned by many 
churches, and when human help failed, 
there was in many instances a manifest 
turning to the divine source of relief, and 
fruitful revivals have strengthened the 
churches in many parts of the country. 

Another gratifying result, in a few isolated 
cases, was the promotion of denominational 
comity, churches of different connections 
being forced to unite in supporting the 
means of grace which otherwise would have 
been denied them. 

In New England many of our churches 
have reached self-support. The five more 
recently organized at Waltham, Springfield, 
Brookline, Brocton and Graniteville have 
never received help from the Board. All 
our home mission churches in New England 
are in cities and among people who have 
special claim upon our sympathy and help, 
being of Presbyterian faith or preference. 
Buildings have been completed and dedi- 
cated at Lynn, Mass. ; Houlton, Me. , and 
Graniteville, Vt. It is worthy of special 
note that the people are most loyal to their 
pastors, and that thus supported our mission- 
aries have done heroic work at a time when 
depression was most acute ; thus pastor and 
people are firmly bound together, not only 
by a common faith and purpose, but by 
common privation. It has not been the 
purpose of the Board to enlarge its home 
mission work in New England, although 
the calls for the minstry of our Church have 
been persistent, and the field gives ample 
returns for the outlay. 

Although the Board has been restrained 
from supporting new work there have been 
five churches organized in Kentucky during 
the year, and all have been provided with 
new buildings; seven ministers have been 

introduced into the field. It is a remark- 
able fact that more work has been done, 
more fields occupied, and more men em- 
ployed, and yet with fifty per cent, less 
money from the Board than ever before. 
Most fruitful revivals have swept over the 
State; and there have been added to the 
churches 1037 members, 801 of whom were 
received on profession. Notwithstanding 
the financial stringency, the churches of the 
synod contributed nearly $4000 for home 
missions, besides $3000 for the Synodical 
Fund. This synod is nearly self-support- 

The Synod of Tennessee has made decided 
progress towards self-support, although it is 
confined to the mountainous regions of East 
Tennessee and North Carolina, and a few 
communities in northern Alabama. It has 
no churches in the wealthier regions of 
middle and western Tennessee. An im- 
portant church was organized with fifty 
members on the site of old Port Saunders, 
in Knoxville, and another of twenty mem- 
bers at Hot Springs, N. C. 

The East Coast railroad has been extend- 
ed far into the south of Florida. New 
communities of great promise have sprung 
up all along the route, but the enterprising 
synodical missionary has been restrained 
from occupying them. A church, how- 
ever, was organized at Miami, a promising 
young city. The ministers and churches of 
the northern and southern branches of our 
Church in Florida are in very close frater- 
nal relations. No jealousies have been dis- 
covered among them ; they group together 
in the interests of economy, and in the hope 
of early reunion. 

In Iowa nine churches have been organ- 
ized, and twice as many might have been 
with little help. The Sabbath-school mis- 
sionaries, who constitute the advance guard 
of the army of the Lord, have opened a 
large number of fields, and prepared them 
for our occupancy, but the Board could 
render no assistance, and these fields are 
left uncultivated. The synod has been 
visited by fruitful revivals of religion. A 
striking instance occurred in the Mount 
Hope Church, which is in the country ten 
miles from a railroad. One hundred con- 
versions were reported. 

The population of the ' ' New West ' ' has 
increased with phenomenal rapidity, and 
yet it is sparse. 




If it be true, as has been repeatedly as- 
serted, that there is not elsewhere upon the 
face of the earth a region capable of sustain- 
ing a denser population than this, what must 
we expect and prepare for in the immediate 
future ? China has an average of one hun- 
dred and twenty-one to the square mile. At 
that rate our " New West " would sustain 
a population of two hundred millions. 

It is certainly true that the weal or woe of 
any people is determined by the degree to 
which the gospel is a controlling power, for 
" righteousness exalteth a nation, but sin is 
a reproach to any people." 

In the light of that truth it is an appall- 
ing fact that only 9.48 per cent, of the 
population profess to be evangelical Chris- 
tians, leaving more than ninety out of every 
hundred either ignorant of the gospel or 
indifferent to its claims. Surely much of our 
national history, and probably its most bril- 
liant chapters, are to be made between the 
Mississippi river and the Pacific ocean. 
Thither a vast multitude of the most enter- 
prising sons and daughters of the older 
States are flocking. There hosts of sturdy 
immigrants from foreign shores are seeking 
homes, and on that great theatre of human 
action millions will be born and live and act. 

If the population of our entire country 
shall double in the next thirty years, as 
it has done in the past thirty years, the 
"New West" will certainly receive more 
than its proportion of the increase estimated 
upon either its present population or its 
geographical extent. 

Two hundred and fifty-six churches have 
been organized in Minnesota, a gain of 84 
per cent, in the last ten years. Notwith- 
standing the hard times, which no State has 
felt more seriously than this, the work dur- 
ing the last year has been prosperous, nine- 
teen churches have been added, and more 
buildings dedicated than in any previous 
year in the history of our work in that 
State. It is a still more remarkable fact 
that all these are free from debt. Dr. 
Adams reports that only one aid-receiving 
church outside of the largest cities has in- 
debtedness; though six of the largest 
churches in the twin cities are burdened with 
debt, and missionaries have keenly felt the 
effects of retrenchment But greater things 
might be accomplished if the Board could 
extend a little more help. Seventeen at- 
tractive fields are calling in vain for the 

gospel, and seventeen choice young men are 
ready to enter these fields if their daily 
bread can be provided. 

Many great doors, and effectual, are open 
among the Scandinavians of this State, 
which a comparatively small amount of 
money would enable us to enter. But in- 
stead of enlarging our usefulness, we are in 
danger of losing part of what has been 
gained. An interesting church, which came 
to us from the Swedish Evangelical body 
last year, is in peril. This is one of the 
States in which hard times and pinching pov- 
erty have seemed to promote piety and 
religious zeal. 

During the year, three churches in South 
Dakota assumed self-support, and nearly all 
the churches report increase of membership. 
The number of churches has increased ten- 
fold in fifteen years. 

It is worthy of special mention that the 
Second Church of Lincoln, Neb., not yet 
seven years old, in addition to supporting 
its own pastor, has adopted a missionary, 
the Rev. Howard Campbell, in Siam, and has 
paid his entire salary. It is not wonderful 
that such a church should have received 
one hundred members during the year on 

"Another encouraging feature of the 
work in this State is the increasing number 
of candidates for the ministry. One 
church, that of Wood River, has three of 
its members now in Hastings College pre- 
paring for the ministry," says Dr. Sexton. 
" This is the church which sent out five 
missionaries to Siam two years ago." 
Hardship does not deter these young Ne- 
braska heroes from entering the Lord's ser- 

Two strong Bohemian churches have been 
added to our roll in this State. Both have 
houses of worship. 

Kansas has enjoyed a steady and vigorous 
growth in all the elements of a great State 
She is far in the lead of the other States 
of the West in the proportion of evangelical 
Christians to her entire population. She has 
four times as many Protestants as Roman- 
ists. 19.22 per cent, of her population are in 
evangelical churches, and yet 1,000,000 
of her population are outside church rela- 

Our churches in Indian Territory and 
Oklahoma last year were blessed with an 
increase, over any previous year, of thirty- 




three per cent, in every line of effort. The 
gifts increased thirty-three per cent., the 
additions increased thirty-three per cent. 
The average gifts toward home missions and 
self-support averaged six dollars per mem- 
ber, the aggregate being $19,160 — all this 
in the face of temporal adversity. 

Utah has become a State, whether wisely 
or not remains to be determined. The 
pledges which she gave, and upon which 
she was admitted to the Union, derive 
their value from the character of the gen- 
eration which has been under training 
since our mission work began. Such has 
been the estimate which men have placed 
upon young Utah that this great venture 
has been staked upon their fidelity. No 
better testimony could be borne to the 
twenty years of mission work which the 
Woman's Executive Committee has main- 
tained. Fifty thousand boys and girls have 
passed under the influence and instruction 
of our mission teachers in Utah. It is a 
matter of special gratitude to God that our 
glorious Church, always the friend and pa- 
tron of education and the guardian of 
youth, has been permitted to take so prom- 
inent a part in the redemption of Utah. 

The event of special importance in the 
educational work in this State, during the 
year past, was the endowment of Sheldon 
Jackson College, in Salt Lake City. 
Twenty-one years ago our system of church 
schools in Utah was planned. An academy 
was established in each of the important 
valleys and surrounded by a group of pri- 
mary mission schools. The Collegiate In- 

stitute, at Salt Lake City, stood at the head 
of the system, and was designed to become 
a college as soon as sufficient endowment 
could be obtained. It has been doing par- 
tial college work for several years. It now 
attains to the full rank of a college with the 
brightest prospects for usefulness and vigor- 
ous growth. 

During the past year two churches were 
organized and 350 members added to the 
churches of the synod. 

We condense the most important details 
of the year's work into the following, viz. : 

*Number of Missionaries 1,544 

" " Missionary Teachers 330 

Additions on Profession of Faith 9,179 

" " Certificate 4,308 

Total membership 99,454 

" in Congregations 122,801 

Adult Baptisms 4,893 

Infant Baptisms 5,228 

Sunday-schools organized . . . . 284 

Number of Sunday-schools 2,311 

Membership of Sunday-schools 130,502 

Church Edifices (value of same,$3,991, 425), 1,830 
" " built during the year (cost 

of same, $105,900) 90 

" " repaired and en larged ( cost 

of same, $40,784) 223 

Church debts canceled $91, 151 

Churches self-sustaining this year 20 

" organized " " 05 

Number of Parsonages (value $502,305). . 433 

On account of the debt several hundreds 
of communities, which might early become 
sources of income to the Board, are now 
neglected, and the chief function of the 
Board of Home Missions must fall into tem- 
porary disuse. 




The year 1830 marked with appreciable 
definiteness the passing of this giant young 
State from the first crude stage of nascent 
civilization to a distinctly higher level. 
With the consciousness of unfolding pow- 
ers came visions of boundless possibilities, 
and visionary or premature expectations were 
indulged. For a full decade, beginning two 
or three years before our new starting-point, 
the increase in population, wealth and the 
more valuable forces of intellectual and spir- 
itual progress seemed to confirm the most 
radiant dreams of this period. 

There awoke also a marked self-conscious- 
ness and sense of approbativeness peculiar to 
adolescence, which the nation as a whole 
has not yet entirely outgrown. This is a 
critical time in the history of individuals or 
communities. The elevating and guiding in- 
fluences of religion are then especially needed 
to turn the ardent, self-confident energies of 
youth towards noble ends, and restrain them 
from harmful excess. At this testing epoch 
in the development of Illinois, the effect of 
half a generation of devoted home mission 
work was manifest. An interesting para- 

* Including 41 Mexican and Indian Helpers. 




graph in Governor Ford's History of Illinois 
gives evidence to the point. He says that 
a remarkable change occurred during this 
transition period in the habits and appear- 
ance of the people. By 1830 a man in a 
frontier costume, consisting of a coouskin 
cap, hunting shirt, leather breeches and 
moccasins, was rarely seen. Cloth suits and 
leather shoes had taken their place. The 
other sex made still greater progress. With 
pride of dress came ambition, industry, 
thrift, desire of knowledge and love of de- 
cency. For this advancement, says the his- 
torian, the young were much indebted to the 
habit of attending church on Sundays. The 
very desire to make a good appearance cre- 
ated habits of industry, economy and enter- 
prise, and led to regular ways of living. 
No such improvement took place where peo- 
ple did not go to church. In such com- 
munities the young men were seen with 
uncombed heads and shabby clothing; or 
they were in the woods hunting, or on the 
race- course, or drinking at a grocery, or 
lounging sullenly and lazily at home. The 
young women .of that class were their fit 
mates in habits and appearance. To the 
early missionaries who established and main- 
tained the institutions of religion in the new 
settlements was due this most influential 
means of promoting civilization. 

To their aid now came a tidal wave of 
immigration, bringing a strong element of 
religion and intelligence. It was in the very 
year 1830 that Abraham Lincoln entered 
Illinois to be trained here in the school of 
Providence for his great career. After the 
Black Hawk War, which resulted in the 
extinguishment of the Indian title to vast 
tracts of fertile land in the northern part of 
the State, settlers poured into the valleys of 
the Fox and Rock rivers and overflowed 
upon the rich prairie lands in every direc- 
tion. In 1830 there were 150,447 inhabi- 
tants, and by 1840 no less than 476,183. 
The revivals general in the Eastern and 
Middle States from 1830 to 1835 occurred 
just as emigration to the West was rising. 
A multitude of emigrants came to the new 
country with the fire of Christian devotion 
freshly kindled in their hearts. Most of 
them were young, and added vital strength 
to the weak churches for a generation. 
Thus God saved the Great West from the 
dominance of barbarism, infidelity and false 

The revival flame ran from settlement to 
settlement upon the prairies of Illinois. The 
four years ending with the disastrous financial 
crash of 1837 were a period of rapid growth 
in the churches. Home missionary pastors 
threw themselves into the work with all their 
hearts, and welcomed the aid of experienced 
evangelists. Revivals were frequent through 
most of the decade from 1830 to 1840. 
The labors of such men as Turner, Carter, 
Kirby, Nelson, Gallaher, Bucher, Bascom, 
Kent, Hale, Parker, Avery, Henderson, 
Foote and Whittlesey added large numbers 
to the churches, and fixed their evangelical 
character for many years to come. By 
1837 there were eight presbyteries, with 
about sixty ministers and nearly one hun- 
dred churches, numbering not far from 2500 
members. The faithful Christian men and 
women who supported the pioneer minis- 
ters in their arduous labors, amid the hard- 
ships and drawbacks of life in a new coun- 
try, reaped in time a rich reward. At a 
single preaching station, services maintained 
in a log schoolhouse or barn through two 
generations, are known to have produced six 
ministers and three foreign missionaries. In 
such places a few days' visit of a home 
missionary were often accompanied by revival 
and ingathering. The opening years of 
the next decade were also marked by fre- 
quent revivals. The protracted financial 
troubles, entailed by the collapse of wild 
speculation and unwise improvement 
schemes, prepared the way for spiritual bet- 
terment. Throughout that trying period of 
disappointment and hardship the missionaries 
bore their part with faithful endurance. 
When the sun of prosperity again shone 
they rejoiced to see the more rapid growth of 
the Lord's kingdom Avhich repaid all their 

Up to the middle of this decade there were 
few churches in Illinois which had not been 
fostered by the missionary societies. The 
American Home Missionary Society sent to 
this State thirty-seven men within seven 
years after its organization in 1826, and in 
1844 had eighty- seven on the field, divided 
about equally between Presbyterian and 
Congregational churches. Ten years later 
the number reached about 119, and then 
diminished gradually to about 100 in I860, 
when the two supporting denominations sep- 

In 1827 the whole conduct of the domestic 




missionary Avork of the Presbyterian 
Church was investigated, and the Board of 
Missions was established with enlarged pow- 
ers. It now adopted the plan of supporting 
missionaries laboring steadily in a particular 
field. Beginning in the southern part -of 
Illinois, its efforts to supply the incoming 
population with the gospel gradually ex- 
tended through the entire State. The 
Western Executive Committee, with head- 
quarters at Louisville, superin tended this 
portion of the vast field covered by the oper- 
ations of the Board. Reaching all parts of 
the South and Southwest with its missionary 
agencies, it welcomed the aid of the A. H. 
M. S. in caring for the religious destitution 
of this great State. By 1854 it had thirty- 
three missionaries in Illinois, at an average 
salary of $359, and with an expenditure 
by the Board of $4563. In 1857, its title 
now changed to " Board of Domestic Mis- 
sions," it sujiported in this State sixty-one 
missionaries, with an average salary of 
$472, and a total appropriation of $9645. 
The last report of the Board before consoli- 
dation with the New School Committee in 
1871 showed ninety-one laborers in Illinois. 
In 1872 the reunited Church reported 142 
ministers employed in the State. The 
number grew less with the gradual combina- 
tion of weak churches and the increase in 
self-supporting ability, till, in 1895, the 
Board of Home Missions had ninety -two 
men on the ground. 

The ecclesiastical organization of the de- 
nomination in the State of Illinois was 
effected by home missionaries and delegates 
of home mission churches. Before 1829 
there existed no presbytery wholly in 
the State. Churches on the west side be- 
longed to the Missouri Presbytery; on the 
east side to the W abash Presbytery. In 
1828 the Synod of Indiana ordered the for- 
mation of the Center Presbytery of Illinois, 
having the same boundaries with the State. 
This presbytery was divided in 1830 into 
three, Kaskaskia, Sangamon and Illinois, and 
the General Assembly was requested to form 
a new synod of these, including the Presby- 
tery of Missouri. In September of that 
year the Synod of Illinois was legally con- 
stituted, with John G. Bergen, moderator, 
and Thomas Lippincott, stated clerk. 
Action was at once taken to divide the Pres 
bytery of Missouri into three, and to form a 
new synod west of the Mississippi. The 

following resolution was adopted: " That the 
Assembly's Board of Missions and the Board 
of the A. H. M. S. be respectfully requested 
to communicate freely with the Presbyterial 
and Synodical Committees on all important 
subjects connected with missionary operations 
within our bounds, and without the media- 
tion of any other Board whatever." 

The unhappy division of the Presbyterian 
army into two camps seriously affected the 
churches in Illinois. Nearly all the minis- 
ters were more or less dependent on home 
mission support. The Board of Missions 
remained with the Old School branch; but 
so many were the feeble churches through- 
out the country depending on it that the aid 
extended to its missionaries was limited to 
between $100 and $200 per annum. The 
missionary churches which adhered to the 
New School side had the strong support of 
the A H. M. S., and their ministers could 
receive as much as $400 yearly. Happily 
the extensive revivals and increased immi- 
gration which marked the years following 
1840 greatly strengthened the weak churches 
generally. The slavery conflict was adverse 
to harmony and progress. This continued 
in a more or less acute form until the Civil 
War settled the question, and removed this 
cause of alienation and disturbance, thus 
preparing the way for the Reunion of 

The relations of the New School body 
with the A. H. M. S. continued harmoni- 
ous and fruitful for many years. Upon the 
official records of synods and presbyteries 
are found frequent expressions of gratitude 
to the Society. A large proportion of the 
churches could not have come into existence 
or been maintained without its timely and 
generous assistance. But, as early as 1848, 
dissatisfaction was expressed with its policy. 
This increased till, in 1854, the Presbytery 
of Alton decided to take charge of the 
work of planting churches of its own order 
within its bounds. This led to more strin- 
gent action on the part of the Society, 
withholding aid from the missionary churches 
of any presbyerty in which all its contribu- 
tions for this work were not sent to the 
Society's treasury. The upholders of the 
A. H. M. S. asserted that " Presbyterians 
contributed but about one-third of its funds 
and drew out two-thirds," and claimed for 
it the right to regulate its administration on 
its own lines. Presbyterians felt that they 




had the right and the duty to supervise the 
aggressive work of their denomination on 
their own territory. Differences of opinion 
and interest grew more and more pro- 
nounced, until, in 1861, the New School 
body severed its connection with the Society. 
The Committee of Home Missions was then 
funned, and for nine years fostered the weaker 
churches of the denomination with a wise 
and liberal hand. The united labor of a 
generation had been most beneficent, the 
separation was inevitable and the final result 
was probably a stronger advance of the 
fraternizing but no longer federated churches. 

The Civil War hindereil the progress of 
all denominations, but the plowshare of na- 
tional trial went deep into the hearts of the 
people with the result of great spiritual gain 
in the years following. Home mission work 
through two generations had fostered the 
principles of true citizenship, and instilled a 
love of liberty and a sense of nationality to 
such an extent that it has been said, with 
regard to Illinois and neighboring States, 
that home missions saved the Northwest to 
the Union. The able-bodied men of entire 
mission churches were sometimes in the 
ranks. The cost was unspeakable, but the 
results, even to the churches temporarily 
weakened, were richly compensatory. 

To present a connected view of the rela- 
tion of home missions to the cause of educa- 
tion in this State, uow among the foremost 
in this respect, it will be necessary to return 
to the earlier period of the history briefly 
sketched. At the admission of Illinois into 
the Union, in 1818, the interest of the peo- 
ple in the vital matter of education was 
shown by a provision, which devoted the 
three per cent, fund arising from the sale of 
public lauds to the encouragement of learn- 
ing, instead of to road-making, as in some 
other States. But leaders were lacking, and 
the provision was for many years without 
effect. Educated ministers were then almost 
unknown. Before 1830 there were quite a 
number sent out by Eastern missionary soci- 
eties. They were regarded with great jeal- 
ousy by the plain old preachers who had 
borne the burden of pioneer work. One of 
these boasted that he had never rubbed his 
back against a college wall. Another thank- 
ed God that he was " brought up at Plow- 
handle Point and educated at Brush-heap 
College." Prejudice against a liberal edu- 
cation was so persistent that, for several 

years, no charter for a college could be ob- 
tained. When at last secured, each charter 
contained the prohibition of a theological 
department for the training of a sectarian 

The early missionaries, as a rule, were 
educators. The " Illinois Association " at 
Yale sent eleven theological graduates to the 
State within three years, pledged to carry 
on a definite system of operations, educa- 
tional and religious; to plant churches, form 
Sunday-schools, found a college, establish 
academies, male and female, and encourage 
common schools. Grandly did they fulfill 
their vows. They opened the doors of 
Illinois College in January, 1830. But 
schools were lacking to supply a college con- 
stituency. Private schools were started in 
many places, conducted by ministers or their 
cultivated wives. Among the many de- 
voted women who laid the foundations of 
female education in Illinois, were Mrs. John 
M. Ellis, Mrs. Theron Baldwin, Mrs. 
Lemuel Foster, Miss Eliza Chappel (Mrs. 
Porter) who opened the first school for 
young women in Chicago, and Miss Anna 
P. Sill, the Mary Lyon of northern Illinois. 
The early college professors devoted much 
time to urging the interests of common 
schools. Synods, presbyteries and associa- 
tions gave warm support to education. In 
1837, $80,000 was subscribed for Illinois 
College, mostly from churches which had 
been nurtured by the HomeMissiou Society. 
Knox College at Galesburg was founded by 
a colony of Presbyterians from central New 
York. The effort to make it distinctively 
Presbyterian failed because of inability to 
raise the required endowment ; but this 
noble institution has been a great boon to 
the churches of the denomination, especially 
to those of the surrounding region -whose 
children, for lack of means, need the priv- 
ileges of such an institution near their 
homes. Beloit College has in the same way 
brought blessing to the churches of north- 
ern Illinois. Two or three colleges, planted 
by Presbyterian initiative in different parts 
of the State, failed to meet the expectations 
of their founders. The Galena Theological 
Seminary had a promising beginning, but it 
was decided to concentrate the denomina- 
tional strength upon the seminary of the 
Northwest at Chicago. This, under the 
name of its rauuificeiit patron, Cyrus Mc- 
Cormick, and the Lake Forest University, 




have drawn no little of their vigorous life 
from sources supplied by home missionary 
effort, and have, in turn, been mediums of 
help and blessing to the less wealthy 
churches of the State. 

The name of Gideon Blackburn cannot be 
omitted from the history of religious educa- 
tion in Illinois. Though he never took a 
pastoral charge after removing to this State 
from Kentucky, he had been a missionary 
during a good part of his life; first, in the 
pioneer and military period of the early his- 
tory of Tennessee, and later among the 
Cherokee Indians. He labored abundantly 
among the home mission churches of Illi- 
nois, and his educational efforts were adapt- 
ed to their needs. While securing funds for 
Illinois College, in 1835, he conceived a 
plan for founding a theological school from 
the proceeds of land sold at two dollars an 
acre, for which the government price of a 
dollar and a quarter had been paid. The 
scheme had only partial success, but Black- 
burn University, at Carlinville, is the valu- 
able outcome of it. 

Monticello Female Seminary was among 
the institutions of learning planted and 
nourished by Presbyterians in the formative 
period of the growing commonwealth. Its 
founder, Benjamin Godfrey, was a highly 
respected elder in the Alton and Monticello 
churches. His conviction of the value of 
education under right religious direction was 
so strong, that he felt it to be " of as much 
importance that the institution should come 
into existence as that every soul then in 
Illinois should be converted." The wide 
and lasting influence of this excellent Sem- 
inary, and of such schools as the Jackson- 
ville Female Academy, the Ducoign Female 
Seminary, the Presbyterian Academy at 
Nashville, the Friendsville Seminary and 
Rockford College, cannot be too highly 
estimated. All these grew from small be- 
ginnings to great usefulness. 

Among the leaders in educational prog- 
ress in this State the name of Theron Bald- 
win will always have an honorable place. 
He was one of the Yale band who came to 
Illinois with the special aim of planting 
Christian schools and colleges, and was the 
first principal of Monticello Seminary. 
After seven years in this position he de- 
vised and operated the College Education 
Society. To his fertile mind is due the in- 
troduction of presbyterial and syuodical 

missions in America. From the working of 
this system in Illinois came the New School 
Assembly's Committee of Church Exten- 
sion, and its Hundred Thousand Dollar 
Fund to aid feeble churches in erecting their 

It would require a volume to complete 
even this fragmentary sketch of the part 
taken by home missions in the history of 
this great State. Its northern half received 
at first a more homogeneous immigration, and 
both churches and schools had a more rapid 
growth. The history of Presbyterian ism in 
this part of the State has never been written. 
Dr. A. T. Norton made a laborious colla- 
tion of material for it, intending to write a 
volume to correspond with the one he issued 
covering Southern Illinois ; but his library, 
containing his papers, was destroyed by fire, 
and he was never able to complete the task. 
It is much to be hoped that some one will 
be found to undertake the work while the 
sources of the history are accessible and 
abundant. A brief account of the begin- 
nings of Presbyterianism in the metropolis 
of the interior can only be added. 

In the year 1833, a small schooner, some 
days out from Mackinac, appeared off the 
mouth of the Chicago river. It brought 
Jeremiah Porter to the site of the future 
city to begin his long aud fruitful ministry. 
Three frame stores and a few log houses, 
besides the fort, constituted the straggling 
village of 300 inhabitants. In the garrison 
were seventeen professedly Christian officers 
and soldiers. John Wright, one of a band 
of four praying men, grasped Mr. Porter's 
hand, and exclaimed : " I have written and 
written in vain for a minister ; this is like 
the bursting out of the sun from the dark- 
est clouds." The first sermon known to 
have been preached in Chicago was by 
' ' Father ' ' Walker, an aged Methodist mis- 
sionary, who had come to the place a month 
earlier. A Sunday-school had been started 
the previous summer, especially for the half- 
breed children of the settlement. Mr. 
Porter's first sermon was delivered in a car- 
penter's shop from the words of the carpen- 
ter of Nazareth, " Herein is my Father 
glorified, that ye bear much fruit." A 
Presbyterian church, the historic First, was 
organized June 20, 1833, with twenty-six 
members, and increased within a year to 
sixty-seven. On the 4th of January suc- 
ceeding, a small frame building, costing $600, 




was dedicated. Before the end of the year 
the church became self-supporting. It was 
connected with the Presbytery of Detroit 
until the Presbytery of Ottawa was formed 
in 1835. Mr. Porter removing to Peoria 
during that year, Dr. Hawes was invited to 
the church, and asked, " Where is this 
Chicago?" The answer was, " It is some- 
where in a swamp west of Lake Michigan." 
He declined the invitation. When Aratus 
Kent came from Galena on horseback, sleep- 
ing on the ground, to see Mr. Porter, in 
1833, he wrote, " If the pier now being 
built at the mouth of the river and the open- 
ing through the bar prove to be permanent, 
I think Chicago will come to be ecpial to any 
of our Western towns!" At the organiza- 
tion of the Second Church, the population 
had grown to 6000, but the streets were of 
unfathomable mud and the only water works 
were the water carts. The Third Church 
was built amid the stubble of a cornfield. 
Since then the city itself has furnished home 
missionary ground equal in its polyglot needs 
to that of the whole State in earlier days. 

A condensed history of the Synod of Illi- 
nois was published in 1888, which contains 
valuable data relating to the home mission 
annals of the State. In 1837 the Synod of 
Illinois, composed almost entirely of mis- 
sionary churches, adopted resolutions earn- 
estly opposed to division in the Church, and 
strongly disapproving acts likely to produce 
such a result. The annual sermons before 
the synod were usually upon subjects indi- 
cating the great questions before the Church 
at the time, especially Missions, Slavery, 
Education, Christian Union, Temperance, 
Revivals and Sabbath Observance. Liberal 
support of domestic missions was frequently 
urged. Synodical evangelization was. cared 
for. The order and discipline of the churches 
was kept up with growing vigor, so that 
expedients allowed in days of early weakness, 
such as ordination sine titule and women 
elders, became rare or ceased. Last year 
the Synod of Illinois adopted the plan of 
Synodical Sustentation, thus assuming the 
support of its weak churches. Each pres- 
bytery has its own Home Mission Com- 
mittee; the Chairmen of the Presbyterial 
Committees constitute the Synodical Com- 
mittee on Home Missions; this appoints and 
supervises synodical evangelists. Complete 
reports and surplus funds are to be forwarded 
to the Home Mission Board in New York. 



Rev. J. Loomis Gould, Hydah Mission, Jack- 
son: — For fourteen years we have been making our 
" quarterly reports " to our Board and have very 
much occasion to be grateful. It is, indeed, a 
merciful providence that veils from us the to- 
morrow of the "fool's calendar." Could we have 
foreseen all the fourteen years had in store for us I 
fear it would have been too much for our courage, 
too dark for our faith. But that we came we are 
thankful. The changes we have been permitted to 
witness and the part we have been permitted to 
take in the history of progress compensate us. No 
quarter during our sojourn has been more satis- 
factory than this except the receipt of your order 
closing a prosperous mission. 

Fourteen adults have been added on confession of 
faith and two by letter. Twelve of these native, 
four white. Others are only waiting, some for 
next Sunday's communion, others perhaps a little 
longer. Fourteen infants have been presented for 
the seal of the covenant, and others held for next 
communion season. 

A large canning establishment is going up at our 
fishery, and some new quartz discoveries promise 
to bring more whites when the winter is past. 
These things greatly increase the needs of Christian 
work and influence both for the native and the 


Rev. Caleb E. Jones, Lakewood: — In the pres- 
ence of ten thousand dead orange groves it is hard 
to convince some of the destitute families that God 
is good. To them the "frowning providence" is 
so conspicuous they fail to see the "smiling face." 
So in some cases it takes all the faith and grace and 
patience to keep their courage up to the working 


Rev. James C. Sefton, Carthage: — The "press- 
ing wants" of this field, like all others in the 
South and West, are : First, men of God who are 
willing to take four or five churches, preach in 
school-houses, go from house to house, be of the 
people, live near to their hearts, yea, in them. 


Rev. S. Conybeare, Oelwein: — Mr. and Mrs. 
Pierson came to us February 13, and were greeted 
with a crowded house and found a revival already 
begun. They labored for four days. The work 
opened up grandly. The outlook was very bright. 
The whole town was stirred. Old residents said 
that they never saw such interest taken in religious 
things by the people of Oelwein. Numbers of 
men came to church who had not been there for 
years. On Sabbath, February 16, Mr. l'ierson 
preached four times. On Monday he was sick. In 
two weeks he was dead, died of typhoid fever con- 
tracted before coming. When he was obliged to 
give up we kept up the meetings from night to 
night hoping for his recovery, but when we found 




he had typhoid fever we gave up the attempt. No 
one could step into his place, and the work stopped. 
We were sadly disappointed. His death cast a 
deep gloom over the people and the whole com- 
munity. It is a very mysterious providence. He 
was not yet twenty-nine when he died. One good 
result has been the solemnizing the minds of the 
people and making them more attentive to religious 
themes. Still we are sadly disappointed in the 
termination of our efforts and the defeat of our 
plans by death. 

Our Sabbath congregations have been steadily in- 
creasing until last Sabbath they packed the house. 
The Sabbath- school membership is also increasing. 
Last Sabbath evening we had the best prayer-meet- 
ing we have had since I came. I am now getting 
together a class of young men to teach in the 
Sabbath-school. I expect to begin with them next 
Sabbath. At our last communion ten persons united 
with the church — six on profession and four by 
letter. We are expecting at least as many as that 
at our next communion. 

Eev. W. H. Kearns, Davenport: — Since the 
last report six new members have been received. 
Notwithstanding the hard times we aim to re- 
member all the Boards with an offering. We took 
our collection for Home Missions last month and it 
was the largest ever given to the Board by this 
church. I believe that if all the weak churches 
would contribute something to all the Boards the 
money problem would be largely solved, and it is 
my belief that the pastors of these churches are 
to blame. It is a fact that our church has given 
more and prospered better as a church since they 
have been giving to the Boards. Last year this 
church gave an average of $3.21 per member for 
the Boards and also kept up their home obliga- 

Eev. John W. Everds, Germania : — Soon after 
I was called by this German church a committee 
from the Presbytery of Fort Dodge organized an 
English Presbyterian Church here of ten members, 
with the understanding that they were to be served 
by the pastor of the German congregation and also 
to have the use of their church building. Accord- 
ingly we have services in German in the morning and 
in English in the evening. Both of these services 
are well attended if the weather permits, ranging 
in the morning from 75 to 100, and in the evening 
from 90 to 135, the evening congregations being 
larger from the fact that many Germans attend 
these meetings. We also have a Young People's 
meeting before the evening service. 

The religious interest is good. Our Y. P. S. 
C. E. is increasing in numbers and effectiveness. 
Three members have been received into the church 
during the quarter, and the moral tone of the town 
is improving. One young man has been sent to 
college, intending to study for the ministry. 


Eev. T. W. Bowen, Crosivell: — I was called 
away from home to my previous field of labor, 
Akron, by the death of a brother beloved, Mr. 
Archie McDonald, elder in and principal founder 
of the Akron Church. At one time in the early 
days, amidst great discouragements, it was almost 

decided to sell the church, but he said, "No, we 
have got through so far, we'll hold on a little 
longer yet ; ' ' and that church to-day is as a city 
set upon a hill to that community. The Lord be 
praised ! At our communion service the first 
Sabbath in November, we had the pleasure of 
announcing that six new members had been added 
to the roll. Some of these have already been 
chosen to office in the church, and the church has 
received an accession of strength and help. One 
old gentleman, in whom I have been interested 
ever since I came to Croswell, called at the manse 
one day and requested that I should baptize him 
on the following Sabbath, for he desired like the 
Master to fulfill all righteousness, so he wae 
baptized and received into the fellowship of the 
church. His early life had been rough, but he is 
now filled with the love of Christ and love to 
God's precious book. Our Sabbath-school is in 
a very prosperous condition, and promises well for 
the future of the church. Our Y. P. S. C. E. is a 
great source of blessing. They are developing a 
benevolent spirit and contributing in a systematic 
way to missions. The little ones are eager in 
saving their money from candy to give to the 
cause of God. The Ladies' Aid Society raised 
over §100 during 1803 to apply on the manse. 
During the quarter I have spent much time i i 
pastoral work, and find that reading, praying 
and talking with the people in their homes is a 
means of drawing them to the house of God* and 
to the feet of the world's Eedeemer. In my 
pulpit ministry the power of God has graciously 
rested upon me, and many a heart has been 
pierced by the sword of gospel truth, and although 
the harvest is not yet, I believe that the seed of 
the kingdom is taking such deep root that num- 
bers of conversions will surely result. 

Eev. J. C. Smith, Beading: — I commenced 
work here June 12, 1892, the attendance averaging 
less than thirty. For the past quarter there has 
been an average attendance at morning service of 
115. At our recent communion service twenty- 
three persons were received into the church, five 
by letter and eighteen on profession of faith. Our 
service was a very impressive one, and was listened 
to by an audience of 184 persons. A society of sys- 
tematic beneficence has been formed, the Y. P. S. 
C. E., the W. M. S., the Sabbath-school and the 
church proper have all responded liberally. No ef- 
fort has been spared on the part of myself to bring 
the people into line with the Bible rule of Christian 
giving. I can live on a small salary, but I do not 
believe that that requires a corresponding small 
amount to be given to the Home Mission Board. 
Pamphlets on systematic beneficence have been 
distributed at morning service, week after week ; 
special missionary services have been held, and 
topics on such subjects assigned to prominent 
church workers ; the average amounts given by 
our own and other churches in the State have 
been brought before the people, and envelopes and 
leaflets have been mailed to each church adherent 
with a personal letter enclosed. Here is (he result 
and our resjyonsc to the Board's appeal for help : 

I"ask you to credit the church with $59.58 paid 

*This brother finds true the saying of Dr. Chalmers: 
"A house-going minister makes a churth-going people." — Ed. 



to me as money raised for the Home Mission outspoken opposition from any source. The 

Board, which will only leave a balance due me 
from the Board of $2.92. In addition to the 
above our church has sent $7.80 to the Woman's 
Executive Committee of Home Missions, so that 
we give $67.38 this year. 


Rev. J. C. SLOAN, Alliance: — Commencing 
with the middle of December, I began a series of 
meetings in the White River country, where a 
Sunday-school had been established. There was 
but one praying soul in the entire community ; 
I there witnessed such a work of grace as I have 
never before experienced. I can report about 
fifty conversions. One man sixty-three years of 
age, his wife sixty-two years, their son with his 
wile and two children, all came forward upon the 
same day confessing their sins, and were received 
into the church upon confession of their faith. 
The whole neighborhood has been revolutionized. 
Almost every house Is a house of prayer. I or- 
ganized a church of thirty-three members, and 
there are twelve or fifteen more to be received 
later. They immediately went to work, selected 
a suitable site, sent timbers to the mill for sawing 
into lumber, and hope in the course of a couple 
of months or so to have a comfortable house for 
worship, with a seating capacity of about one 
hundred and fifty. My work is constantly grow- 
ing upon my hands ; Clinton, Gordon and Valen- 
tine are all pleading for more of my time. 


Rev. Heney Hansman, Manchester: — We 
have many difficulties against which we must 
contend, and we must work hard to overcome 
them. There is first of all the general infidelity 
of the Germans ; as soon as they arrive in this 
country they throw off all religious restraint, fall 
into the hands of the different societies, and seem 
absolutely to be lost to the church. And yet God 
makes opportunity for us to catch hold of them 
and sometimes win them back. 


Rev. C. H. Schwaezbach, Brooklyn : — We 

have opened the doors of our church to a Hebrew 
mission which has a large field. I personally 
superintend this work, and address the encourag- 
ing gatherings in German each Saturday morning. 
These meetings are interesting, and will prove a 
blessing to the nation whence conies so much 
to us. 

I will add that Dr. Benjamin Shapiro, who 
labors successfully in Brownsville here among 
the Jews, a Jewish convert, does the mission 
work and preaches to his people in my church 
each Saturday morning. 


general condition of the missionary work on this 
field is improving and developing without any 

people are becoming more cultured, and the de- 
sire for education and general reformation in 
morals and manners is strengthening. They look 
to the Presbyterians to lead the way in this work, 
and under their influence they have been taught 
to try to help themselves, if they expect help, 
and this neighborhood is more thrifty than last. 
year notwithstanding the continuance of the 
financial crisis. 

The success of the missionary work in this 
region is only a matter of time, for Presby- 
terianism rarely ever dies when planted, and it 
is here as an indigenous plant and not an exotic. 
And in this home-field the great Presbyterian 
Church of the U. S. A. is endeavoring to rekindle 
or to fan the smothered embers into a fiame and 
regain the lost heritage, and patient, steady, per- 
severing work always has its reward ; hence we 
look for prosperity in due time, when prodigal 
children shall return to the faith of the lathers. 


Rev. Robert Coltman, Cheyenne : — I spent the 
month of July in making my annual visitation to 
the Big Home Basin in Wyoming. In this trip 
I had the company and assistance of Rev. C. K. 
Powell, synodical superintendent of Sabbath- 
school work in this synod. The trip was taken by 
buckboard from Sheridan, Wyoming, and covered 
over 500 miles. We slept in our tent every night, 
with but a single exception, and during that one we 
heartily wished many times in each hour that we 
were in our clean camp-bed and in our tent. The 
house in which we slept was unique but not aesthetic. 
It was of logs with a floor of earth, and this was so 
undulating, with its little humps and holes, that we 
found it impossible to adjust our anatomy to its con- 
tour. The front part of this bouse of one room was 
a store for general merchandise ; the middle part 
contained beds for the family and ranch help, also 
dining table, bantam chickens, white rabbits, cats 
and dogs, without limit in number, with an occa- 
sional visit from the pigs outside who came to get 
scraps from the floor on which Brother Powell and 
myself were sleeping (?). The rear part was for 
culinary purposes. What a night ? 

We found that many had gone into the Basin to 
make homes in this new country since my visit last 
summer. I had many requests for more mission- 
aries, but could only reply that at present the 
Board's depleted treasury would not allow us to put 
in a single man. It must be remembered that this 
Basin is as large as the State of Massachusetts, and 
we have one man trying to cover the field. Some 
of his preaching points are seventy -five miles apart, 
with rivers and creeks to cross. These arc frozen 
in winter and dangerously high in spring and early 
summer. We absolutely need one man at least to 
work on the east side of the Big Horn river, while 
Brother Bruce does his best on the west side. With 
the new wagon road from Sheridan to Shell (.'reek, 
and the excellent service of the Burlington Route 
to Sheridan and Billings, settlers will pour in dur- 
ing the next season and we must have additional 
help if we would preserve that territory for Christ 
and our Church. Already irrigation schemes are 
in progress. The Mormons are there in large num- 
bers on the Gray Bull river. 

(For Appointments see p. 75.) 


The June number of The Church at 
Home and Abroad contained that part of 
the Annual Report which contained a re- 
view of the past twenty years of the Board's 
history. Attention is now called to the 
record of the year just closed. 


The whole number enrolled under the 
care of the Board on recommendation of 
the presbyteries is 795 ; that is, ministers, 
315; widows of ministers, 427; orphan 
families of ministers, 29 ; women mission- 
aries, 3 ; one widow of a medical mission- 
ary ; and twenty who are at the Ministers' 
House, Perth Amboy, N. J., in lieu of 
receiving an appropriation in money. Of 
these, ninety-five are new names. Forty- 
nine have been removed from the roll by 
death; thirty -seven ministers, eleven widows 
and one orphan. Other names have been 
withdrawn owing to a change in pecuniary 
circumstances or restored health, rendering 
further aid no longer necessary. 

Not less than 185 presbyteries are repre- 
sented on our roll by one or more persons 
or families within their respective bounds, 
whom they have recommended to the Board. 
In the majority of cases those recommended 
for appropriations represent not individuals 
only, but dependent families. The number 
of persons directly benefited by these appro- 
priations cannot be far from three thousand. 
This fact should be borue in mind in order 
to form any adequate conception of the 
extent of the work entrusted to this Board. 

The enrollment of the honorably retired 
veterans under the New Rule of the Assem- 
bly is ninety. It was eighty-five the previ- 
ous year. Each of these ministers, it will 
be remembered, is over seventy years of 
age, and has served the Church for an 
aggregate period of at least thirty years as 
pastor or missionary. 

During the seven years since the adoption 
of this Rule, its provisions have been accept- 
ed by 157 of our "Honorably Retired" 
veterans, of whom sixty-seven have been 
called to their reward on high; As already 
indicated, none are less than seventy years 

old. Their average age is more than sev- 
enty-eight. The oldest now enrolled is 
ninety-five years of age; thirty-seven of 
them are beyond their eightieth year. The 
average term of their service in the minis- 
try is more than forty -seven years. 

While entitled by the New Rule to an 
annuity of $300, a less sum, at their own 
request, is given to many of them, the 
average appropriation being $277. The 
total amount paid to these ninety venerable 
men is $24, 990. It may be doubted whether 
$25,000 have been expended for any other 
Church purpose during the past year with a 
more hearty assent than this receives, from 
all who know of the facts in the case. 


The following table shows the current 
fund income from all sources during the year, 
compared with that of the year preceding : 

1894-5 1895-6 
Contributions from Churches and 

Sabbath-schools $83,256 26 f 81, 377 03 

Contributions from Individuals.. . 18,200 42 21,283 03 

Interest from Permanent Fund... 69,177 64 64,9:;", 58 

" " Deposits in Bank.. . . 479 10 1,514 70 

" " Special Funds held 

by the Synod of Ohio and other 

Trustees 500 12 2,447 39 

$171,613 54 1171,557 73 

To this cash income should be added 
$4728. 24, the estimated value of boxes sent 
to families on the roll by Ladies' Aid Soci- 
eties. The estimated value of such boxes 
last year was $5134.59. There were added 
to our Permanent Fund $398.88 by gifts, 
etc., and $56,241.10 by legacies (all of 
which are placed in the Permanent Fund 
unless the testator otherwise directs) — a 
total addition of $56,639.98, or $5933.79 
more than it received last year. 

The usual tables prepared by order of the 
Assembly will be found appended to the 
report. These show (1) the amount of 
the "collections" paid into the treasury 
by each presbytery, including Sabbath- 
schools and Young People's Societies; (2) 
the amount drawn out for the families with- 
in its bounds, " recommended" by it to the 
Board, and (3) the number of contributing 
aud non-contributing churches. In 1894-5 




there were 3632 in the former class, and 
3498 in the latter. This order is reversed, 
however, in the year covered hy this report, 
only 3511 churches contributing, and 3714 
not contributing to the Relief Fund. The 
detailed statement gives, by synods and 
presbyteries, the names of the churches 
which contributed and the amount sent by 
each church. 


The total of appropriations last year, 
including the expense of the Ministers' 
House, at Perth Amboy, is $166,735.07. 
This sum, distributed among the 795 fami- 
lies upon our roll, would give an average 
of $210. The maximum appropriation to 
any one family is $300. 

It is scarcely necessary to say that this 
Board, in common with the other Boards, 
has aimed to practice a judicious economy 
in the expenses of administration ; but only 
those acquainted with the various and 
laborious details of the work, which do not 
appear on the surface, can appreciate its 
necessary cost. Some of the large items of 
expenditure, as will be seen by the detailed 
statement on page 22 of the report, are by 
order of the Assembly, and as to the rest 
the Board has used the greatest care iu 
order that as little as possible may be with- 
held from the direct work of relief to the 
needy families upon our roll. The office 
expenses amounted to $10,834.28, a little 
less than those of the year previous. Our 
entire cash receipts from all sources last year 
amounted to $228,197.71. Less than five 
per cent: of this sum, therefore, was used 
for the expenses of administration, notwith- 
standing the extra expense involved in car- 
rying out the plan for systematic dissemina- 
tion of printed matter which was adopted 
last year at a conference of all the Boards. 

After discussing the condition of the 
treasury during the past year, the report 
concludes with the following: 


On the whole, there is ample cause to be 
of good courage, concerning the future of 
Ministerial Relief in our beloved Church. 
It has lived now for nearly half a century, 
and with a life ever growing in vigor and 
breadth. Its principles have taken deeper 
root with each successive decade. The 
appropriations of the Board are more and 

more clearly regarded not as alms or char- 
ity, but rather as a grateful, though inade- 
quate provision made in simple justice by 
the Church for its worn-out servants and 
their dependent families. 

Our people have already invested more 
than one and a half million dollars, as a 
partial endowment for it, besides their gifts 
yearly for its current work. The call of 
any special emergency meets with quicker 
and larger response from them than ever 
before, notwithstanding the fact that at 
times — -as during the past year — their atten- 
tion has been so held in other directions that 
they have not realized the need soon enough 
to send with the needful promptness their 
willing gifts for its supply. 

Its condition, however, is by no means 
such as to call for less strenuous effort on 
the part of the Board, or indeed on the part 
of any to whom it is dear. We must not 
ignore the inherent tendency of this cause 
— near as it is to the heart and conscience of 
the Church — to fall out of sight unless kept 
before the people by continually renewed per- 
sonal endeavor. Moreover this Board lias 
no such active agencies as those which min- 
ister so largely to the ingathering of funds 
for our large Mission Boards. All the 
more must it depend on the fresh interest 
and energy, year after year, of the agencies 
which it has in common with the other 
smaller Boards. Its chief reliance must be, 
as is that of every other good cause in the 
Church, upon the active interest of the pas- 
tors. The Presbyterial Standing Commit- 
tees ou Ministerial Relief have shown in 
repeated instances what a wide-reaching 
influence for good they can exert; and the 
eldership has proven itself to be a power 
capable of ever-increasing development. 

The Church has fully and finally com- 
mitted itself to this tender and sacred work 
of caring for its worn-out dependent ser- 
vants. It can take no backward step. 

— Missionary fervor must be fed with missionary 
facts. Ideal enthusiasm springs from personal 
knowledge of actual conditions. Men and moneys, 
prayers and petitions will not he oflered for a cause 
when people are ignorant of its claims and its needs. 
Impulse must be preceded by instruction. Let 
Christ's soldiers at home receive regular bulletins 
from the front, telling of their comrades' dangers, 
perplexities and needs, and they will be inspired to 
send forward reinforcements and supplies. — Rev. 
Howard S. Bliss, quoted in (he Michigan Presbyte- 



The question that unceasingly stares our 
Church in the face is: "How shall funds 
adequate to the growing work of our Boards 
be secured ?" Some of these agencies are 
in debt, and all are crippled in their attempts 
to enlarge the aggressive work of the 
Church, because their treasuries are empty. 
Many remedies are suggested, most of them 
valuable in their own way. A well -ar- 
ranged and generally accepted plan of 
systematic beneficence, it is often said, 
would be all-sufficient. Numerous calcula- 
tions are presented that show how beneficent 
and satisfactory would be the result were 
every member of every church to contribute 
every week the pitiful sum of one cent, or 
three cents, or five cents, and so on (viz., 
$494,000, $1,482,000, $2,270,000 respec- 
tively). An adequate distribution of leaf- 
lets spreading abroad the knowledge of the 
work and needs of each Board, or a vastly 
increased circulation of such official organs 
as The Chukchi at Home and Abroad 
and The Assembly Herald ought to be suffi- 
cient to accomplish the desired end. 

Yet success thus far is certainly not com- 
mensurate with the zeal and ingenuity with 
which different plans are devised and new 
machinery to stimulate giving invented. 

We cannot deny that the chariot wheels 
of progress in this matter of giving drag 
heavily. If not discouraging, it is certainly 
suggestive of serious thought to find that 
during the last twenty years, notwithstand- 
ing the large increase in the average wealth 
of the country, and doubtless still larger 
increase in the average incomes of our 
church members, there has been no corre- 
sponding increase in the contributions to 
our Church work. While with the large 
growth of the Church, there has been, of 
course, a large advauce in the aggregate of 
gifts, the amount per capita has not ad- 
vanced, but seems to have slightly fallen off. 
This appears to indicate that the many excel- 
lent plans and devices for systematizing 
beneficence and stimulating contributions 
have accomplished much less than might 
have briii expected. The conferences that 

the present writer held with many represen- 
tatives of presbyteries at the recent General 
Assembly confirmed him in the view he has 
long held that however valuable may be 
perfected machinery and elaborate plans for 
systematizing giving, none of them can be 
effective apart from the old-fashioned simple 
plan of pastors interesting themselves and 
then arousing the interest of their congrega- 
tions in the great missionary work of the 
Church as carried on through the instru- 
mentality of all the Boards. 

Experience proves that nothing can take 
the place of direct personal influence — the 
living man speaking directly to living men. 

Not one of the Boards of the Church, 
excepting those of Home and Foreign Mis- 
sions, receives contributions from one-half 
of the churches upon the Assembly's roll. 

Does it seem probable that more than one- 
half are thus declining to give notwithstand- 
ing the affectionate appeals of pastors who 
are bearing upon their hearts the interest of 
the work committed to these different 
Boards of the Church ? 

Pastors are very busy and very hard- 
working men, and it is not strange that 
they should sometimes leave undone the 
things that they had intended to do; but if 
they appreciated the truth that in this 
matter, if they neglect to intergst their 
people, and provide for them an opportunity 
to give, there is little likelihood that any 
one else will supply the deficiency ; and that 
it is from want of just this cooperation and 
efficient aid that the supplies of the Boards 
are dwindling and their work crippled, there 
would be immediately the dawn of brighter 

Cooperation all along the line, in every 
synod, presbytery and church, would beyond 
a doubt mean an increase of twenty-five 
per cent, in the contributions of all the 
churches that have given in the past, and 
an increase of fifty per cent, in the number 
of contributing churches. 

This result is within the power of the 
pastors of the Presbyterian Church. 

Brethren, grant us this help, which you 
alone can give. 





The following extract from the report of 
the Standing Committee upon Church Erec- 
tion of the recent General Assembly is sug- 
gestive and we trust will be fruitful of re- 
sults in an increased interest in the work of 
the Board. 

The Board of Church Erection occupies a most 
important place in the great work of home missions. 
It seeks to give stability to that work in making 
substantial the achievements of home missionary 
labor. It aims to provide for the individual church 
a local habitation, the rooftree for its spiritual 
family, where love and sympathy and mutual in- 
terests may develop their largest energy and mani- 
fest their most helpful forces. In ordinary life the 
family may exert a real influence, though its mem- 
bers be scattered in boarding houses throughout 
the community, or though living in the shifting 
camp. But its legitimate and telling power can 
only be exercised when from the settled home it 
sends forth its blending currents of individual char- 
acter and life along the channels of far-reaching 
social forces. This end, in its highest spiritual 
forms, this Board is set to attain ; especially among 
the newly formed and feebler churches of our ex- 
tended Presbyterian connection. In multitudes of 
cases its aid determines life or death, growth or 
decay, for the little flock gathered by the faithful 
missionary or the Sunday-school evangelist. 

Our Church has gained most valuable practical 
information from the twenty-six years during which 
this branch of our work has been carried on by the 
Board since the reunion, and the previous twenty 
years in which the two branches of the Church 
wrought in the same field under different names. 
The teachings of experience have gradually extend- 
ed the sphere of the Board's operations and largely 
increased its usefulness, and made necessary greater 
demands upon the liberality of the Church. 

At first the money given by the larger and 
stronger churches was simply gathered into a com- 
mon treasury, and thence carefully meted out to the 
new or feebler congregations to aid them in their 
efforts to provide church edifices. But now it has 
become a vast work — vast not in the amount of 
money which it gathers and uses, but rather in the 
extension of its benefactions and the blessed* in- 
fluences it diffuses. A vast building and loan asso- 
ciation which with a minimum of loan secures a 
maximum of building of churches and manses for 
our great Presbyterian family. Into these homes 

are gathered the ever-mutiplying household of our 
faith, at once assuring the permanency of our advance 
and most beautifully manifesting the reality of 
our spiritual unity. To receive and wisely dis- 
tribute the contributions of the Church, always so 
sadly insufficient in view of the work to be done ; to 
stimulate the zeal and cultivate the liberality of our 
people ; to use the limited resources at their com- 
mand, so as to develop the largest measure of self- 
help among the weak and often discouraged congre- 
gations — these, and the thousand questions and em- 
barrassments arising in their adjustment, demand the 
constant thought and most unremitting toil of the 
Secretary of the Board and his fellow-laborers. 

Your Committee desires to arrest the attention of 
the General Assembly, and through the Assembly 
that of the entire Church, to the utterly inadequate, 
unsatisfactory amount of the contributions to this 
General Fund. During the last year ( omitting other 
sources of income) only $49,831.02 were received 
from the churches and Sabbath-schools, including 
donations of $1275.53 for specified objects. And 
furthermore it is a lamentable fact that, during the 
last five years, there has been a steady decline in 
the contributions to this fund ; each annual report 
shows a smaller amount than that of the preced- 
ing year. 

It is gratifying to learn, however, from the re- 
port of the Board, now in the hands of the Assem- 
bly, that the number of contributing churches has 
somewhat increased in the year just closed. But 
little is gained by such extension if the increase of 
givers means decrease in the average amount of 

Financial depression — the ready excuse for failure 
to respond to the local calls of God's treasury for 
means to carry forward the Master's work — may in 
part explain this discouraging annual decrease in 
the income of the Board. But even this cannot ex- 
plain the unworthy features brought to light by the 
financial statements of the Board that only 3477 out 
of more than double that number of our churches 
have made offerings to this fund. Is it not a serious 
reflection on pastoral fidelity and on presbyterial 
oversight that such a fact should find expression in 
the reports of our Board? Could it be the case if 
presbyterial supervision were indeed a reality? Is 
it not possible for presbyteries and pastors, by 
earnest effort, to awaken something of a Mace- 
donian spirit of liberality, so that from every one of 
our churches there may come, even though out of 
the depths of their poverty, God-honoring riches of 
liberality. If all would bring their tithes into the 
storehouse, though they did not bring all the tithes, 
there would be growing abundance in the Lord's 

Captain Choy, a Chinese prisoner of war 
in Hiroshima, saw Miss Talcott, and said of 

Her face was sunlight, beaming with Christian 
love. She had a mysterious happiness whose deep 
fountain we eould not understand. Our officers 
had not exaggerated her kindness and acts of 
charity, for we had the rare opportunity to share 
them and to appreciate their divine effects. At a 

second visit Miss Talcott gave me a book called 
Jesus and the People, and asked me about our 
progress in Bible reading. She was thoroughly 
interested in us physically and spiritually. By the 
other Chinese prisoners, whom I have since met, 
Miss Talcott was gratefully remembered. No 
amount of preaching could have made such an im- 
pression as her work and example. They had 
been shown a Light of whose divine glory they had 
no former conception. 



Through the report of its Standing Com- 
mittee : 

In coming time the Presbyterian Church 
will wonder that this is but the Thirteenth 
Annual Report of its distinct agency for the 
establishment of colleges and academies. 
The doctrinal system of this Church, its 
highly equipped ministry and its intelligent 
communion roll presuppose a foremost posi- 
tion in educational interests. It would 
therefore be anticipated that at a much ear- 
lier, period a defined and unified system of 
collegiate establishment and nurture would 
have been tried. Had this been done ear- 
lier how much painful history of abortive 
efforts at the establishment of schools and 
colleges need never have been written! Ex- 
perience has repeatedly taught the Church 
that some wise power was needed to curb 
the adventurous schemes of ambitious local- 
ities to plant institutions out of material 
considerations, rather than from a profound 
love for religion or learning. 

The work of this Board is, therefore, not 
merely to carry institutions of learning 
through the period of infancy and want 
until they could stand alone, but equally to 
bar entrance iuto the world of sickly enter- 
prises doomed to an early death, but not so 
early but that they could live long enough 
to afflict the Church with grievous burdens, 
anxieties and even shame. 

This Board was also designed to be a 
broad agency of the Church, free from all 
local bias, whose duty it was to consider the 
wide educational needs of the Church. It 
was set to furnish discriminating advice to 
donors, helpful counsel to founders of 
schools, to relieve of and to prevent debt, and 
altogether to elevate, to unify and foster the 
cause of Christian education in the Presby- 
terian Church. The protection which this 
Board has afforded generous individuals and 
liberal churches against unwise and unnec- 
essary educational ventures has been worth 
many times over all that it has cost. It 
must not be overlooked how great a debt of 
obligation existing institutions owe this 
Board for the help supplied in obtaining 

charters, perfecting titles, securing trusts 
and in countless ways profiting by the wis- 
dom and experience of this trained agency. 

The Church has nowhere made more re- 
munerative investments than in the relatively 
small gifts of this Board which have stimu- 
lated and secured large properties and en- 
dowments for the permanent use of the 
Presbyterian Church. Property to the 
amount of $942,429 has thus far been made 
secure to the Church through this agency. 
The Board's requirement that aided schools 
should insure their buildings has during the 
past year supplied the means for recon- 
structing a building destroyed by fire. 

But buildings are but a means to an end. 
The value of this work assumes large pro- 
portions when it is known that the schools 
under the Board have had an aggregate 
enrollment of near 40,000 students, the 
most of whom have been engaged in system- 
atic Bible study; about half of these stu- 
dents are already communicants, while direct 
and persistent effort is directed to win the re- 
mainder to the faith of our blessed Lord. 
During the past year 150 hopeful conver- 
sions are reported, and 215 of the young 
men are looking toward the Christian min- 
istry. Thirty-four colleges and academies 
were aided during the past year, the larger 
number being in the Mississippi Valley, 
while others are in the East, the South and 
the far West. 

The trying financial times of the three 
years just past have wrought great hardship 
for the devoted professors and teachers in 
these slenderly endowed schools. To none 
of her sons does the Church owe. higher 
praise than to these self-denying teachers, 
whose gifts would entitle them to places in 
older colleges, who yet, for the sake of 
Christ, and the Church, have stood at their 
posts in the face of want and anxiety. 
Such heroic devotion to learning and religion 
on the part of these gifted men is beyond 
all praise. 

The action of the Board in the distribu- 
tion of entrusted funds and in the direction 
of the interests of our schools appears to be 
marked by wisdom, justice and economy. 


It is most gratifying that in spite of the 
trying financial situation in the country for 
all business enterprises, this Board comes 
before the General Assembly without any 
debt to report, and is fully purposed to con- 
tinue this policy in the time to come. The 
Committee need only emphasize the state- 
ment, that if the churches throughout our 
land fully appreciated the magnificent and 
necessary work effected by this Board, 
every congregation would make its offering 
for the next year, and at least double the 
amount contributed this year would be 
placed in the hands of the Board. 

The Committee have taken careful note 
of the plea for a more economical adminis- 
tration of the Boards of the Church, and 
have submitted this agency to rigid scrutiny 
in this particular, with the conclusion 
reached, that if the Board is to do efficient- 
ly those lines of work specifically laid to 
their hands by the General Assembly, it 
could not have done its work on any less 
sum than was expanded. The Board ob- 
tains office rent at a discount, the treasurer 
receives a clerk's salary, while he gives to 
the Board the benefit of a banker's knowl- 
edge and experience in all its invested funds. 
If the percentage of expense of administra- 
tion would be lowered there is no quicker 
way than to place a larger sum in the hands 
of the Board for distribution without addi- 
tional cost. A considerable sum has been 
expended for printed matter, the object of 
which has been to set forth to our people the 
value of Christian education. This superb 
and educative literature has been as seed 

cast into fruitful soil that has already 
brought forth " some thirty, some sixty and 
some an hundredfold." This literature 
has been indispensable to pastors in setting 
forth this cause before their congregations. 
These carefully prepared booklets have per- 
manent, historical value. They have been 
eagerly applied for, not only by pastors, 
but by the representatives of old and estab- 
lished colleges, so that not only have the 
younger institutions profited by this litera- 
ture, but all the colleges and schools of the 

In justice to this work it should be stated 
that the Board should be credited with the 
funds it has been the means of stimulating 
as well as the funds that actually pass 
through its treasury when it allows receipts 
to come directly from the congregations to 
the colleges aided within the bounds of the 
aided schools. The design of this " di- 
rect " method is to bring each institution 
into immediate and close touch with the 
schools in the vicinage and directly under 
the ecclesiastical body by which it is con- 

The Board and its secretary have at both 
pains and cost helped institutions not 
directly receiving aid from this Board to 
obtain large gifts from wealthy donors and 
liberal congregations. In a word, this 
Board aims directly to awaken and culti- 
vate a wide interest in Christian education 
and secure endowments for all our educa- 
tional institutions. 

T. H. Clioland, 

Chair num. 






The Committee to whom has been referred 
the thirty-first annual report of the Board 
of Missions for Freedmen respectfully pre- 
sents to the General Assembly the following 
report : 

We have examined, with as much care as 
the limited time given us permitted, the 
work of the Board, its embarrassments and 
difficulties — the earnest and in the main 

successful efforts to overcome these difficul- 
ties — to guard against future embarrassment, 
and accomplish as much as may be done by 
the means placed in their hands. 

The minutes of the Board have been care- 
fully examined. These show a good attend- 
ance of members at the meetings of the 
Board, deliberate and cautious grappling 
with difficulties, the adopting of such plans 
and prosecuting such measures as are 
most likely to serve the purpose for which 
the Board has been created, namely, the 
enlightenment, instruction, elevation and 
Christianization of the colored race in our 


During the year there has been expended 
by the Board the sum of $150,763.22. 

No. of ministers employed (7 white, 173 

colored) 180 

No. of churches and missions 314 

Added on examination 2,083 

Whole number of communicants 18,7G1 

No. of Sunday-schools 314 

No. of scholars taught in them 19,624 

No. of day schools 75 

Whole number of teachers 230 

No. of pupils in these schools 951 1 

In all its operations the Board has been 
crippled by want of funds, yet there has 
been a steady growth of interest, and with 
increased pecuniary receipts the advance 
would be greatly accelerated. 

The Committee would make special men- 
tion of the judicious and praiseworthy efforts 
of the Board, early in the year, to diminish 
expenses, and guard against increasing 
indebtedness, by curtailing their work, 
where it could be done without injustice and 
positive cruelty. Salaries have been re- 
duced, office expenses diminished, fields 
that opened with promise have been left 
uncultivated, teachers have been dismissed, 
schools disbanded and the general work of 
the Board so conducted that as far as possi- 
ble the necessity of obtaining funds by 
loans has been avoided. 

Those for whom the Board is laboring 
have shown a keen appreciation of the 
efforts made on their behalf, and have nobly 
assisted in the work of the Board. 
To the support of their own 

ministers and churches they 

have contributed during the 

year, $35,577 34 

To their own schools, . . . 32,521 94 

Total, $68,099 28 

A steady increase of their gifts is noticed. 
Out of their poverty they make their gifts. 
Laboring men give from one-fifth to one- 
third- of their scanty wages. No part of 
this sum of upwards of $68,000 has gone 
into the treasury of the Board, yet it has 
greatly aided the Board in its work. 

In addition to these efforts of self-help 
the Freedmen have contributed 1o the 
treasury of the Board the sum of $644.37 ; 
to the other Boards of the Church, $1656. 20. 
All these contributions amount to $71,- 

The Committee gratefully recognize the 
generous aid furnished by the women of the 

Church. The Woman's Executive Com- 
mittee of Home Missions has given for 
Freedmen the generous sum of $43,697. 

Mention should be made of the successful 
effort to raise funds for rebuilding the Mary 
Holmes Seminary, at Jackson, Miss., which 
was burned to the ground last year. 

Also of the generous gift of Mrs. Phineas 
M. Barber, of Philadelphia, of funds suffi- 
cient to build and furnish a boarding school 
sufficient to accommodate 150 girls at An- 
niston, Ala. 

The needs of the Board for the successful 
prosecution of its work in the future are 
very great and urgent. Enlarged gifts are 
required for schools and churches now estab- 
lished. Many more of these ought to be 
planted and maintained. 

During the past year forty-two congrega- 
tions have been without a building in which 
to worship, and which they could call their 
church home. They met in the open fields, 
in the woods, in barns, or wherever they 
could find a place to worship God. 

The report of the Board informs us that 
twenty young men are about to graduate 
from various institutions, after an average 
period of study of fifteen years, all of whom 
should be secured to the ministry of the 
Presbyterian Church; but any or all of 
these may drift into other fields of labor, if 
we fail to employ them. The Board earn- 
estly asks for the means necessary to set 
these men at work, and secure for the col- 
ored race the benefit of their labors. 

Funds are also greatly needed to endow 
and maintain the literary institutions that 
have been already established, and are in 
operation, whose usefulness would be greatly 
increased by adding to their pecuniary re- 

Will not pastors, elders and church- 
members throughout our bounds remember, 
with increased liberality, the class of persons 
for whom this Board is laboring under the 
direction of the General Assembly ? 

May we not hope that the year upon 
which we now enter will witness in a greatly 
increased degree the grateful offerings of our 
Bible-cherishing, Christ-exalting, liberty- 
loving Church, that Ave may help to raise 
the fallen, instruct the ignorant, comfort 
the poor and down-trodden with the pre- 
cious influences of the gospel ? 

Do not Christian philanthropy and patri- 
otism demand that we furnish the means of 



education and Christian training to those 
who, in former times, were without a name 
or standing, in our government, that they 
may enjoy the high privileges and meet the 
solemn responsibilities of citizens in our 
highly favored country ? 

The Committee present to the Assembly, 
for your consideration and, if it be your 
pleasure, adoption, the following recom- 
mendations : 

1. That the minutes of the Board, which 
have been submitted and carefully examined, 
be app roved. 

2. That the Assembly deplores the neces- 
sity for retrenchment, yet commends the 
Board of Missions for Freedmen for its pru- 
dence and wisdom in managing the finances 
of the Board so as to keep as nearly as 
possible its expenses within its income. 

3. That presbyteries be urged to give 
special attention to this important Board, 
and adopt such measures as may augment its 
resources and increase its efficiency. 

4. That pastors and stated supplies are 
urged to instruct their congregations in re- 
gard to this work, and secure, if possible, 
from each church, a liberal contribution to 
the funds of this Board. 

And in view of the lamentable results of 
the enforced retrenchment, in the work of the 
Board, the Assembly recommends that in- 
dividual members and churches confine their 
contributions in behalf of Freedmen to 
the churches, schools and institutions of 
learning connected with the Presbyterian 

5. The Assembly commends to the gener- 
osity of our church members the liberal 
endowment of higher institutions of learn- 
ing for Freedmen, especially Biddle Univer- 
sity, at Charlotte, N. C, an institution 
having thirteen buildings worth $125,000, 
with thirteen professors, and 260 students, 
a plant too large and expensive in the great 
work it is doing to depend entirely on its 
share of the ordinary collections from the 
churches that come annually to the Board. 



About a year ago one of our S. S. mis- 
sionaries in a Western State visited a godless 
community which boasted the unenviable 
distinction of having as one of its inhabitants 
the most profane man in the county. Ac- 
counts of his terrible profanity were often 
quoted from one person to another, as 
among the stock stories of the place. The 
man had a wife and family, and a sad home 
it was. Among the children was a little 
girl then about three and a half years of 
age, who swore like her father. It pleased 
God to bring this man to repentance, and 
in the course of a revival meeting he aston- 
ished his neighbors by asking them, with 
tears streaming down his face, to go on their 
knees and pray for him. The whole family 
were converted, the swearing habit disap- 
peared, and the family altar was raised in 
that home. One day, the parents being 
absent, the question arose who should ' ' say 
grace ' ' at dinner. The older boys held 
back, but the little girl folded her hands 
and invoked the blessing. Not long ago, 
about a year after the change, another S. S. 
missionary visited the town and heard this 

little girl, scarce five years old, repeat 
accurately from memory the whole of the 
" Child's Catechism." 



All went well for a half mile, when the 
traveled road ended in a farmyard. I in- 
quired of a boy. " I guess you can get 
through," he said, with a doubtful accent. 
He kindly went with me to put me on the 
trail. The road was a winter road; that is, 
a road that is excellent when there are three 
or four feet of snow and the thermometer is 
at zero, but in summer impassable by teams. 
This was October. The fire had been in 
the " bush," as the natives call it, and 
burned away the leafy soil, and let the trees 
fall in a tangle, brush and roots and trunks 
mixed promiscuously, and underlaid with 
water, half way to one's knees. Through 
this I trudged with my pack on my back, 
following my guide. At one time my feet 
slipped and I fell on my back, my feet in 
the water and my back on a log. Presently 




we found the trail and the boy left me, 
comforting me before he went by telling me 
how " an old residenter " had lost his way 
in the woods, and had been attacked by a 
bear. It was now growing dark, and but for 
the snow in the woods it would have been 
well-nigh impossible to see the dim trail. 
On I plodded, through slush and water and 
mud, now and then clinging to a fallen tree. 
Then I lost the trail and the darkness grew 
deeper, but I crossed a little pole bridge, 
and got into a swale, through which I 
plunged, the water over my shoe tops, until 
at last I came to an open field, but no houses 
visible. I shouted, a dog answered, and 
looking in the direction of the sound I saw 
a faint light gleaming from a window. Soon 
I entered a log cabin, whitewashed within 
and without, and found the family seated 
round the supper table, and greatly amazed 
were they that I had found my way. In 
the service we held that evening we had a 
delightful time, and sinners took a stand for 
the Lord. 



The work in Nebraska is encouraging. 
An unusual number of our schools have 
been kept up during the winter, and report 
increased interest and attendance. In the 
winter of 1894-5, our missionaries were 
largely occupied in relief work — handling 
boxes, distributing clothing and looking 
after the poor. This year they have turned 
their attention to revival work, and report 
170 conversions, which represent but a small 
part of the work done in their respective 
fields. This is purely mission work — work 
done in most cases in neighborhoods where 
the people had neither pastors, churches 
nor Sabbath-schools, till our missionaries 
went to them. The revival work has been 
done in most cases in company with minis- 
ters of the gospel, who did most of the 
preaching, but the planting of the schools to 
prepare the way and much of the personal 
work was done by the missionary. 

Mr. W. D. Realign, Presbyterial S. S. 
missionary in Niobrara Presbytery, Nebras- 
ka, in reporting a number of Bible institutes 
and normal classes says: " There is an 
increase in both interest and numbers in the 
schools where I have done this work. ' ' 

Still the cry comes up from almost all 
over the field of Sabbath -school missions 
that the great need is that of consecrated 
and intelligent teachers. Hence the im- 
portance of combining revival work and 
normal class work with that of organizing 

The Rev. R. Mayers (colored) thinks 
that the trials and hardships of white mis- 
sionaries in Persia or elsewhere are out- 
numbered by those of the colored S. S. 
missionaries in our Southern States. On 
one occasion, after a walk through drenching 
rain across country, he found that the people 
of the village were rude and inhospitable, 
and he had great difficulty in getting lodg- 
ing for the night. He succeeded, however, 
in organizing a Sabbath-school in the village, 
and it is to be hoped that the next time he 
visits the place he will find friends. 

" I wish here to note," writes Bro. 
Mayers in one of his letters, " that there 
are undoubtedly in this Southland persons 
of color who are an ornament to the race." 
He instances a successful house builder, a 
worker in brick, and a colored lady who, 
he says, is a pattern of neatness and good 
temper, and others. 

The planting of Sabbath-schools in places 
in our country which are destitute of the 
means of grace is the first object of the 
Sabbath-school and Missionary Department 
of our Church. More than a thousand of 
such schools were organized last year, and a 
careful record is kept in Philadelphia of the 
history of each individual school. 

While Presbyterian Sabbath-school Mis- 
sionary Work is distinct from Home Mission 
Work, it contributes greatly to the success 
of Home Missions. Many a dying church 
is revived through this agency, and new 
churches are continually growing from the 
schools thus planted. 

There is great demand for the extension 
of the Sabbath-school and Missionary work 
of the Presbyterian Church among the fron- 
tier States and territories. It carries the 
gospel into places where it is impossible to 
build churches or send home missionaries, 
and through the children it reaches thou- 




sands of adult people who would otherwise 
be beyond Christian influences. 

What children are to the home and 
Sabbath-schools are to the individual church, 
so are Sabbath-school missions to the Church 
at large. They are the. source of growth, 
extension, and development, and the hope 
and promise of the future. 


Mr. G. B. Lane, one of our missionary 
brethren in Wisconsin, writes early this 
year : 

I have (in three months) traveled about 1300 
miles, visited 20 Sabbath-schools and 250 families, 
delivered 60 addresses, given away 2200 pages of 
tracts, 100 books, 20 Bibles, and 15 Testaments. It 
would have cheered your hearts to have been with 
me last Sabbath. A raging storm had filled the 
woods with snow drifts, but we had a grand session. 
The interest in nearly all the schools organized last 
year is well maintained, and this is more than could 
have been expected when we consider the class of 
people. Many are profoundly ignorant of religious 
truth. Much of my work is as truly foreign mis- 
sionary work as though I were in a foreign coun- 


The Rev. J. H. Hobson, synodical mis- 
sionary for California, writes : 

There is a vast amount of ignorance and preju- 
dice regarding religion in every part of this State, 
and nowhere in the world, I believe, is so overrun 
by teachers of every false doctrine. The children 
are raised on skepticism and indifference to every- 
thing religious ; but, thank God, at least a few of 
them are now receiving strength and wisdom.from 
the Word of God in our little mission Sabbath- 
schools. But, oh, how many there are yet to be 
reached I How great a work remains to be done 1 
May God grant your missionaries here a double por- 
tion of spiritual and physical vitality for the year's 
work we have now before us, and may his Spirit be 
poured out upon our people so that they may be 
troubled in heart until the last debt of our Boards 
is cleared away forever. 


This interesting region is almost an un- 
known land to many of us, but the follow- 
ing graphic letter from the Rev. C. K. 

Powell, formerly synodical missionary in 
Colorado, but now transferred to Illinois, 
will throw a great deal of light on the sit- 

Saturday evening, December 7, Mr. Rendon and 
I arrived in Costilla, New Mexico, a plaza just over 
the Colorado line a few miles, after a drive of forty 
miles from Antonito, the last point on the rail- 
road. These plazas are built of the customary 
square adobe houses, all in a row, each man using 
his neighbor's wall for one of his own, the houses 
ranging around a court in the form of a square, 
with openings for exit on two sides, the village well 
being in the centre of the plaza. The doors and 
usually all the windows open on this court. Putting 
up the horse with a friendly Mexican, we hunted 
up a place of meeting for the evening, and in the 
home of the village schoolmaster, a former student 
of our school at Raton, New Mexico, we arranged 
to preach. Mr. Rendon and I visited all the 
families in this and a neighboring plaza across the 
La Costilla river. . At our evening service we had 
mostly Catholics ; the men sitting on boxes and 
chairs and the women on sheep or goat-skin rugs 
on the floor. The singing was good, attention ex- 
cellent, and as a work of preparation for the Sab- 
bath following was highly successful. The next 
day we returned two miles to La Costilla, and had 
Sabbath-school in the afternoon in the mission 
school-house. Forty were present, and Mr. Ren- 
don had to teach the entire school, for as yet these 
people so recently disenthralled from Roman Catho- 
licism cannot in many places teach the Sabbath- 
school lessons. Their dark faces and bright black 
eyes kindled with interest and joy as the truth was 
unfolded to them. I made the application and re- 
view, distributing picture cards to them. All these 
are carefully preserved and put up in the homes, 
and sown in fallow ground. 

In the evening the house was well filled, and in- 
tense interest was manifested by all present, twenty- 
five. Some of them, our Sabbath-school boys and 
girls, agreed to pray for the conversion of the 
saloon-keeper. Whisky and gambling are the 
twin curses unchecked by the Romish Church, that 
are ruining many of this warm-hearted and free- 
handed people. After the meeting I had Mr. Ren- 
don speak for me to a Mexican peasant who said he 
had never before heard the gospel, had never heard 
the Bible read, and had always been told that the 
Protestants used rattlesnakes and a he-goat in their 
incantations, which were as he supposed a necessary 
part of the services. I spoke from Isaiah 1 : 18, and 
this man said to Mr. Rendon: "Tell the minister 
I never before heard such gracious words ; they are 
very good. I would know more. I thank him 
very much, and when I return to my home I will 
tell them it is all a lie abant the Protestants. Their 
ministers are good men- The people, even the 
little children, pray in the homes, and I know the 
Bible is a good book for I read it now." We were 
up until very late answering his questions, sitting 
by a blazing wood fire in the fogon or fireplace. 
I believe he is a saved man. 

Early the next morning we drove up into the 
mountains across in New Mexico ten miles, visiting 
families by the way, distributing tracts and papers, 
and announcing our meeting at Jose Santastaven's 




home in La Costilla Canon. We had a supper of 
parched peas, tortillas and goat's milk and enjoyed 
it very much. By six o'clock the people had gath- 
ered, for in the mountains the goats are put in the 
corrals early and then it is soon very dark. We 
brought candles and Spanish song books with us, 
and soon by the light of the candles and the bright 
wood fire, the men on two sides seated on any ele- 
vation handy and the women on goat-skin rugs or 
the dirt floor wrapped or huddled rather in their 
goat-hair shawls, we were all making the adobe 
walls resound with praise to him who died to make 
us free. I preached from ' ' The Lord is my Shep- 
herd," and the Spirit drove the message home. As 
in all the other places, I told them I would stay up 
and answer questions as long as they pleased to ask 
them. After the formal close of the meeting, the 
women all lit their cigarettes and the men their 
pipes ; then commenced the discussion and questions 
about the Scriptures. This kept me busy for three 
hours more. Their questions are mostly about the 

last things and how Christ can be approached 

They love their children very much, and are 
most effectually reached through them. In this 
meeting there were many children, as was always 
the case. 

After the people who came to the meeting had 
gone, the whole family, twelve of us, Mr. Rendon 
and I, happy and tired, went to sleep in the 
same room, for they use one room for cooking and 
one for eating, living and sleeping purposes. Night 
after night I have remained for three and four 
hours, by the light of the hearth fire only, opening 
up the Scriptures and answering their eager ques- 
tionings. It is all a very blessed work. 

I plead earnestly for men to go under our Board 
to the ranches, mining and lumber camps of this 
vast territory. God is already blessing the force that 
we have here, but how much more could be done if 
we only had the "heralds" to sound his message 
and gather them to his Word. 




The Seventy-seventh Annual Report was 
presented to the General Assembly and re- 
ferred to the Standing Committee on the 
Board of Education, of which Rev. Lapsley 
A. McAfee was chairman. The report 
shows a total number of candidates enrolled 
during the year of a thousand and thirty- 
seven, an increase of six over the previous 
year. The fact that several candidates were 
dropped from the roll on account of unsatis- 
factory deportment, and several on account 
of deficiency as to scholarship, is evidence 
of the determination of the Board to make 
the very wisest possible use of the funds 
committed to its care, and to eliminate from 
its roll with diligent care all who are discov- 
ered to be lacking in genuine piety, or in 
any other essential qualification for useful- 
ness in the ministry. 


The prominence and hopefulness of medi- 
cal missionary work at the present time are 
inclining the hearts of increasing numbers 
of young men to devote their lives to this 
form of Christian activity. It is well 
known, however, that a satisfactory training 
in medicine can only be obtained by great 
toil and at very considerable expense. 

The Board of Education has no funds 
which it can appropriate for any purpose 
except for the training of young men for 
the holy ministry. It has, nevertheless, 
young men under its care in various col- 
leges, who have devoted themselves to 
preaching the gospel in foreign lands. Some 
of these, in the course of their studies, be- 
come interested in medicine, and are dis- 
posed so far to turn aside from their original 
purpose as to become medical missionaries 
in foreign lands rather than preachers of 
the gospel to the heathen. 

The Board of Foreign Missions has had 
no little difficulty in finding suitable men 
for its medical work abroad. This arises 
from the fact that most of the men who offer 
themselves have not received their education 
under the watch and care of the Church, 
have turned their attention to the subject 
late in life, and frequently show that they 
have not a true appreciation of the kind of 
life which a foreign missionary must neces- 
sarily live. It is probably the case, there- 
fore, that the best candidates for the foreign 
medical work of the Church may be found 
among the men under the care of the Board 
of Education who are in the collegiate stage 
of study. It is thought better that the 
candidate should attempt to master one pro- 
fession only, and that he should spend 
his strength in mastering that one thor- 
oughly. Such candidates would necessarily 
become dependent for aid during their med- 





ical course upon other funds than" those at 
the disposal of the Board of Education. 
The suggestion is here made, therefore, to 
friends of foreigu missions that they turn 
their attention to the founding of scholarships 
for the support of students who have devoted 
themselves to medical missionary tvork. 

Great care will be necessary in order that 
such scholarships may be enjoyed by tried 
and trustworthy men ; and probably no 
better plan can be suggested than to c/ive the 
nomination of the beneficiary to the Board of 


The Corresponding Secretary in his ad- 
dress called attention to the unfortunate 
impression made in some quarters that the 
ministerial profession is already overstocked. 
He ascribed this largely to the bad manage- 
ment of the force which has been put at the 
disposal of the Church at the expenditure 
of millions of dollars for the founding and 
endowment of institutions of learning, and 
of many thousands more for the assistance 
of students in their laborious course of 
preparation. This is apparent from the 

fact that a very considerable number of 
ministers are without charge, at a time when 
there are constantly on our rolls about 
eleven hundred pastorless churches, and 
vast fields at home and abroad, destitute of 
the gospel, cry aloud for efficient laborers. 
There is an utter lack of system for the 
settlement and transfer of ministers, and 
for the prompt and economical use of the 
new force of young men graduated each 
year from our theological seminaries. This 
state of things is most disheartening for 
those who are diligently employed in recruit- 
ing men for the ministry. Probably when 
the presbyteries venture to try the experi- 
ment of keeping the supplying of vacant 
pulpits in their own hands they will find at 
least a partial relief of the difficulty. 

It should always be remembered that 
there is a great demand, under any circum- 
stances, in the ministry for men of the right 
type ; men of undoubted piety, free from the 
suspicion of vain ambition, men inured to 
self-denial, eager to go to the front of the 
battle, more ready to give than to receive. 
Our Lord has never countermanded his in- 
junction that we should pray for an increase 




of the ministry. He gave it when his heart 
was moved hy the sight of human misery. 
Circumstances now are such as to enhance 
the necessity of that command. Such a 
view of world-wide want, such a wealth of 
means and opportunities for bringing the 
grace of the gospel to its relief, never met 
human vision before. It is most interesting 
also to observe how evidently God by his 
Holy Spirit is calling the sons of the 
Church into the ministry. On every side, 
in increasing numbers, they are presenting 
themselves in answer to his call, saying, 
" Here am I! Send me." Concerning 
many of these we can entertain no reason- 
able doubt that they are indeed called of 
God, and the Church would be recreant to 
one of its most sacred trusts if it did not 
take measures for their complete equipment 
and for sending them promptly into the field. 


It would give a false impression if we 
were to represent the task of the Board to 
be simply to encourage young men to enter 
the ministry. In truth a large part of its 
work, under the rules made for it by the 
General Assembly, is to make a selection, 
with the aid of the presbyteries, among 
those who ofler themselves, and to eliminate 
from the roll of accepted candidates any 
who, in the course of their education, do 
not give satisfactory evidence of piety, 
scholarly ability, aptitude to teach, and zeal 
for service. Numbers are not of half as 
much importance as quality. 

It ought to be widely known that the 
scholarships of the Board are not indis- 
criminately given, but are reserved for care- 
fully selected men, who are narrowly 
watched through every stage of their educa- 
tional career. It cannot be said that no 
mistakes are made. The watch and care of 
candidates is accomplished by many agents, 
and sometimes these agents are not as care- 
ful as could be wished. There is need un- 
doubtedly of more care, much more care, 
on the part of Committees on Education, 
appointed by presbyteries, and especially on 
the part of the chairmen of these commit- 
tees. If these men will keep themselves in 
close correspondence with the candidates 
whom they recommend, and know the men 
personally, they will be able, in almost every 
case, to prevent the mistakes which unfortu- 
nately sometimes occur. 

There is undoubtedly need of more care, 
much more care, on the part of the profes- 
sors who three times a year certify to the 
high character, scholarship, punctuality, 
economy and rhetorical ability, of the can- 
didates committed to their trust. Some are 
most careful and eminently faithful. Some 
have evidently not risen to a full sense of 
their responsibility, and men are occasion- 
ally favorably reported who, if better 
known, would be reported to the Board as 
not worthy of further encouragement. The 
General Assembly of 1896 very emphati- 
cally asks for this increase of care and 
watchfulness, knowing that one case in which 
aid is given to cm unworthy or unfit candi- 
date may work unspeakable injury to the 
whole cause represented hy the Board of 


The noble stand taken from the beginning 
by the Presbyterian Church in favor of a 
high standard of education for the ministry 
has been maintained in the face of some 
serious obstacles. One of these is a more or 
less prevalent disposition on the part of pres- 
byteries to ordain men who are imperfectly 
prepared. To please a candidate, to gratify 
a congregation, to meet an emergency, to 
avoid giving offense, men of this kind are 
ordained; and sometimes on the plea that 
they may be serviceable in certain districts 
where the people are poor and uncultivated ; 
while the fact is lost sight of that the men 
are admitted to the ministry of the whole 
Church, for service in all the presbyteries ; 
and the further fact that the poor and igno- 
raut need men of cultivation to instruct 
them and to help them to rise; just as the 
degraded heathen need and receive the help 
of the very best talent which the Church 
can furnish. 

Another adverse condition is the admit- 
ting of men to membership in presbyteries 
who come from outside of our Church and 
who have not had the training which we re- 
quire of our own men. This is disheartening 
to those who have loyally taken the long 
course which our rules exact. They feel 
chagrined, at the conclusion of their studies, 
when they see these others admitted to the 
positions for which they have made toilsome 
preparation and often burdened themselves 
with debt. 

These evils are not easily overcome, but 




something may be accomplished by calling 
attention to the unreasonableness of such 
action, the injustice done to our own candi- 
dates, and the peril to which our churches 
themselves may be exposed. 

Still another is found in the differing 
conditions under which scholarships are 
granted to candidates for the ministry. The 
whole influence of the Church, so far as it 
is exerted through the Board of Education, 
is brought to bear upon the candidate to 
induce him to take the full college course. 
It is a happy circumstance that the theological 
seminaries of our Church can show so large 
a proportion of college-bred men among 
their matriculants, a far larger proportion 
than is shown by the best medical and law 
schools of the land. And yet Harvard has 
given notice, if we are correctly informed, 
that beginning with 1901 a pollege degree 
of some sort will be required of all who wish 
to be matriculated in her medical school. 
Would it be too great a step forward for our 
seminaries to take if they should require of 
all who wish their diplomas, and the aid of 
their scholarships, that they have a college 
diploma as a condition of matriculation, or 
else pass an examination sufficiently strict to 
show that they have had a fair equivalent ? 
By such a measure they would be able to 
cooperate more powerfully than ever with the 

Board towards the maintenance of a high 
standard in the ministry. 

One other adverse condition may be 
mentioned. It is the want of sufficient 
financial support. It seems little less than 
sinful to refuse scholarships to poor and 
pious candidates who have volunteered their 
services, as far as can be learned, in answer 
to the call of God himself in response to the 
earnest prayers of his people. But greatly 
enlarged contributions are imperatively 
required, or refusal will be necessary. To 
whom can we look more confidently than to 
the chairman of Education Committees to 
raise the money that is needed ? Will they 
not exert themselves to secure from the 
churches of their presbyteries the full share 
which each should give according to careful 
calculation ? 

The address of Mr. McAfee, chairman 
of the Assembly's Committee on Educa- 
tion, was most effective. It received atten- 
tive consideration. It generously shielded 
the Board from the blame of the failures 
which sometimes occur in the prosecution 
of its work, and most warmly claimed 
for it the confidence and support of the 
Church. The recommendations presented 
by his committee were unanimously and 
cordially adopted. 

Young People's 
Christian Endeavor. 

The General Assembly of 1896, after hearing the 
report of the Special Committee on Young People's 
Societies, and frank discussion of it, adopted the 
following resolution : 

" Resolved, That the General Assembly in session 
at Saratoga Springs recognizes the fidelity and 
earnestness with which its Committee upon Young 
People's Societies has performed its assigned duties. 
That it reaffirms the deliverances of former Assem- 
blies wherein confidence has been expressed in these 
societies and encouragement given to their work ; 
that it exhorts them not only to increased loyalty 
and devotion to the pastors and sessions to which 
they are subordinate, but to careful study of the 
doctrine and polity of the Presbyterian Church ; 
that it urgently recommends them as far as practi- 
cable to make the appointed Boards of the Church 
the channels of their beneficence, and to maintain 
steadfastly their adherence to Presbyterianism in 
harmony with the principles and practices of inter- 
denominational fellowship." 

In here recording this action of our General As- 
sembly, we take occasion to recall to our readers' 

recollection the course which TnE Church at 
Home and Abroad has pursued with reference to 
this important subject. 

The earliest editorial mention of the Young 
People's Society of Christian Endeavor which we 
find in our pages is in the November number, 1890, 
page 391. In that we said : 

A feature of this movement which especially 
commends it to thoughtful and experienced Chris- 
tians is its loyalty to the Church as now existing in 
the denominational organizations which evangelical 
Christians have found convenient for Christian 
liberty of thought and action in true catholicity of 
spirit. Each local society of Christian Endeavor is 
in as close connection with the congregation of 
which it is a part as the Sabbath-school of the same 
congregation. This loyalty to the Church, as a 
vital element in the society, works out in natural 
forms in the different denominations, adapted in 
each to its denominational environment. 

At a much earlier date, in the second issue of this 
magazine, February, 1887, page 103, speaking of 
Young People's Societies, we said : 

There is no need of rigid uniformity in these or- 
ganizations. The style and form are less important 




than the informing spirit. Let the spirit of mutual 
help in Christian work stir and move in a congre- 
gation, and let each pastor help it to such form as 
suits the local conditions. Only let not our Church 
fail to understand and utilize among its youth the 
power of working organization. 


The view thus expressed in our first reference to 
Young People's Societies, we have found no occa- 
sion to change. We have continued to believe in 
liberty and hospitality for all modes and styles of 
organization, freely chosen by the youth of any 
congregation on the advice or with the approval of 
the pastor and elders of that congregation. We 
have not accorded any exclusive claim to the Soci- 
eties of Christian Endeavor, although we have re- 
garded theirs as a felicitous name. We have kept 
at the head of our columns for young people, not 
"Society of Christian Endeavor," but "Christian 
Endeavor," and have recognized all as Christian 
endeavorers who are endeavoring to be true Chris- 
tians and to do faithful Christian work, whether 
they choose to give that name to their organization 
or not — exactly as we recognize as Christians those 
who show themselves such, and not those only who 
have taken " Christian" for their denominational 


We are glad that our General Assembly respects 
and conserves the liberty of its pastors, sessions and 
congregations and their young people, and that the 
young people have shown themselves so well worthy 
of such liberty by correlative loyalty to their pastors 
and their Church. 

When we early saw this form of association of 
young people so rapidly extending, we were not 
wholly free from fear that the consciousness of 
numbers vast and rapidly increasing might beget 
pride and insubordination, and that liberty might 
degenerate into disloyalty and disorder. 

Thankfully now do we testify that no such per- 
version yet appears. We hope in God that none 
ever will. 

No one person surely is better qualified to speak 
for the " Christian Endeavor Societies" of Chris- 
tendom than he whom the young people have so 
lovingly nicknamed " Father Endeavor" Clark, 
the founder of the first society that took that name, 
and who presides at all their great national conven- 

dr. clark's statement. 

The most recent statement which we have seen 
from him is in the last number of the Homiletic 
Review, from which we gladly make the following 
extracts : 

The same reason which actuated the formation of 

the first society in Williston Church, in the city of 
Portland, on the 2d of February, 1881, actuated 
the formation of the latest society, the forty-six 
thousandth, or whatever the exact number may 
be, on this day of grace when these words are 

The object of that first society was to be a direct 
aid and feeder to Williston Church. It was formed 
by a pastor to help him in his work. Its purpose, 
directly and simply expressed in the constitution, 
was to band the young people together for their 
mutual acquaintance, and ' ' to make them more 
useful in the service of God." 

Its religious design was explicitly stated. The 
Christian Endeavor Society put faith in the young 
people. It recognized their deep seriousness of 
purpose. It took the young man, when converted, 
at his word, and believed that he desired to do 
nothing so much as to serve his Master. It put 
stress of emphasis upon the prayer meeting rather 
than upon the social gathering ; upon a consecration 
service rather than upon a debating society ; upon 
actual work to be done in winning others rather 
than upon a "Pink Tea," or a " .Russian Tea," 
with a piece of lemon in the saucer. 

There was, to be sure, in this first society, as in 
every one founded since, a Social Committee ; but 
its purpose, too, was a distinctly religious one. It 
was to be "social to save." The Lookout Com- 
mittee and the Prayer Meeting Committee, the 
Visiting Committee and the Belief Committee, the 
Missionary Committee, and the rest of the list, were 
unmistakably religious in their purpose and de- 

But this distinctive aim of the society was par- 
ticularly emphasized by the prayer meeting pledge. 
No form of magic is claimed for the pledge. It is 
not an obligation that will keep itself or that in- 
sures necessarily a vigorous young people's society; 
but it has this supreme value, that it puts the empha- 
sis where it belongs. It teaches the members every 
week to ' ' covet earnestly the best gifts. ' ' It de- 
mands of them that they should disregard their 
moods and their whims and set apart a definite and 
particular portion of their time, for the definite and 
particular service of God. In other words, it sets 
the seal of religious duty upon the Christian En- 
deavor movement, and anchors it fast, so that it 
may not drift with every passing current of fashion 
or whim. Many and many have been the practical 
illustrations which have come to me during these 
fifteen years of the value of this Magna Charta of 
Christian Endeavor [Societies]. 

It has developed the heroism of the young people 
connected with this society as nothing else has done. 
It has made the timid brave. It has conquered an 
unworthy timidity, and if it has made no martyrs, 
it has certainly developed a multitude of confessors, 
a multitude that is now numbered by millions rather 
than by thousands. 

This strenuous quality of obligation has given the 
society its popularity with the young people them- 
selves. Its appeal to the heroic has met with an 
immediate response, and I am very confident that 
this idea has given a staying power to the organiza- 
tion which it never could have had otherwise. 

The consecration meeting is but an expansion of 
the prayer meeting idea. It provides for an hour 
every month, when every name is called and the 
allegiance of each young disciple is once more 




sealed. It also provides a way of distinguishing 
between the faithful and the unfaithful, and a way 
of weeding the society from its unworthy members, 
who are dropped after three consecutive and unex- 
cused absences from this monthly service. 

Our readers will recognize the entire harmony of 
the foregoing with the following additional action 
of the General Assembly : 




This Assembly recognizes as under the jurisdic- 
tion of the Church all young people's religious or- 
ganizations of every name which are to be found 
within its churches or composed of the members of 
its churches. The variety in the forms of these 
organizations cannot affect the substantial relation 
which they all alike sustain to the Church in her 
organized capacity. That relation is, in one sense 
at least, the relation of a child to its mother, and 
involves thereby mutual obligations. The Church 
in her courts owes it to her young people to take 
account of their aspirations and activities, and to 
provide proper media for the exercise of these ; and 
the young people, on their part, as members of the 
Church, have a duty of recognizing fully her spir- 
itual authority, implying, as this does, her right to 
advise with them, and to direct their movements. 
It is this authority which unites together all Pres- 
byterian churches into one common body ; and it 
must reach to all of its organizations. Such being 
the case, the Assembly deems it unnecessary to 
prescribe any specific form of organization for indi- 
vidual young people's societies, while it expects 
them to conform to certain acknowledged princi- 
ples, both general and particular, as follows : 

In general, these societies are to be organized and 
to work in conformity with the historic position of 
the Church as expressed in her standards and inter- 
preted by her courts. This historic position of the 
Church needs to be emphasized to-day with refer- 
ence to 

(a) The reverence due to the word of God as the infallible 
rule of faith and practice. The Church cannot counte- 
nance as teachers of her young people any men in whom 
she could not repose confidence as teachers of her older 
people. » 

(ft) The honor due to the Holy Spirit in the development of 
the Christian life, and the emphasis to be placed, under 
his divine tuition, on the spiritual rather than the 

(c) The primary authority and inclusive scope of the vows 
assumed by our members when they unite with the 

(d) The chief means for growth in grace and in the knowl- 
edge of Christ for our young people, as for our older 
people, are the divinely appointed ordinances of the 
sanctuary, including prayer, praise, and the reading and 
preaching of the word, and the administration of the 
sacraments, under the direction of the ordained min- 

(e) The separation of the Church in its organic capacities 
from all political creeds and all methods of political 
action. Our young people's societies may not be utilized 
for the advancement of any political project, however 
apparently laudable. The Church inculcates upon her 
members the loyal discharge of their responsibilities as 
citizens ; but, in political matters, leaves it to the in- 
dividual conscience to determine as to political parties 
and candidates and platforms. 

The particular relations of all our young people's 
societies to the Church are sustained, in the first in- 
stance, to the session of a particular church, and 
thence, through the session, to the Church at large. 
Each such society is under the immediate direction, 
control, and oversight of the session of that church 
in which it is formed, and that oversight is not 
merely general, but applies to 

(a) The constitution of the society, which the session must 
be careful to see is framed in accordance with the general 
principles named hereinbefore, and the received usages 
of the Presbyterian Church. 

(ft) The schedule of its services, including the time of meet- 
ing, the course of topics, and the general leadership, in 
order that such services may form an integral part of the 
work and worship of the Church. 

(c) The election of its officers to this extent, that each society 
shall submit for the approval of the session the list of 
those whom it has chosen, lest unsuitable persons should 
be placed in positions of influence. 

(V) The distribution of its funds, that the regular benevolent 
work of the Church, under the care of our boards, be not 
allowed to suffer through indiscriminate contributions 
to miscellaneous objects, which appeal to individual 

1. The foregoing Statement of Relations was 
adopted by the Assembly as defining the relation of 
young people's societies to the Church, in accord- 
ance with our Constitution, and as setting forth the 
sense in which the Church expects her young people 
to be loyal. 

2. The plan for Preshyterial Unions, adopted 
by the General Assembly of 1893, was reaffirmed 
and adopted by this Assembly for the guidance of 
our presbyteries. 

3. This Statement of Relations was sent down 
by the Assembly to the presbyteries under its care, 
with instructions that it be read as soon as possible 
in every young people's society, under the jurisdic- 
tion of each presbytery ; and that along with this 
statement the following questions to the presbytery 
be proposed, the answer to which shall be for- 
warded to the Stated Clerk of the Assembly not 
later than January 1, 1897. 

(1) How many young people's religious organizations are 

under your care? 
2) With which churches are they connected? 
Z) What are the forms and names of these organizations? 
i) How far are these organizations in accord with the 
accompanying Statement OF Relations? 
(5) Have you a presbyterial organization of young people? 
(C) If so, what is its plan ? 



Such was the motto which stood in large white 
letters upon a dark ground of green leaves on the 
wall of Talcott Hall during the recent commence- 
ment exercises of the Tripoli Girls' School. Many 
were the references to that motto, and frequent the 
exhortations to the dignity of true Christian ser- 
vice in the essays of the graduates, in the address of 
Dr. Ford and in the sermons on the Sabbath. 

Five more have been added to the number of 
those who have gone forth from this school into 
homes with a higher ideal of living and a more 
noble ambition than they had, and we trust they 
have received into their hearts the good seed which 
shall spring up and bear fruit unto eternal life. 
We trust the ' ' commencement' ' may be a real be- 
ginning of earnest service for Christ in their 




Earents' homes, and later in the homes to which 
rod may lead them. We care not so much for the 
Intellectual stimulus they have received as for the 
spiritual knowledge acquired, and the experience of 
Christian life and training and association with 
earnest, consecrated lives in their teachers, which 
will form and guide all their future life. It is a 
splendid thing to give one's life to the training of 
the girls who are soon to control the homes of Syria 
and to shape the views and principles of the coming 
generation of men. A rich blessing rests upon those 
ladies who have given years of service to make such 
a school, and the same is in store for those who 
shall carry forward the work in the future. 

The first of the public exercises was on Friday 
evening, April 24. The Hall was filled by a bril- 
liant assembly of Tripoli's best people. The bright 
lamps made the decorations glisten and sparkle 
while the bright faces of the girls were a most 
attractive sight. The five graduates read essays 
and all listened with undivided interest to the 
address by Rev. Dr. Ford of Sidon. Arabic and 
English singing furnished a pleasing variety to the 
exercises, and none found the two hours a minute 
too long. 

On Sunday we were edified by two excellent ser- 
mons from Dr. Samuel Jessup and Dr. Ford — the 
latter in the evening especially for the graduates. 
On Monday were the final exercises, in which the 
younger pupils also had a share, giving songs and 
recitations in Arabic and English to the entertain- 
ment of a large audience of parents and friends. 
The lisping lips of very small children made rather 
amusing work with some English words, but this 
only added a new charm for those who understood 
the language and was immaterial to those who did 
not. The whole service of public exercises passed 
without a hitch or jar, and every one expressed an 
evidently sincere appreciation and pleasure. Never 
before has the Tripoli Girls' School been in such 
good condition, and never has it done better credit 
to those who labor in its service. 


The young people of the State of Iowa are pro- 
viding a library for the new battle ship Iowa. 

The Presbyterian Endeavorers of Delphos, Ohio, 
thirty-five in number, gave last year $88 for mis- 
sions. But they have a growing missionary library. 
" Faith cometh by hearing." 

The Junior Endeavor Society in Hollond Memo- 
rial Church, Philadelphia, of which the Rev. J. 
R. Miller, D.D., is one of the pastors, recently 
decided to attend church every Sunday morning in 
a body. 

Two Scotch students, who are preparing at Balti- 
more for foreign mission work, have been given the 
use of two furnished rooms by the Christian En- 
deavor Society of the Presbyterian Church of the 
Covenant, Baltimore. These rooms were especially 
fitted up by the Endeavorers, and will be used by 
the young men as long as they remain in the city. 

The Endeavor Society in the Third Presbyterian 
Church, Chicago, has organized its entire member- 
ship into a Sunday-school Committee. Every En- 
deavorer is expected to be either a teacher or the 
member of a class in the Sunday-school. The 
society has thus developed into an efficient corps of 
assistants for the superintendent. — Christian En- 

* * 

Although most of the members of the Calvary 

Presbyterian Society in Buffalo, N. Y., earn their 

own living, they nevertheless have given more 

than one thousand dollars to missions during the 

past year, have seen a large number of associate 

members unite with the church, and have one 

of their members preparing to go to China as a 

missionary. — /. T. S. in The Golden Rule. 

* * 


A card bearing the following acrostic accom- 
panied an invitation to a social in Woodstock, 
Ontario : 

We need You. 
We need your Prayers. 
We need your Sympathy. 
We need your Counsel. 
We need your Earnest work. 

The Senior Society is one of the latest enlarge- 
ments in Christian Endeavor. It is composed of 
older Christians and graduates from the Young 
People's Society. The pledge of the Senior Society 
is made applicable to the mid-week prayer meeting. 
The society holds no meetings of its own, and its 
purpose is wholly to strengthen the mid-week 
services, and to retain the interest of the older 
Christians in active church work. 

The Christian Endeavorers of the Melville Pres- 
byterian Church, Montreal, Can., are in the habit 
of sending bundles of good literature to a country 
minister, who uses them in his itinerant preaching. 
At one town the papers aroused so much interest 
that the people were led to come to the services 
again and again. Now the interest in religious 
things has become so marked that a small church 
has been erected in the town, and the people hope 
to engage a pastor for themselves. 

* * 


A Christian Endeavorer in the West, who is a 
railroad conductor, has placed in his train a paper 
rack which he keeps supplied with religious liter- 
ature. These papers have afforded him an oppor- 
tunity for personal work with passengers. Fellow- 
workmen and a number of passengers, including 
several traveling salesmen, have been led into the 
better life. All but one of the members of the 
crew on this train are Christians, and among them 
is a male quartette. While the train is waiting for 
orders at stations the men have gospel song services, 
which many persons gather to hear. 

* * 


At Colorado Springs some Endeavorers went to 
the circus and took the gospel with them. Seeing 
that no effort was being made for the spiritual 
welfare of the men connected with the circus, 
some two hundred Endeavorers gathered with a 


gospel wagon at the circus grounds after the close 
of the church services one Sunday. The meeting, 
which was large and spiritual, resulted in some 
thirty persons expressing the desire to lead the 
better life. All the New Testaments in town were 
purchased by the Endeavorers the next morning 
and distributed among the men, who received them 

Here is a hint for the press committee. The 
rector of a parish in a Connecticut town tells in St. 
Andrew's Gross how he secured all the advantages 
of a parish paper with but little of its worry and 
expense. He rented a column of the local weekly 
newspaper, at a fixed price per year, and filled it each 
week with notices and articles regarding the local 
church and Christian work in general. He found 
the plan cheaper than a parish paper ; there was 
no work of getting advertisements or mailing 
papers ; it appeared weekly instead of monthly ; 
it reached not only the members of the congrega- 
tion, but nearly every one in the village. 

The missionary prayer meeting held on May 22, 
by the Endeavor Society in Oxford Presbyterian 
Church, Philadelphia, was of unusual interest. 
Those taking part were members of a class which 
has been studying India from a missionary point of 
view during the past winter. Papers were read 
showing careful study and more than a mere surface 
knowledge of the subject on "The Common Life of 
the Teople," and "Missionary Work, Past arid 
Present." Then Miss H. A. Savage, who has been 
for seven years in the Christian Girls' School at 
Dehra, India, gave an interesting talk about the 
actual experiences of missionary life. This Endea- 
vor Society in the Oxford Church gave last year four 
hundred dollars for missions, but eight hundred has 
been fixed as the minimum for the coming year. 
The Oxford Journal, in which we find these facts, is 
published monthly by this Society, and is a model 
of its kind. 


The Rev. J. Clement French, D.D., pastor of 
Park Presbyterian Church, Newark, N. J., believes 
it possible to lift a Christian Endeavor Society to 
the plane of enthusiasm for missions. These are 
some of his suggestions, as given in the Golden 
Rule : 

Place on the committee only those who are thor- 
oughly penetrated with the Spirit of Christ and his 
last command, and charge them to give the subject 
of missions a place of first importance among the 
meetings of the Society. Whatever the interval, 
let the meetings be regular. 

Select the leaders of these meetings with reference 
to their knowledge of the subject, tact in manage- 
ment, and enthusiasm. Charge them to avoid gen- 
eralities, to choose a particular country or field and 
concentrate all thought upon it, to assign special 
departments to thoughtful members to be presented 
vividly and briefly. Stimulate those thus assigned 
topics to condense information, select interesting facts 
and features, and state them from memory as if they 
believed them. 

Have maps and charts of the country under con- 
sideration in plain view. Point out missionary sta- 
tions and routes. Describe the geography of the 

country with animation. Emphasize cities or towns 
in which memorable events have occurred. Put 
life into every statement or description. 

Let the committee be always on the alert for the 
very best speakers. If these can be in costume and 
with curias, all the better. What the Society 
wants is facts, figures, scenes, pictures, photographs 
of the countries, making all things real, impressive, 
intense. Let the aim be, in every missionary 
meeting, to avoid prolixity and dullness. 

Let there be systematic education upon missions. 
Secure a regular contribution from each member. 
Let the pastor be filled with the missionary spirit, 
and pour a warm heart into the work of the Society. 

Dr. Clark, the founder of the C. E. organization, 
interprets "And the Church" in the motto of the 
Society as meaning each Endeavorer's own congre- 
gation, and the body to which it belongs. He 
recognizes that it is only by narrowing the sluice 
that the stream gains power. The Endeavorerthat 
does most for the cause, and most, therefore, for 
Christ in the great battle of Christ's people with 
evil and the great quest of Christ for souls, is the 
one who "stands in his lot" stoutly in his own 
church as a foremost duty. As Professor Marcus 
Dods said recently, speaking to Free Church En- 
deavorers : " There is room in our Church for the 
best endeavor ; yes, and for the greatest capacity. 
One of the strongest influences which we feel to-day, 
which comes to us from the pre-Christian times, 
proceeded from a few small states, each of them 
having only a few thousands of a population, and 
when any youth in one of these small states felt that 
it was too small for him, and proposed to go and add 
his fortunes to some greater country, this was said 
to him, ' Sparta is your lot ; adorn Sparta. Do your 
best for Sparta.' So we may say to all young Free 
Churchmen : ' The Free Church is your lot ; adorn 
the Free Church ; do your best for the Free 
Church.' " — Canada Presbyterian. 

A real Christlike service contravenes those false 
ideas, which we so often cherish as true, of personal 
development and advancement. How often culture 
is selfish, and the desire for it a selfish passion. 
Large claims are made upon us continually for 
benevolent work, such as teaching the ignorant, 
guiding the weak, and persuading the wanderer 
back to the paths of virtue. Put some say, " I 
cannot engage in this work ; it is too exacting. I 
need the time for myself. I must rest. I must read. 
I must care for myself or I shall fail of that mental 
growth which I ought to attain. I cannot afford to 
give the one day in the week when there is respite 
from business cares to the service of others, and so 
neglect myself." But is it not plain that culture 
secured at the expense of Christlikeness is not the 
culture you most need, and that it is too dear at such 
a price? The end of life is not merely knowledge, 
power and possession, but character, manhood, and 
indeed character is these — knowledge, possession 
and power — in highest form. The faithful mis- 
sionary, the self-sacrificing Sunday-school teacher, 
the man or woman who is never too busy to give 
thought and time and money and toil for the com- 
fort and encouragement and the'salvation of others, 




is winning a richer culture and ripening a nobler 
character than is possible to the selfish soul, how- 
ever great may be his learning or his art. Let us 
get knowledge with all eagerness ; but if we seek it 
at the expense of that which is higher, we are re- 
buked even by the pagan Confucius who said : 
" Knowledge is to know all men ; benevolence is to 
love all men." — From Momm's The Religion of 


To utter the prayer, " Thy kingdom come. Thy 
will be done, as in heaven, so on earth," means 
that we are committed to that faith, that aspira- 
tion, that hope and that endeavor which have their 
end and fulfillment in the redemption of the world. 
It means that we are set to the task of living the 
individual life of trust and obedience and love. It 
means that we are seeking knowledge and power 
and grace for the service of our fellow-men. It 
means that we are practicing in all our business and 
pleasure the principles of the gospel of Christ. It 
means that we are helping those about us to a true 
knowledge of God and a life in the Spirit. It 
means that we are consecrating the commonest in- 
dustries with a loving temper. It means that we 
are resisting the sharp competitions and corroding 
jealousies and destructive selfishness, which still so 
widely and hurtfully pervade the life of men. It 
means that we are living in the thought of our rela- 
tions to humanity, and in our aspirations, our long- 
ings, our sufferings and our prayers, are carrying 
with us the need and sorrows and sin of the whole 
world. It means that by word and deed, by desire 
and purpose, we are .seeking in ourselves, in our 
homes, in society and in the world, the fulfillment 
of our prayer — the ever more perfect reign of love, 
and thus the realization of the kingdom of God. 
— From Moxom's The Religion of Hope. 


It is estimated that there are 10,000 Chinese 
living in New York and adjacent places. Of these 
500 are in Sunday-schools, and 200 are professed 
Christians. The Chinese mission and school of 
the University-place Church, under the care of the 
Presbyterian Board of Foreign Missions, is in 
charge of the Rev. Huie Kin. A day school is 
kept up, which has had this year an enrollment of 
fifty-one. Five different services are held Sunday 
afternoon and evening. A Chinese Missionary So- 
ciety has supported a native preacher in China ; 
helped educate a Christian Chinaman who is to re- 
turn to his country as a medical missionary, and is 
now pledged to support a second native preacher. 
Mr. Huie is now on his way from China, bringing 
with him twenty or more Chinese boys whose parents 
have urged him to take them to America that they 
may receive a Christian education in his school. 
The friends of the mission are deeply interested, 
and are preparing a home where these young 
foreigners will find a safe and healthful abode 
under Christian influences. — The Evangelist 


Granted that the wheelman must be treated 
simply as a more expeditious pedestrian moving on 
his own locomotive apparatus, and that wherever 

and whenever it is right to walk it is right to wheel, 
still he remains a Christian, and is under all the 
restraints and obligations which would apply to 
him as such. So obvious is this that many of the 
associations have adopted stringent rules against 
Sunday meets. While they have left their mem- 
bers free to ride or not as individuals, they have 
done what they could to keep clear of Sunday 
meets and pleasure parties. 

The church and its services on the Lord's day 
are precisely what they always have been. The 
Christian duty of maintaining the religious char- 
acter of the day remains the same. It has always 
cost something in the way of sacrifice to maintain 
a Christian Sunday, and it always will cost some- 
thing in the way of sacrifice to do it. The day is 
worth to the church, to the world, and to those 
who are faithful to it, all the sacrifice that it costs. 
When the believer has made these sacrifices and done 
what he can to keep the day on this ground, the 
bicycle problem will for him fade out of view. — 
The Independent. 


"They axe enemies to Young People's Societies 
who make duties to the society a substitute for 
duties tu the church." 

Glory in Christian Endeavor if you will, but glory 
more in the Christ who is t lie life of ( 'hristian Endea- 
vor. — The Aetive Member. 

'" -x- 
Bishop Fitzgerald estimates that through the 
efforts of the Epwdrth League, 100,000 persons were 
added to the Methodist Episcopal Church last 


$ -:■:■ 

A man should never be ashamed to own he lias 
been in the wrong, which is but Baying, in other 
words, that lie is wiser to-day than he was yester- 
day. — Pope. 

Shall Washington's Birthday be observed in the 
United States as ('hristian Citizenship day? The 
proposition is cordially approved by prominent 
Christian Endeavorers in all parts of the land. 

" Rejoicing Meetings" is what the Christian En- 
deavor Society in Peking, China, calls the socials. 
The Rev. C. H. Feiin. one of our missionaries, gives 
in the Golden Ride a description of such a gather- 

The Christian Endeavor movement is a demon- 
stration, and the first one in the history of the 
Church, says the Interior, that the Body of Christ 
may be denominational and yet not sectarian, that 
we may he of varieties many, and yet visibly to the 
world a unit of Christians. 

Francis Xavicr, who attempted in 1552 to estab- 
lish a mission in China, and was opposed by the 
exclusiveness and self-sufficiency of the Chinese, ex- 
claimed: "O, rock, rock, when wilt thou open to 
my master ?" This oft-quoted saying suggested the 
title of a brief article on page 34. 

Let every Endeavor Society become auxiliary to 
its denominational missionary hoard. Let it stim- 
ulate in every possible way the missionary zeal ami 
generosity of its members, Let it supply them 




with missionary information, and make its mission- 
ary meetings the most interesting of every month. 
— F. E. Clark; V.I). 

In a sermon on Christian manhood in the Pulpit 

Herald and Altruistic Review, Dr. J. II. George says : 
In order to reach the highest development of man- 
hood in its full-orbed beauty and perfection, it is 
necessary: 1. To have a just conception of man's 
position, power and purpose. 2. To till that posi- 
tion, maintain that power, and carry out that pur- 

A young woman who had been an active Chris- 
tian Endeavorer for two years was stricken with 
fever and died. During the last days of her illness, 
when too weak to bold her Bible, she asked her 
mother to hold the book for her so that she could 
read a portion from it each day. " For," said she, 
"I wish to be faithful to my pledge to the very end 
of my life." 

The Presbyterian Christian Endeavor Manual 
mentions a Police Society of Christian Endeavor in 
New York. Its emblem is a picture of a police- 
man's helmet, bearing the Christian Endeavor 
monogram, and below it a policeman's mace and a 
pair of handcuffs. "Clubbed together in a Chris- 
tian endeavor to free Policemen from the shackles 
of Sin," is the interpretation of the emblem. 

The prayers of all Endeavorers are asked for the 
Lone Star Christian Endeavor Society, recently or- 
ganized in Guatemala City, Central America, in the 
face of innumerable difficulties and discourag- 
ments. This little band meets every Tuesday at 
10 a.m. The request comes from a correspondent 
in Ontario, who writes that the Society was or- 
ganized by Mrs. Fitch, the mother of our missionary 
Mrs. W. F. Gates. 

The Rev. J. II. Bomberger, president of the Ohio 
Christian Endeavor Union, believes that the direct 
results of the great annual, conventions are: To 

divert vacation money from summer idling places 
to centres of religious activity and spiritual impulse; 
to place the stamp of consecration upon vacation 
days ; to kindle ardor and devotion to the Master 
which will manifest their presence in more liberal 
and intelligent giving during the remainder of the 
year to the different lines ofChristian work. 

To he "contented" is to be contained in one's 
own sphere, to recognize God's limitations for us 
in the field of work and influence which lie assigns 
tons. To lie "satisfied" is to be so full that we 
want nothing more. It is our duty to be consent- 
ed wherever weare. Itis not our duty to be satisfied 
with any present attainment. Weoiight always to 
be reaching forward and upward for more things 
and better, in whatever sphere of life to which God 
has appointed us. The true child of God is con- 
tented now, and he shall be satisfied by and by.— Sun- 
day-school Times. 

In the Westminster Teacher we find the following 
paragraph, called by its author "My Symphony:" 
To live content with small means ; to seek elegance 
rather than luxury, and refinement rather than 
fashion; to be worthy, not respectable; and 
wealthy, not rich ; to study hard, think quietly, 
and act frankly; to listen to stars and birds, to 
babes and sages, with open heart; to bear all cheer- 
fully, do all bravely, await occasions, hurry never 
—in a word, to let the spiritual, unbidden and un- 
conscious, grow up through the common. This is 
to be my symphony. 

Writing in the Pacific Coast Endeavorer of how En- 
deavorers can best reach the masses, Mr. Seymour 
W. Congdon says: "Christianity means more 
than self-culture and spiritual refinement, it means 
service to humanity, and only in proportion as the 
individual Christian or any organization of Chris- 
tians recognizes and adopts this rule of service, can 
the individual or organization hope to come into 
a helpful relationship with the masses, who, while 
not accepting Christ as their Master, yet judge hu- 
man character by no less a standard than the 
highest the world has known. 
* ... * 

Miss Margaret W. Leitch relates that she once 
asked an active and successful young business man, 
a leader in Christian Endeavor work, how many 
missionary books he had ever read. He answered, 
"I do not think I have ever read one. I don't have 
much time for reading." " You read some I sup- 
pose. How much do you read?" she asked. The 
young man replied: "I read usually one and 
sometimes two daily papers, five or six weekly 
papers, and five or six monthly magazines." Are 
there not many Endeavorers, continues Miss Leitch, 
who, like this young man, have time to inform 
themselves on almost every other subject excepting 
that which relates to the progress of the kingdom 
of God on this earth? 



Russians, as a race, says a writer in the Contem- 
porary Review, are inclined to be procrastinating, 
unpunctual, forgetful, idle, and, in a word, unbusi- 
nesslike. On the other hand, they are one of the 
gentlest and most inoffensive of people, in addition 
to which there is a natural and deep-seated earnest- 
ness, piety and devotion of character, devoid of 
cynical fickleness, militant aggressiveness, or namby- 
pamby Mrs. Grundyism. 


Samuel J. Barrows, writing in The New World, 
says there is a tendency to revive in the soul of the 
criminal and the delinquent the notion of right, of 
duty and of justice. More reliance is being placed 
upon moral than upon physical force for the refor- 
mation of the prisoner. The predominant appeal 
is to hope rather than to fear. Probationary laws 
for first offenders, and indeterminate sentences are 
coming into general acceptance. The underlying 
thought now is "an ounce of prevention is worth a 
pound of cure." 

Armenia's pitiable plight. 

Though one of the fairest lands under the sun, 
and inhabited by a hardy, industrious, faithful and 
frugal people, Armenia is to-day the home of 
banditti and cut-throats. From the southern shores 
of the Euxine to the ancient Ararat, and from the 
snow-capped mountains which feed the Euphrates 
and the Tigris and the Aras, to that undulating 
sweep toward western Asia which the Armenian 
calls his native land, the besom of fanaticism has 
swept within the past few years more than 50,000 
men, women and children to the. most agonizing 
death ; crowded the mountain fastnesses and caves 
with fugitives, and left in the villages and cities 
only fragments of what was once a proud and inde- 
pendent nation. — Dr. M. 31. Mangasarian in the 





Dr. Emil Reich, writing in the Nineteenth Cen- 
tury, of "Hungary at the close of her first millen- 
nium," says: " The United States will dearly pay, as 
they are paying already, for the absence of stimu- 
lating neighbors. Never menaced, never chal- 
lenged, they will inevitably Chinafy. Hungary is 
called to a role of immense importance in the whole 
east of Europe, just because it is threatened, attacked 
and jeopardized ; just because political and commer- 
cial interests are clashing there in the southeast 
corner of Europe with all the violence of untried 
youth. Too powerful to be incorporated by Slav 
might, too cultured and rich to sink to the level of 
the civilization of minor Danubian kingdoms, 
Hungary will, in course of time, solve the problem 
of the southeast of Europe, as England has solved 
that of the northwest. 


If we are going to do large, intelligent work, the 
prime condition is the possession of an intellect 
trained and stocked in the same general and com- 
prehensive way. College training is simply the 
process of intellectually getting ready ; not getting 
ready for this, that or the other specific mental ser- 
vice, but simply getting ready — planting down a 
broad foundation of preliminary big enough to sup- 
port any breadth or height of superstructure that 
there may be need or opportunity to put upon it. 
The college course and the requisite preparatory 
training costs about seven years of the best and 
most possible periods of a man's life. But if a 
young man hopes to do a large, solid work in the 
world, a work of which intelligence of a broad kind 
is to play any considerable part, and there is no an- 
tecedent obstacle in the way, he makes an irreversi- 
ble mistake if he considers seven years too much to 
pay for a liberal education. — C. H. Parkhurst, 
D.D., in Ladies' Home Journal. 


^ In his article in the June Atlantic Monthly, Mr. 
Francis A. Walker advocates the use of radical 
measures to restrict immigration. It is a question, 
he says, of protecting the American rate of* wages, 
the American standard of living, and the quality of 
American citizenship from degradation through the 
tumultuous access of vast throngs of ignorant and 
brutalized peasantry from the countries of eastern 
and southern Europe. He believes that all the 
good the United States could do by offering indis- 
criminate hospitality to a few millions more of 
European peasants would not compensate for any 
permanent injury done to our republic. Our high- 
est duty to charity and to humanity is to make this 
great experiment here, of free laws and educated 
labor, the most triumphant success that can pos- 
sibly be attained. In this way we shall do far more 
for Europe than by allowing its city slums and its 
vast stagnant reservoirs of degraded peasantry to be 
drained off upon our soil. 


Turkish girls" of the better class in the cities, 
after they are too old to attend the primary schools, 
are largely educated at home by governesses, many 
of whom come from England and France, but, un- 
fortunately, do not usually represent the highest 

culture of those nations, so that real love of study is 
not as a rule developed under their influence. 
Turkish women have a great aptitude for foreign 
languages, and those we meet on the steamers of the 
Bosphorus often speak French, and it is not un- 
usual for them to speak German and English also. 
It is a well-known fact that many Turkish women 
are engaged in trade, some even carrying on an ex- 
tensive business involving frequent journeys to 
Egypt and other places, which presupposes the 
ability to read and write, as well as some knowledge 
of arithmetic. Moreover, conversation with the 
Mussulman women in the capital reveals some prog- 
ress at the present time in independence of thought, 
and, while social conditions have unavoidably ar- 
rested the development of Turkish women as a 
class, forces are slowly but surely working among 
them that will result in their final emancipation. — 
Mary Mills Patrick in the Forum. 


Any government capable of annually assimilating 
half a million foreigners, many of whom have come 
from the dregs of European countries, should in the 
course of a few years digest two hundred and sixty 
thousand Indians. What prevents? We answer, 
Methods ; nothing but methods. Use the Indian 
method of isolation and segregation with the immi- 
grant, and the American nation will be destroyed in 
a decade. Use the immigrant method of distribu- 
tion, association and opportunity with the Indian, 
and a decade need not pass until they become a real 
part of our country's life blood. The door of edu- 
cation has never been closed to the Indian. The 
whole 40,000 or 50,000 Indian youth may now, if 
they will, distribute themselves among the schools 
of the country. If all the Indian youth of the 
country were distributed among the schools of the 
country there would not be an Indian for each six 
schools. The process would accomplish the civili- 
zation of the Indian a hundred times faster than 
government or mission schools or both, for the 
reason that he is trained by daily contact with the 
very conditions and individuals that later, as a 
man, he will have to compete with. We do the 
Indian no kindness by holding him away from this 
competition, for it is this very experience that is to 
develop him. Without it we shall never accom- 
plish the emancipation of the Indian. — IiuthShajf- 
ner in the Chaulauquan for June. 


Each Chinaman's character is a product of the 
combined influence of Confucianism, Taoism and 
Buddhism. There is no one in China whose char- 
acter can be said to be the pure outcome of any one 
of the three, and what is true of the individual is 
also true of the civilization as a whole — it is the 
product of the triune religion. There is nothing 
anomalous about Chinese civilization. It has ad- 
vanced or remained stationary according to definite 
laws and forces inherent within itself. When we 
hear of bribery and corruption amongst those in au- 
thority, let us not say that we have simply a case of 
arrested development. Deep and real causes have 
brought this about. Civilizations are produced ac- 
cording to as definite and exact laws as any phe- 
nomena in the physical world. The ca*-e of China 
illustrates a general rule. What Jesus Christ did 
was to supply the world with a motive power to the 




moral principles which it possessed. He pro- 
claimed the world a universal brotherhood, and 
created in the hearts of his followers the enthusiasm 
of humanity. Here we see the missingfactor in China: 
there is no motive power behind its ethical prin- 
ciples. Confucius felt this when he enunciated the 
Golden Rule, for the words immediately following 
are : "This I am not able to do," and the defect to 
which this confession points has existed all through 
the centuries down to the present time. The 
Chinese have been able to discover the great prin- 
ciples of morality latent in the human conscience 
as well as any nation ; but the motive power which 
has inspired mankind with altruistic enthusiasm, 
and has imparted to men the power to act out ethi- 
cal principles, has yet to be felt in China. When 
felt it will shatter into pieces the forces of oppression 
and tyranny, emancipate the people, and get the 
nation to move on with the advancing march of 
civilization. — Rev. J. Lambert Rees in the Chinese 


The following article from a Baptist weekly pub- 
lished in Chicago, though written with special 
reference to another denomination, contains sug- 
gestions which are worthy of the careful attention 
of our young people. 

Missionary problems are to be settled, not by 
sentiment, but by the exercise of common sense. 
One of the questions of the day is, how to increase 
missionary revenues ; and specific giving is pro- 
posed in some quarters as the solution. Especially 
in foreign missions is this true ; there is a natural 
desire to know where one's money goes ; and the 
imagination is assisted if one is assured that his 
contribution is not to be split up into many parts 
and sent all over the world, but is to be devoted to 
the support of some certain native preacher or the 
furnishing of a particular church or school build- 
ing. It is pleasant for a church to be in direct 
communication with a missionary, to receive photo- 
graphs and letters written by grateful natives ; and 
there is no doubt the gifts of some are thereby in- 

But there is another side to the question. Specific 
donations in many cases embarrass the missionary 
secretaries. They are unable to preserve a uniform 
scale of appropriations ; some fields chosen for special 
donations receive more than their proportionate 
share, while others more needy are passed by. In- 
deed, the church that insists on giving its money to 
a particular field, even though it accepts a field 
assigned by the secretary on request, seems to show 
a lack of confidence in the system under which our 
missions are directed, and in the discretion of the 
officers who administer it. That the giver is wholly 
unconscious of this aspect of his action does not 
alter the fact. Men who give their whole time to 
superintending missionary expenditure, whose 
economy is trained in the hard school of missionary 
poverty so that they weigh each dollar, are surely 
to be trusted to employ the funds the best way. 

Specific giving has also its drawbacks from the 
missionary's point of view. These are strongly pre- 
sented in the Baptist Missionary Review, published 
in Madras, by Dr. Downie, of Nellore. Churches 
which adopt this plan expect frequent letters from 
the fields to which they contribute, not realizing 

how heavy a burden of correspondence they thus 
impose on men whose every minute is precious. 
These letters they exact as a right rather than 
accept as a favor. As Dr. Downie says, it is some- 
times more like a trade, letters for money, than 
genuine benevolence. Specific gifts for native 
helpers sometimes make them harder to deal with 
than when they are dependent on the general 
appropriations. But Dr. Downie's chief point is, 
that churches which feel that they can give in no 
other way than to a definite and well-known object 
are stunting their Christian development. They 
fail to understand the grand scope of true mis- 
sionary giving, by which the individual reaches 
the ends of the earth. They descend from a world 
campaign to a village skirmish, from an obedience 
to Christ's command to a sentimental generosity 
that is far from ideal. 

Our own Board (Baptist) now assigns specific 
fields to churches when so requested, but the money 
goes into the general treasury, and the field is 
neither better off nor worse off than before. The 
missionary is, however, requested to communicate 
with the contributing church and thus "keep up 
the interest." Thus some of the evils above-men- 
tioned are avoided, but the last named remains. If 
the churches would subscribe more generally to the 
missionary periodicals and read them, there would 
be no need of personal letters to keep up their 
interest in missions. — The Standard. 


The General Assembly, at its meeting in Saratoga 
Springs, taking action upon TrrE Chubcfi at 
Home and Abroad, unanimously adopted the 
following recommendation: "That the Assembly 
approve the Christian Training Course in Bible 
Study, Presbyterian History and Doctrine, and 
allied topics, and commend it to the favorable 
consideration of pastors and instructors of the 

Outline A, for the year 1895-96, was published 
in our issue for October, 1895. It consisted of the 
following general topics : Biblical, Doctrine and 
Life, Topics from the Shorter Catechism ; Histor- 
ical, Church History ; Missionary, General Sur- 
vey of Mission Fields. 

Dr. James S. Dennis spoke of it in this lan- 
guage : "The three courses of study are outlined 
with care and discrimination, and with fullness of 
detail, which greatly facilitate their use. There 
is a variety and point to the suggestions which are 
calculated to give a healthy stimulus to the subject. 
The whole conception is timely and just in the line 
of what our young people need to lead them into 
the pleasant and fascinating paths of Biblical, 
missionary and historical study." 

The Christian Training Course has received com- 
mendation from the religious press and from pastors 
who have led their young people in similar lines 
of study. Commissioners on the floor of the As- 
sembly gave it their hearty approval. 

Attention is called to the fact that the Free 
Church of Scotland several years ago took action 
similar to that of our Assembly, when it appointed 
a permanent Committee on the Welfare of Youth. 
This committee announced the following syllabus 
for 1895-1896: Biblicax, Bible History from 
Joseph to the Death of Moses ; Doctrinal, The 




Shorter Catechism, Questions 1 to 19 ; Essays, 
Life and Times of Samuel Rutherford ; Ad- 
vanced Studies, Apologetical, The Truth of 
the Christian Religion. 

The Presbyterian Church of England also has its 
Committee on the Instruction of Youth, which pre- 
scribed for the past year Biblical, historical, doctri- 
nal and ethical subjects. A member of this committee 
writes as follows : " To provide instruction for the 
head, even in Bible knowledge, without seeking the 
change and training of the heart, is to substitute 
morality for the gospel. To aim at and even to 
procure conversion, without, at the same time, pro- 
viding a wide and solid basis of instruction, is to 

cultivate a stunted or capricious type of Christianity. 
The wise policy is to promote both lines of effort 
with equal thoroughness." 

As already announced, Outline B, for the second 
year, will consist of the following : Biblical, The 
Character of Christ ; Historical, Development of 
the Missionary Idea; Missionary, Modern Mission- 
ary Heroes. We expect to publish this Outline in 
full in the August issue, and to give suggestions in 
detail for the first month's study, in September. 

For further information consult the June num- 
ber, pages 519, 520, or write, enclosing a stamp, to 
The Library of the Board of Foreign Missions, 156 
Fifth Avenue, New York. 

Gleanings At Home and Abroad. 

— Fifty years ago the Church Missionary Society 
had 116 ordained missionaries ; to-day it has 365. 

— "The trial of going," says a missionary from 
India, " was nothing to the trial of coming home." 

— " Find a way, or make one," was the motto of 
the young Indians of the class of 1896 at Hampton 

— Wealth and numbers are not conclusive proof 
of the vital force of a religious organization. — Re- 
vieiu of Reviews. 

— Bishop Copleston says of Theosophy in Ceylon 
that it is "virtually an anti-Christian mission from 
the skepticism of the West. ' ' 

— The strong argument for the truth of Christian- 
ity is the true Christian ; the man filled with the 
Spirit of Christ. — Christlieb. 

— A Buddhist youth in Ceylon, describing the 
blessing Christianity had brought him, said : 
"Praise God, I received a new main-spring." 

— "I have come to see," wrote George J. Ro- 
manes, " that cleverness, success, attainment, count 
for little ; that character is the important factor in 

— King Khama, on his return to Bechuanaland, 
gave lectures to his black subjects on his tour in 
Great Britain, illustrating with magic lantern pic- 

— The Chinese Recorder estimates the number of 
Protestant communicants in China at 70,000. 
There are probably two or three times as many ad- 

— In 1897 the thirteen hundredth anniversary of 
Augustine's landing in Kent, with his forty mis- 
sionaries for the evangelization of Britain, will be 

— Let every man be occupied in the highest em- 
ployment of which his nature is capable, and die 
with the consciousness that he has done his best. — 
Sidney Smith. 

— There are said to be eleven Japanese evangel- 
ists laboring among ten thousand of their country- 
men who are engaged on the sugar plantations of 
the Hawaiian Islands. 

— One hundred and thirty-seven Student Volun- 
teers in India have made this solemn declaration : 
" It is my purpose, if God permit, to devote my life 
to direct work for Christ." 

— The English Presbyterian Synod will meet next 
year in Sunderland, and celebrate the jubilee of its 
China Mission in the town in which William Burns 
was set apart to this work in 1847. 

— " When Christianity is received," wrote James 
McCosh, " it stimulates the faculties, and calls forth 
new ideas, new motives, and new sentiments. It 
has been the mother of all modern education." 

— The Rhenish Mission in the Island of Sumatra 
is meeting with great success. Recently there were 
6000 candidates for baptism in the Batlak tribe, 
of whom 1000 were converts from Mohammed- 

— " The Church needs not new truth or new weap- 
ons, but greater spiritual power in the use of the old 
methods," urged Dr. J. H. Wilson, retiring Mod- 
erator of the Assembly of the Free Church of 


— A poor peddler near Foochow, who heard and 
receired the truth, went round the villages where 
he had been well known for years and told of the 
Saviour he had discovered. As a result of his tes- 
timony one hundred families placed themselves 
under Christian instruction. 

— In February, 1895, the Chinese Admiral Ting, 
after the surrender of his flag-ship at Wei-hai-wei, 
committed suicide. This year, on the anniversary 
of the Admiral's death, his widow killed herself as 
a fitting testimony of respect for his memory. Her 
devotion is highly approved in China. — The Path- 

— "Everything I have is in this book," said a 
Christian Sioux, when asked why he kept his Bible 
always beside him. " I like it near me, for I want 
to look in now and then. Words from it do me 
good. I was in the night a long time ; but the sun 
has risen, and now I am in the light and so I keep 
the book near me." 

— Mrs. F. Swensson Parker, a missionary in Fin- 
land, testifies to the high standard of education that 




prevails in that land. The knowledge of several 
languages is a common possession of the people. 
That the gospel message may be accepted, it is ab- 
solutely necessary that the preachers should be 
trained, educated men. 

— Those who go out to engage in any medical 
work should have the fullest tpialifications. A 
woman who would be a missionary needs all the re- 
sources of a well-filled mind, a trained intellect, a 
love-filled heart, a Spirit-baptized life — all temper- 
ed with and regulated by that blessed commodity — 
common sense. — Miss Sinclair. 

— For miles around Efulen the people have 
ceased to believe in witches, and three witch doc- 
tors have given up their calling gracefully and gone 
to work building bark houses. It was only in the 
summer of 1892 that Dr. Good, making his prelim- 
inary exploration, struck the first blow at witch- 
craft in Efulen. — Woman's Work for Woman. 

— In the Marathi Mission an intelligent Hindu, 
after listening to an address on the great God whose 
power and wisdom and goodness are seen in all his 
works, and the folly of worshiping lifeless idols, 
replied with much solemnity : "Sir, we know these 
things as well as you do. But what can we do? 
Our families are against us, village life is against 
us, and our hands are tied !" 

— Mr. Coillard, of the Zambesi Mission, relates 
that when he arrived on the Zambesi the king offer- 
ed him a tumbler of honey-beer, which he refused. 
It was then offered to a trader, who drank it. The 
king asked why the missionary did not drink it, 
and when he explained, the king said : " Yes, it is 
bad," and made a law that no beer should be drunk 
and no brandy should be made. 

— The spirit of missions is the spirit of sympathy, 
of self-denial and of service, which is only another 
way of saying that it is the Spirit of Christ. The 
Church must have the spirit of missions if it would 
be his Church. The Church, which is his body, 
must be a living organism, not a withered, lifeless 
trunk. It can maintain its life only by seeking to 
extend it into the lifeless world. — T. C. Smith, D.D., 
in Herald and Presbyter. 

— The Rev. Dr. Scott, after a long life of service 
as a Christian missionary in India, reviews in the 
Baptist Missionary Herald the present condition of 
that country. In his opinion the outlook was never 
so favorable as now, for these reasons : Caste is 
breaking down ; the poor are coming up ; the peo- 
ple are broadening out ; Christ is honored more ; 
Christian missions are succeeding ; the native church 
is taking hold ; all feel it is worth the effort. 

— A British official in the East testifies that the 
Christian education of the children of converts in 
China produces greater intelligence and a higher 
moral tone than the Chinese non-Christian educa- 
tion. The consequence is that Christian Chinese 
are now obtaining a success in life far greater than 
the non-Christians of the same class. There is 
hardly a high official in the empire who has not 
one or two Christians in his employ as confidential 

— The foreign mission report adopted by the 
General Assembly of the Southern Presbyterian 
Church contained the following paragraph : " The 

best solution of all the urgent problems and diffi- 
culties of Christian missions is in securing a minis- 
try in the home field, a pastorate in our churches, 
as thoroughly quickened and animated by the spirit 
of missions as are the Christian men and women 
who are themselves permitted to serve Christ in the 
foreign field." 

— Our missionary contributions are giving us an 
ownership in old Earth that makes her most distant 
lands dearer than the homestead of our childhood. 
What a literature is open to our study ! Facts before 
which fiction pales ; truths behind which romance 
must hide herself. Read faithfully the best of our 
missionary periodicals, with their heroic history of 
our day, and you will feel that you have trod the 
borderland of heaven and listened to angel choirs. 
— Helping Hand. 

— Dr. Joseph H. Senner, United States Commis- 
sioner of Immigration, writes in the North American 
Review: "I have come to the conclusion that the 
final solution of the immigration problem is not to 
be found in the application to immigrants of any 
additional test of eligibility, but in a wise distribu- 
tion of the desirable immigrants among the locali- 
ties where they are especially needed and their em- 
ployment in the kinds of work for which they are 
peculiarly fitted." 

— The Hall of Science in London, headquarters 
of the Secular Society, of which the late Charles 
Brad laugh was the moving spirit, was recently oll- 
ered to the Rev. Hugh Price Hughes for mission 
purposes. The offer was not accepted, says the 
Christian Advocate, and now the Salvation Army has 
taken the building, and will open it as a shelter and 
home for women. The surrender of the building is 
regarded as an indication of the utter collapse of 
the Secular Society. 

— One dollar at compound interest, well invested, 
at the end of a century will be worth a thousand 
dollars; at the end of two centuries will be worth a 
million dollars; at the end of three centuries will be 
worth a billion dollars. If man can make so much 
out of invested funds how much can God make? 
How much do you suppose the dollar you give to 
Christ will be worth two or three centuries after 
this, when you behold its glorious fruit in the mil- 
lennial age? — Christian Alliance. 

— Two noted physicians, Doctors Chalnette and 
Fraser, have demonstrated that antivenene is effica- 
cious as an antidote to snake-poison in India. But 
an obstacle has arisen against its use, says the Inde- 
pendent. The natives think this is some new and 
diabolical species of magic, and their religious prej- 
udices are roused into hostility; and as a Hindu will 
die rather than go counter to his religion, there is 
still much work for intellectual enlightenment before 
modern discoveries can be fully utilized. 

— At the anniversary exercises of Yale Divinity 
School in May, the member of the graduating class 
who aroused the most enthusiasm in the audience 
was a colored man from Massachusetts, a graduate 
of Boston University. His subject was "The 
Preacher as a Social Reformer," and the vigor and 
good sense of his presentation of the needs of his 
race would have been appreciated by those who im- 
agine that colored people are not the peers of their 
white brethren. — The Independent. 



— The Right Honorable Joseph Chamberlain is 
reported in the Review of Reviews as believing in the 
capacity of wise government to smooth the way for 
misfortune and poverty. " We are told that this 
country is the paradise of the rich. It should 
be our duty to see that it does not become the pur- 
gatory of the poor. The community, as a whole, 
cooperating for the benefit of all, may do something 
to make the life of all its citizens, especially the 
poorest of them, somewhat better, nobler, greater, 

— A missionary physician in Palestine was asked 
to prescribe for a Turkish lady who was very ill and 
suffering great pain. He writes : " I was not allow- 
ed to see her face at all, for she was closely veiled. 
When asked to put out her tongue, she protruded the 
tip of it only through the folds of her shawl, care- 
fully concealing even her lips and teeth. She gave 
me her hand in the same way. I asked her several 
questions, but she greatly resented this, and thought 
me very inquisitive. She would not answer direct- 
ly, but spoke through her husband who was pres- 

— Mr. Kriiger, of the Paris Missionary Society, 
after a visit at Sheik Othman, where Dr. Miller and 
Dr. Young, the successors of Keith Falconer, carry 
on his mission among the Arabs, writes with en- 
thusiasm of these two men, who under a burning 
sun, in a desolate and fever-stricken country and 
with little appearance of success to cheer them, 
work steadily on in faitli and prayer. "However 
little show it may make in the eyes of men," he 
says, ' ' Sheik Othman is a post of distinction amongst 
the strongholds of attack which Christendom lias 
reared amidst the heathen world." 

— The ancient Waldensian Church is not leaving 
itself without representatives in the foreign mission- 
ary field. From the churches in Piedmont two 
men have gone to the Zambesi and one to Lessonto. 
The Waldensian work in southern Italy is also 
bearing missionary fruit. From Girgenti, one of 
the most intolerant towns of Sicily, there has just 
gone the first evangelical missionary from Italy to 
China. As a sign of the general progress of the 
Waldensians, it may be noted that their theological 
school at Florence has 155 students, 106 of them 
coming from the Piedmontese valley. — Bombay 

— All comparisons of Christianity with other re- 
ligions of the world bring into clearer relief its uni- 
que and absolutely supreme character. Dr. Marcus 
Dods, after noticing the sacred books of China and 
India and Arabia, as well as the Egyptian "Book 
of the Dead," says : " Our Bible, by revealing to 
us the union of God and man in Christ, is set al- 
together apart from all other sacred books. I 
heartily endorse the words of Professor Monier 
Williams, when he says, ' Pile them, if you will, 
on the left side of your study table, but place your 
own Holy Bible on the right side, all by itself, all 
alone — and with a wide gap between.' " 

— " Do you have any real satisfaction in your re- 
ligion, any true peace that possesses your life?" 
asked a missionary in the Marathi Mission of a 
well-educated Brahman. "No," was the reply, 
"there is no such thing as peace in our religion. 
Your religion has this excellence above ours." 


" But the fact that there is no peace in your religion 
while there is in Christianity throws doubt on your 
religion, does it not? Why don't you become a 
Christian?" "No," he answered, "I long for 
that peace, but how can I get it ? I was born in my 
religion. My religion is for me. You were born 
in your religion. Your religion is for you. My 
ancestors gave me this religion, and how can I 

—The Rev. J. Hudson Taylor believes that the 
most important result of missionary work in China 
is the altered condition of mind of the masses towards 
Protestant missionaries, which is largely due to the 
circulation of Christian literature all over the coun- 
try by localized and itinerant missionary effort. 
Twenty years ago even the most friendly paid little 
heed to what was said, their minds being occupied 
with the question, " What can be the object of this 
man ? What he says seems all right, but why does 
he come here? He is making no money ; he must 
be an agent of his government, a spy, or have some 
underhand aim that we can't make out." Now 
they pay attention to the message, and beg itinerant 
missionaries to remain longer, or to return. 

—There is too much proxy benevolence. It is the 
fashion to subscribe more or less to a good object, 
and let others do the ministering work. Some 
think their responsibility for missions is met when 
they have put a substitute in the field. The pre- 
valent idea seems to be that one is free to enjoy life, 
or to make money, after he has duly contributed to 
the relief of the poor, to the evangelization of the 
masses, or to the extension of Christianity. But 
Christ calls for a personal service. It is all right to 
employ others when we have done all within our 
power for God and humanity, but no amount of 
giving can exempt one from rendering his individ- 
ual share in working for God's cause and for hu- 
man welfare, according to the divine appointment. 
— The Presbyterian. 

— "The wise missionary in Ceylon," says Bishop 
Copleston, "does not attempt to refute what is 
found in the Pali books, but sets before his hearers 
one of those truths to whicli the human conscience, 
if it can be aroused to entertain it, everywhere re- 
sponds, and then he urges, ' Is not this true ? but 
is it taught in your religion? Abandon, then, a re- 
ligion which fails to teach you these things, and ac- 
cept the religion in which these are found.' On 
the way in which this conclusion is stated and en- 
forced, on the distinction between a refutation and 
an invitation, on the distinction between recom- 
mending a system and exhibiting a living God, 
turns all the difference between the good missionary 
and the bad, between the hireling and the true re- 
presentative of the Good Shepherd." 

— A recent letter from Bengal, in the Church 
Missionary Intelligencer, contains these sentences : 
With all the arrangement you are proposing for 
new methods and organization remember this, that 
as one thousand is to one, so is the importance of 
vivifying existing organizations compared with the 
importance of new or increased machinery. We 
have enough organization in Bengal now to work 
wonders if from highest to lowest it all throbbed 
with power from on high. A definite and humble 
consideration of our spiritual forces should precede 




all movements towards multiplication of machinery. 
We are working with infinitely less of the divine 
than we might possess. What the mission field 
needs is God — to be impelled, led and energized by 
a power which is outside and more than man. 

— A shipment of Arabic Bibles has been received 
at Rio de Janeiro. Mr. Tucker writes in the 
Bible Society Rrcord : " Some of the Arabs in Brazil 
come from parts of the world where there are Prot- 
estant missions, for many of them already have 
some knowledge of the Bible. Most of them appear 
to be peddlers about the streets. Some of them fre- 
quent the churches, a few of them having become 
members of the Presbyterian churches in Rio, San 
Paulo and elsewhere. Our colporteurs find them 
almost everywhere, and have no difficulty in sell- 
ing the Scriptures to them. Two young men, Arab 
merchants in Porto Allegro, one of whom was edu- 
cated in Robert College, have been waiting some 
months for the books which they want to sell to 
their fellow-countrymen in the State of Rio Grande 
do Sul." 

— The rise of the Babi faith in Persia is in large 
measure due to the spread of the gospel : the best of 
their doctrines are borrowed from it, and they 
openly reverence our Holy Scriptures and profess to 
reject any opinion which they may hold, when once 
proved contrary to the Bible. It is computed that 
at least 800, 000 persons in the country now hold 
Babi doctrines. The rise and spread of such a 
faith, one which is most friendly to the Christian 
and in deadly hostility to the Mohammedan reli- 
gion, is in itself a clear indication that the people of 
Persia are already in large measure wearied with 
Islam and anxious for a higher, a more holy, a 
more spiritual faith. Almost all through the coun- 
try the Babis are most friendly to Christians. They 
call themselves our brethren, and profess to see 
little or no difference between themselves and us. — 
The Rev. W. St. Clair Tisdall, in Church Missionary 

— The Standard speaks as follows of a recently 
published volume, " The Gospel of Buddha Accord- 
ing to the Old Records," by Paul Carus : The au- 
thor's idea was good — to present the material from 
the sacred books of Buddhism itself with regard to 
the life and teachings of Buddha. These selections 
preserve the quaint style of the original, and have a 
flavor which is attractive, nay, fascinating. But 
while the author's idea was good, his execution of 
it is thoroughly unscientific, and the result is a per- 
version of right knowledge. What would we think 
of a biography of Christ and an exposition of Chris- 
tianity made up of selections from the New Testa- 
ment canonical books, intermixed with passages 
from the New Testament apocryphal literature and 
the legendary narratives of the Middle Ages, and 
all arranged on no system of chronological order ? 
This is precisely what is produced in this book for 
Buddhism. The only useful purpose it can serve is 
to stimulate an interest in the original records which 
will lead to further investigations that will prove 
corrective. As it is, most people will get from the 
book a thoroughly wrong notion of the facts. 

— Dr. Miller, Moderator of the Assembly of the 
Free Church of Scotland, is a missionary in south- 
ern India. Before he left Madras a meeting was 
held for the purpose of bidding him good-by. On 

this occasion, as we learn from the Free Church 
Monthly, Mr. Andrew, of Chingleput, spoke as fol- 
lows : "Dr. Miller has toiled for thirty-four years 
as few have toiled in developing the higher Chris- 
tian education, and in building up that magnificent 
college of which he is the mainstay. Not only has 
he given his time and his thought to this, but much 
of his fortune. The spectacle of a man who is en- 
dowed with an ample fortune, and who might be 
enjoying luxurious repose in hisown beloved native 
land, in the West, living and toiling in a land with 
a burning sun, with the one object of blessing the 
youths of another religion, and of making them 
good and upright and noble, is an extraordinary 
one. Many have said : ' Had I his fortune I 
would not live a day in this wretched climate.' 
What others would not do he does. His work of 
pure benevolence is one of the agencies which will 
eventually revolutionize the thought and customs 
of India. His life has been an object lesson of dis- 
interested service, tenacity of purpose, inflexible up- 
rightness, unswerving courage of conviction — just 
those elements which go to make a real moral and 
spiritual influence over others." 

— Dr. Wright has issued in tract form an ac- 
count of the entrance of the Bible into the Island 
Empire, in the days when to be a Christian was a 
crime punishable by death ; and its translation and 
circulation in the happier recent years of tolera- 
tion. The floating English New Testament in the 
harbor of Nagasaki, in 1854 — four years before any 
port in Japan was open to foreign ships or com- 
merce — and its subsequent history, have often been 
cited as a wonderful example of how the word is 
not bound. The New Testament came into the 
hands of a Japanese general, who was at Nagasaki 
to prevent a dreaded British landing. He was told 
it was the Christians' sacred book. His curiosity 
aroused, he procured a Chinese Bible — all educat- 
ed Japanese read classical Chinese. A little circle 
— General Wakasa, his brother Ayabe, and some 
friends — read the book. In subsequent years, 
while Christianity was a still forbidden religion, 
first one and then another of this little group of in- 
quirers — at the peril of their lives — sought further 
instruction from Dr. Verbeck, of the American 
(Dutch) Reformed Church, in Nagasaki, and in 
1866 Wakasa and his brother and another of these 
students were secretly baptized by Dr. Verbeck. 
After the baptism, the four Christians sat down to- 
gether to the Lord's Supper. In 1880 Wakasa' s 
daughter and her nurse were baptized. In 1884 
Dr. Verbeck baptized in Tokyo the daughter of 
Ayabe. — The Monthly Messenger. 


Periodicals are a great intellectual convenience. They 
abbreviate labor and place the results of a few at the service 
of the many. — President Noah Porter. 

Knowledge is of two kinds. We know a subject ourselves 
or we know where we can find information upon it. — Samuel 

The Armenian Question. Current History, First 
Quarter, 1896. 

The French in Mexico, by Frederick Bancroft. 
Political Science (Quarterly, March, 1896. 

The Religion of the Manchu Tartars, by C. 
de Harlez, University of Louvainc, Belgium. 
The New World, March, 1896. 




The Higher Education of Christians in Bengal, 
by J. N. Farquhar, M.A. Indian Evangelical 
Review, April, 1896. 

The Salvation Army and the Volunteers, by 
Benjamin A. Tarbell, D.D. The Bostonian, May, 

Glimpses of Buddhism. A conversation with 
two Buddhist Priests, by the Rev. A. H. Bradford, 
D.D. Tlie Outlook, May 9, 1896. 

The Western Reserve, by Robert Shackleton. 
New England Magazine, May, 1896. 

History of Hindu Civilization under British Rule, 
by J. F. Hewitt. Westminster Review, May, 1896. 

Education of Women in Turkey, by Mary Mills 
Patrick. The Forum, June, 1896. 

Civilizing the American Indian, by Ruth Shaff- 
ner. The Ghautauquan, June, 1896. 

In the Balkans — the Chessboard of Europe, by 
Henry Norman. Scribner's Magazine, June, 1896. 

The Christian Endeavor Movement : Its Aims 
and Result, by the Rev. Francis E. Clark, D.D. 
Homiletic Review, June, 1896. 

Impressions of South Africa, II, by James Bryce. 
The Century, June, 1896. 

Sheldon Jackson, Alaska's Apostle and Pioneer, 
by the Hon. John Eaton, LL.D. Review of Re- 
views, June, 1896. 

The Abyssinian Church, by Prof. G. H. Schodde, 
Ph.D. The Treasury, June, 1896. 


[Answers may be found in the preceding pages.] 


1. How did a Governor of Illinois testify to the 
value of home mission work ? Page 39. 

2. How was the character of the population of 
Illinois affected by revivals in eastern churches? 
Page 39. 

3. What was the relation of home missions to 
the cause of education in Illinois ? Pages 41, 42. 

4. Give an account of the first sermons preached 
in Chicago. Page 42. 

5. What three plans for city mission work are in 
operation in Chicago, and what are the results? 
Pages 10-12. 

6. How did a country church double its offering 
for missions ? Page 12. 

7. Give three examples, from home mission 
churches, of the reflex benefits of systematic 
beneficence. Page 44. 

8. What reasons are given for restricting im- 
migration to this country ? Pages 66, 69. 

9. What is said of the method of civilizing the 
American Indian ? Page 66. 

10. A Christian Sioux gave what testimony to 
the value of the Bible ? Page 68. 

11. Repeat the motto of the last class of Indian 
students at Hampton. Page 68. 

12. How has Christianity been a blessing to the 
Yankton Indians ? Page 45. 

13. What are some of the reasons for the ex- 
tension of the Sabbath-school missionary work of 
our Church ? Page 54. 

14. Relate the story of the Mexican peasant who 
had never heard the gospel Page 55. 

15. Repeat the beautiful incident of a trans- 
formed home. Page 53. 

16. What have the Negroes, aided by the Freed- 
rnan's Board, done in the way of self-support? 
Page 52. 

17. The Board of Church Erection occupies 
what place in the great work of home missions ? 
Page 49. 

18. What is the aim of the College Board? 
Page 51. 

19. What wise suggestion is made as to scholar- 
ships for medical missionaries ? Pages 56, 57. 

20. Give a summary of the work during the past 
year of the Board of Ministerial Relief. Pages 
46, 47. 

21. How many Chinese are there in Oregon, 
Washington and Western Idaho? Page 30. 

22. What three departments of work are carried 
on among them ? Pages 30-32. 

23. What illustration shows the need of solid 
instruction in the truths of the Bible ? Page 30. 

24. How are the poor sick Chinese cared for in 
San Francisco ? Page 29. 

25. Does Chinese slavery exist in San Francisco? 
Page 29. 

26. What work is done among the Chinese in 
New York? Page 64. 

27. How many Japanese are there in California ? 
Page 32. 

28. In what way are many of the Japanese in 
the United States employing their time? Page 33. 

29. What was it that led thoughtful Japanese in 
San Francisco to organize a Young Men's Christian 
Association ? Page 28. 


30. How many foreign missionaries were last year 
under commission from our Board ? Page 20. 

31. In what spirit have these missionaries 
labored? Page 20. 

32. Give a picture of the itinerating work done 
by our missionaries. Page 21. 

33. What is the aim of foreign missions as 
given by Dr. Nevius in his Methods of Mission 
Work? Page 15. 

34. Show how our mission churches have been 
strengthened in the faith and increased in number. 
Page 22. 

35. What is suggested as a solution of the prob- 
lems and difficulties of Christian missions ? Page 

36. How is injustice sometimes done to foreign 
missionaries by their correspondents? Page 5. 

37. How does the Waldensian Church manifest 
its missionary zeal ? Page 70. 

38. What is meant by the Three Years' Enter- 
prise ? Page 3. 




39. "What use is made of Arabic Bibles in Brazil ? 
Page 71. 

40. What striking instance of opposition to the 
gospel overreaching itself comes from Colombia? 
Page 20. 

41. How is religious liberty denned? Page 23. 

42. Give a brief summary of the present state of 
religious liberty in Colombia. Pages 23-26. 

43. Tell the story of the "Holy Cross," at 
Parras, Mexico. Page 17. 

44. What Chinese superstition influences the 
boys of the school at Hangchow? Page 18. 

45. What Chinese characteristic is prominent in 
all the pupils ? Page 19. 

46. How much knowledge have the boys when 
they enter the school at thirteen years of age? 
Page 19. 

47. What is the great need of China? Page 60. 

48. How did a Chinese peddler engage in Chris- 
tian work ? Page 08. 

49. What is the present number of Protestant 
communicants and adherents in China? Page 68. 

50. The results of missionary work in China are 
what, according to Hudson Taylor? Page 70. 

51. How does a British official testify to the 
character of Chinese Christians? Page 69. 

52. Tell something of China's renowned states- 
man, Li Hung Chang. Page 13. 

53. Repeat the story of the floating New Testa- 
ment in a Japanese harbor. Page 71. 

54. What obstacle has arisen against the use of 
the newly-discovered antidote to snake-poison in 
India ? Page 09. 

55. How do intelligent Hindus speak of the 
obstacles in the way of their accepting Christianity ? 
Pages 69, 70. 

56. Tell of the self-sacrificing devotion of a 
Scotch missionary to India. Page 71. 

57. How does one missionary speak of the present 
outlook in India? Page 70. 

58. What is Bishop Copleston's definition of 
theosophy ? Page 68. 

59. The use of new methods is how regarded by 
a missionary in Bengal ? Page 69. 

60. What is said of the Babi faith in Persia, 
and its relation to Christianity? Page 71. 

61. What is the present condition of Armenia? 
Page 65. 

62. What Sultan once ordered the expulsion of 
missionaries from Turkey, and with what result ? 
Page 4. 

63. What educational advantages do the women 
of Turkey enjoy? Page 00. 

64. Relate the experience of a missionary phy- 
sician in Palestine. Page 69. 

65. What progress has been made in Efulen, 
West Africa ? Page 69. 

66. The influence of the Bible in the Transvaal 
is how illustrated by a recent incident? Page 4. 

67. Tell of a missionary's experience with a 
king in Zambesi. Page 09. 

68. How does a recent visitor testify to the value 
of the Keith Falconer Mission in Arabia? Page 

69. Give an account of the Tripoli girls' school. 
Page 61. 

70. Is French influence in Siam likely to be un- 
favorable to missions? Page 14. 

71. How did the Czar of Russia signalize the 
occasion of his coronation ? Page 4. 

72. Describe the unique mission carried on by 
Rev. Gilbert Reid. Page 4. 

73. How did a Chinese prisoner describe Miss 
Talcott, the "Florence Nightingale of China?" 
Page 49. 

74. What is " proxy benevolence ? " Page 70. 

75. What does it mean to utter the prayer, 
"Thy Kingdom come?" Page 64. 


A new and interesting feature of The Church 
at Home and Abroad is the question department. 
This is to the rest of the magazine what a class- 
room examination is to a lecture. Questions are 
given each month, with reference to the pages upon 
which the answers may be found. These questions 
cover all departments of church work, and will be 
found helpful not only for personal study, but for 
use in missionary and other meetings. — Herald and 
Presbyter, April 15, 1S96. 

The Church at Home and Abroad has 
touched high-water mark in its June number, and 
both letter-press and cuts are all that can be 
wished for in excellence of execution. — The Evan- 

In Tlie Church Reflector, published by the West- 
minster Presbyterian Church, New York, we find 
the following commendation: "The May number 
of The Church at Home and Abroad has its 
usual abundant supply of information regarding 
the progress of missions. Those interested in the 
work will find plenty of food for thought in the 
department devoted to current events and the 

kingdom. Also the page of questions, now regu- 
larly published, is proving exceedingly helpful to 
many. The writer speaks from experience ; she 
is President of a Young Woman's Missionary 

In a recent issue of North and West, Mrs. Char- 
lotte O. Van Cleve writes as follows: "It seems 
proper to direct the attention of our readers to the 
questions published monthly in our magazine, The 
Church at Home and Abroad. These questions 
are all answered in the monthly, which is becoming 
better and better, and more valuable with each 
issue. The effect of hunting up these answers is to 
awaken a deeper interest and a strong desire to 
know more than can be given in the magazine, 
which has so much in hand that it cannot tell 
everything about each country, but can encourage 
further study and furnish excellent topics for 
monthly concerts and women's meetings. Why 
would it not be a good plan to give these questions 
to the members of the church, one or two to each, 
for answer at our prayer meetings or elsewhere ? A 
careful, methodical study of missions, both at home 
and abroad, would prove not only of great benefit 
but of thrilling interest, both to mind and heart. 



Book Notices. 

Current History, a handbook of information 
on current events, is a carefully digested, up-to- 
date review of the history of the world. It is au- 
thentic, reliable, and evidently the product of 
ripened experience and intelligence. This per- 
manent work of reference digests, rearranges and 
threads together into a connected story, scattered 
fragments of information, so that their general 
significance is understood. It gives one a com- 
prehensive and intelligent insight into the mean- 
ing of events. Published quarterly by Garretson, 
Cox & Co., Buffalo, N. Y., at $1.50 per year. 

Vikings of To-day. The vast but little known 
peninsula of Labrador is the subject of this vol- 
volume — 240 pages, 5] x 3<j inclusive — issued by the 
Fleming H. Revell Company. The author, Dr. 
W. T. Grenfell, has been, from its foundation, in 
charge of the Medical Mission to the Fishermen of 
Labrador. In this book he writes briefly of the 
country, its resources, etc. ; and of its inhabitants, 
whose manner of life is best described by a local 
epigram, ' ' A short feast and a long famine. ' ' The 
work is very freely illustrated from photographs by 
the author. 

For His Sake is the record of a life consecrated 
to God and devoted to China. The volume is 
made up of extracts from the letters of Elsie Mar- 
shall, who in 1892 went out as one of the mission- 
aries of the Church of England Zenana Society to 
work in ( 'hina. She was one of the eight persons 
murdered August 1, 1895, at Hwa-Sang, by the 
band of lawless men called Vegetarians. "What- 
ever we leave undone," said Miss Marshall, "we 
must take time to pray. We can do things on our 
knees we cannot do anywhere else ; for then we are 
laying hold of God's almighty strength, and he can 
do everything." Any profit from the sale of this 
book will be devoted to the Church of England 
Zenana Society's work in the Fuh-Kien Province 
of China. [Fleming H. Revell Company, $1.00.] 

Ministerial Necrology. 

*g»We earnestly request the families of deceased min- 
isters and the stated clerks of their presbyteries to forward 
to us promptly the facts given in these notices, and as nearly 
as possible m the form exemplified below. These notices are 
highly valued by writers of Presbyterian history, compilers 
of statistics and the intelligent readers of both. 

McCorkle, Wm. A., D.D.— Born at Troy, Ohio, 
Nov. 2, 1822 ; graduated from Wabash Col- 
lege, 1849, and Lane Theological Seminary, 
1852 ; ordained by the Presbytery of Crawfords- 
ville, June 19, 1853 ; pastor of Presbyterian 
Church, Marshall, Mich.; First Presbyterian 
Church, Detroit, Mich.; Third Presbyterian 
Church, Boston, Mass.; Second Presbyterian 
Church, Princeton, N. J.; Reformed (Dutch) 
Church, Nyack, N.Y.; Presbyterian Church, 
Ypsilanti, Mich. Died at Detroit, Mich., 
April 1G, 1896. 

Married, Sept. 9, 1852, Miss Cordelia M. 
Foster, who, with two daughters and two sons, 
survives him. Two children, both boys, died 
in infancy. 

Noble, Jonathan Harris, D.D., H.E. — Born 
atTinmouth, Vt., Oct. 8, 1804; prepared at Cas- 

tleton Academy, Vt. ; graduated from Williams 
College, 1826, and Princeton Seminary, 1829 ; 
Stated Supply, Carbondale, Pa., 1829-32 ; 
ordained as an evangelist by Presbytery of 
Troy, April 21, 1830 ; Stated Supply, N. 
Granville, N.Y., 1832, and pastor 1833-37; 
pastor, Schaghticoke, N.Y., 1837-69; Stated 
Supply, Troy Third Church at Albia, 1869- 
71 ; Stated Supply, Johnsonville, 1871-78 ; 
resided at Johnsonville till 1885 ; Washington, 
D.C., 1888-91; then boarded at Ministers' 
House, Perth Amboy, N.J., where he died 
April 26, 1896. D.D., Williams College, 

Married Octavia Porter, who died Oct. 17, 
1865, aged 61 years ; married Nov. 13, 1866, 
C. M. Chamberlain, who survives him. 

Rankin, John G. — Born near Dandridge, Jeffer- 
son Co., Tenn., March 31, 1821 ; graduated 
from "Mission Institute," established by Dr. 
David Nelson at Quincy, 111., 1845, and from 
Lane Theological Seminary, 1848 ; ordained 
by the Presbytery of Schuyler, Sept. 13, 1849 ; 
pastor at Warsaw, 111., 1848-50 ; Carrollton, 
111., 1851-61; Warsaw, 111., 1861-68 ; God- 
frey, 111., 1868-70 ; Ferguson, Mo., 1870-72 ; 
Centralea, 111., 1872-73; Warsaw, 111., 1873- 
81; resident at t^iiincy, 111., 1881-83; sup- 
plied Ebenezer Church, near Macomb, 111., 
1883-86 : Prairie City, 111., 1886-91, and 
Ellington Memorial, from his home in Quincy, 
111., 1891-95. He was Stated Clerk of 
Schuyler Presbytery from April, 1880, to 
April, 1895, and was always most deeply in- 
terested in its feeble and home missionary 
churches. Died at Quincy, 111., May 7, 1896. 
Married, April 3, 1851, atQuincy, 111., Miss 
Philomela Prentiss, who survives him. 

Warren, Francis V. — Born at Eden, N. Y., 
April, 18, 1820 ; graduated from Auburn Theo- 
logical Seminary, 1848 ; ministered at An- 
gelica, N.Y., one year; Hopewell, N.Y., be- 
tween two and three years ; Pulteney, N.Y., 
over seven years; Wampsville, N.Y., over 
five years; Wattsburg, Pa., about eleven 
years. His health failing, he bought a home 
in N.E. Pennsylvania, where he spent the rest 
of his life, excepting nine years in Angelica. 
Died July 26, 1895. 

Married, 1848, Miss Harriet N.Thomas, who 
survives him. 

Whitney, Joseph C. — Born at Springfield, Vt., 
Apr. 14, 1818 ; spent five years in College, 
1840-45; and studied two years in Union Theo- 
logical Seminary, New York ; ordained, 1850; 
pastor Stillwater, Minn., three years; First 
Presbyterian Church, Minneapolis, three 
years ; home missionary, Forest City, Kings- 
ton, Greenleaf and Wilmar, Minn., 1857-60; 
at the breaking out of civil war became 
Captain of the Sixth Minnesota Regiment ; 
returned to Minneapolis, May 19, 1895 ; did 
not resume pastoral work, but continued help- 
ful to Presbytery and the First Church. 
Died in Minneapolis, May 1, 1896. 

Married, July 10, 1849, Miss Eliza Baird, 
who, with two daughters and three sons, sur- 
vives him. 





T. M. Davies, Manchester, Westminster, N.H. 
• W. G. Westervelt, Esperance, N. Y. 

D. J. Conkle, Day, " 

0. T. Mather, Auburn, Westminster, 
J. C. Long, North Bergen, 

W. Hay, Bethany Centre and East Bethany, " 

W. S. Crane, Pike, 

J. 8. Gilmor, Congers, 1st, 

A. L. Greene, "Middle Centre, 1st, 

C. N. MacCarthy, Ossian, " 

H. W. Knox, Belmont, 

T. Melvin, Springwater, 1st, 

F. E. Walton, Hornellsville, Hartshorn, " 

J. A. Miller Ph.D., Angelica, " 

H. W. H. Watkins, Hornby, " 

M. Gafifney, Manlius, Trinity, 

F. C. Suits, Whitelaw and Oneida Lake, 

S. Nelson, North Gage and South Trenton, " 

S. L. Haynes, Northwood, 

W. O. Wright, Milesburg, Moshannon and 

Snowshoe, Pa. 

Home Mission Committee, Hazelton, Italian, " 

G. W. Snodgrass, Starke and Lakeside, Fla. 
A. S. Caldwell, Bartow, 1st, and stations, 

J. H. Potter, Eustis, ! lst, " 
F. W. Weatherwax, Marine City, 1st, Mich. 

J. R. Bennett, Sand Beach and Purdyville, " 

A. Barclay, Port Hope, Redman and Verona, " 

J. Kirkland, Brockway, Avoca and Fremont, " 

J. W. Holt, Mt. Zion and stations, ' ' 

C. D. Ellis, Saginaw, Immanuel, 

A. Svoboda, Eden and Muscoda, Bohemian, AVis. 

F. T. Bastel, Melnik, Bohemian, " 

B. H. Idsinga, Milwaukee, Holland, " 
J. H. Griffiths. Westfield and stations, " 

G. C. Mousseau, Green Bay, French, 

D. D. McKay, Brainerd and Long Lake, Minn. 
P. Knudsen, Hinckley and Pine City, 

E. Higgins, Barnum, Moose Lake and 
Mahtowa, " 

1. E. Markus, Bethlehem and Samaria, " 
W. Lattimore, Slayton, 1st, 

W. H. Sloan, Windom, 1st, 
H Sill, Clara City, Rheiderland, Ger., 
M. B. Loughlen, Houston, 1st and La Cres- 
cent, " 
M. McLeod, Austin, 1st, " 
L. V. Nash, Caledonia and stations, 
L H. Hayenga, Frank Hill and Winona, " 
J. H. Kerr, Casey, Iowa. 
H. S. Condit, Neola, 1st, and Minden, 
W. E. Caldwell, Allerton, 1st, and Lineville, " 
W. H. McCuskey, Volga and Highland, " 

C. F. Ensign, Prairieburg and Pleasant 

T. W. Russell, Ottumwa, West End, 
K. J. McAulay, Crawfordsville, 
W. R. Williams, Davenport, 2d, " 

H. Wortmann, Lyon Co., German, 

D. Mouw Hospers, German, 

F. H. Grace, Vail, 1st, " 
A. G. Martyn, Denison, 1st, 

J. C. Sloan, Pastor- at-Large, Neb. 

D. McMillan, Marsland, Belmont, Pine Ridge, 

Willow Creek and stations, 
J. Liesveld, Hanover, German, 

G. Bray, Aurora, 1st, 

W. Eadie, Fairmount and Sayer, Neb. 

G. F. Williams, La Platte, 1st, " 

L. Railsback, Pastor-at-Large, Mo. 

E. E. Stringtield, Springfield, 2d, 
J. A. McKay, Akron and Davis City, 

E. W. Symonds, St. Joseph, Hope, 

A. M. Hendee, Cowgill, 1st, Dawn and Polo, " 
J. H. Fazel, Wichita, Oak St., Kans. 

L. H. Shane, Wichita, West Side, and Har- 
mony, ' ' 

D. K. Steele, Howard, " 
J. R. McQuown, Caldwell, 1st, " 
V. M. King, Westminster, " 
W. M. Carle, Logan, " 

A. M. Mann, Ossawatomie, 

B. C. McQuesten, Humboldt, 1st, " 

F. D. Breed, Garden City, 1st, 

G. McKay, Cheever, 1st, and Manchester, 

W. E. Voss, Westminster, Riverside and Yu- 
kon, O. T. 

E. B. Evans, Atoka and Lehigh, I. T. 
J. Edwards, Wheelock and Suksukla, 

S. A. Caldwell, Shawnee, 1st, O. T. 

A. E. Thomson, Chandler, Clifton and sta- 
tions, ' ' 

F. F. Dobson, Ft. Gibson and stations, I. T. 
W. L. Miller, Muldrow, Salisawand Antioch, " 
L. Dobson, Claremore, Claremore Mound and 

Oowala, ' ' 

T. W. Pearyman, Broken Arrow, and work 
among full bloods, " 

E. P. Robertson, Eureka, Pleasant Valley and 

Clear Creek, " 

D. Fife, Achena, " 

W. T. King, Vinita and Pleasant Hill, " 

G. Johnson, Wewoka, " 
H. A. Howard, Jacksboro, Tex. 
W. Douglas, Dallas, Bethany, " 
H. A. Thompson, Peoria, 1st, and Congress, Ariz. 
G. T. Crissman, D.D. Denver, So. Broadway, Colo. 

C. Fueller, Lake City, 1st, " 

F. M. Gilchrist, Training Mex. Evangelists, " 
J. J. Perdomo, Ark. Valley and Huerfano Co.," 
Mexican Evangelists, Arkansas Valley and 

Huerfano Co., " 

Mexican Evangelists, Las Animas Co., " 

Mexican Evangelists, San Luis Valley, " 

N. E. Clemenson, Logan, Brick, Utah. 

T. Lee, Spanish Fork and station, " 

R. P. Boyd, Paris and vicinity, Idaho 

C. J. Godsman, Rathdrum and stations, " 

M. M. Marshall, Bonners Ferry and stations, " 
W. Wheeler, North Fork (Indian), " 

M. Monteith, Kamiah, 2d (Indian), " 

R. Parsons, Meadow Creek (Indian), " 

S. Perkins, Denver, Mt. Idaho and Cotton- 
wood, ' ' 
N. McLeod, Pastor-at-Large, Wash. 
L. E. Jesseph, Fairfield and Rockford, " 
A. McKenzie, La Camas and vicinity, " 
W. A. Mackey, Tacoma, Sprague Memorial, " 
T. MacGuire, Pastor-at-Large, " 
H. M. Robertson, D.D., Fairhaven, " 
M. Robertson, Knappa and stations, Oreg. 
W. T. Wardle, Portland, Mizpah and station, ' ' 
W. J. Arnold, Portland, 3d, " 
F. H. Fruiht, Eagle Park and Damascus, " 
C. M. Fisher, Tustin, Cal. 
R. W. Reynolds, San Francisco, Holly Park, " 





The General Assembly approved of our omitting the detailed account of contributions- 
to the treasuries of the different Boards of the Church, which we formerly printed, 
inasmuch as this can be done earlier in each month by the Assembly Herald, but directed 
us to print a summary of the receipts for each month. 

We have received such summary from only three of the Boards, which we give below. 
We respectfully invite the Treasurers of the other Boards to send us their summaries for 
our next issue, with any suggestions in regard to the best form for them. All such sum- 
maries as reach us before July 10, will appear in the August issue. 

Home Missions, May, 1895 and 1896. 




Individuals, Etc. 



18,284 34 
6,026 34 

84,528 00 
9,486 75 

$157 80 
1,739 72 

83,208 68 
3,559 19 

816,178 82 
20 812 00 

$2,258 00 

84,958 75 

81,581 92 

8350 51 

84,633 18 

The Months, April and May, 1895 and 1896. 




Individuals, Etc. 



820,939 89 
22,824 19 

$10,777 30 
21,149 81 

88,793 78 
4,458 89 

84,924 01 
6,268 79 

$45,434 98 
54,701 68 

$1,884 30 

$10,372 51 

$4,334 89 

81,344 78 

$9,266 70 

*Thls column represents contributions specially designated for Educational Work. 

Ministerial Relief. 

April, 1896. May, 1896. 

Churches and Sabbath-schools, including Churches and Sabbath-schools $2,918 11 

$240.34 from Reunion Fund $5,178 79 Individuals. 459 66 

Individuals 152 27 Interest 3,144 05 

Interest 2,631 32 . 

For the Current Fund $7,962 38 

For the Permanent Fund 1,850 85 

For the Current Fund $6,521 82 

For the Permanent Fund 992 56 

Total receipts for April, 1896 $9,813 23 Total receipts for May, 1896 $7,514 38 


April 15-30, 1896. 

Churches and Sabbath-schools $945 82 

Miscellaneous sources 67 50 

Total $1,013 32 

May, 1896. 

Churches and Sabbath- schools. . 

Miscellaneous sources 

Income from Investments 

,242 84 
24 41 
98 33 

Total $1,365 58 

Total from April 15 to May 31, 1896. 2,378 90 

The Church at Home and Abroad. 

AUGUST, 1896. 


Current Events and tlio Kingdom, 81 

Rev. W. C. Cattell, D.D., S3 

Helps from the Sanctuary, 85 

The Tree Known by its Fruit 80 

The Fourth of July, 88 

Christian Endeavor Convention, 89 

Anson D. P. Randolph, 90 

The St. Louis Calamity {from the Evangelist), 01 


Notes.— A Missionary General Assembly — Medical Missionaries— Mexican Workers — Signs 
not all Dark in Japan— Work in Jico, Mexico— Gift of Deceased Little Girl— New Shah 
of Persia— Dr. Ellinwood's Twenty-five Years— Death of Mrs. Roberts in Gaboon and 
Corisco Mission, 109-118 

Concert of Prayer. —Mission in Korea — Korean Missionary Literature, C. C. Vinton, 
M. D.— Gospel Preached by a Butcher— Korean Mind, Rev. J. S. Gale— Buddhist Mon- 
astery, Rev. J K. Adams— Preaching Christ through Korea— Lights and Shadows, . 113-124 

Letters.— Africa, Mrs. M. II. Kerr— Siam, Rev. J. A. Enkin, 125,120 


Concert of Prayer.— Foreigners, 127 

Standing Committee's Report, 128 

Address Before tlie Assembly, Rev. D. J. McMillan, D.D., Secretary 130 

Have Home Missions Paid? Gen. R. W. Johnson, U. S. A., 133 

Letters.— S. Dakota, Rev. J. P. Williamson, D.D.—7X. Mexico, Mrs. M. E. Dissiite, Miss Leon 

T. Granger, Rev. J. G. QiUhrist— Washington, Rev. T. M. Gnnn, D.D., S.M., Rev. 

Robert Liddell—TX. Carolina, Rev. A. M. Penland— Montana, Rev. J. L. Marquis— N. 

York, Rev. George Runciman— Appointments, 134-137 

CHURCFI ERECTION.— now One Church Does It— Value of the Presbyterial Committee- 
Grateful Letters— Value of Manses, 93, 94 

COLLEGES AND ACADEMIES.— Coates College for Young Women, 95, 90 

EDUCATION— Shall Recruiting for the Ministry Cease? 97-100 

FREEDMEN.— Holding On, Rev. E. iV. Payne, D.D.— The Colored Man's Cry, James W. 

Boyer, ■ 100-102 

MINISTERIAL BELIEF.— Secretary's Address to the General Assembly, .... 103-105 

Home Missionary Letter, 106-108 

McKean, M.D.— John the.Baptist— Church Reminiscences, New York City— Lark's Nest 
—The Best Way— Little Trials— The Church's Challenge to Her Young People, Rev. G. 
B. Stewart, D.D.— Presbyterian Endeavorers— Loyalty to Prcsbyterianism— Systematic 
Giving — Women and Card Parties— Christian Endeavor in Madagascar— Notes — Chris- 
tian Training Course 142-147 


Worth Reading, J49 

Questions, 150 

France and Madagascar 151 

An Enemy of Mankind 152 

More About Mr. Randolph, . 152 

Book Notices 153 

Ministerial Necrology, 154 

Receipts, i Mj 158 



AUQUST, 1896. 



The General Assembly of the Church of 
Scotland this year resolved that every mem- 
ber of that Church shall have the oppor- 
tunity at least once a quarter of contributing 
to foreign missions; and that, by special dis- 
tribution of missionary literature and teach- 
in- from the pulpit, instruction shall be 
given on the claims and needs of this impor- 
tant work. 


" Its teachings are good, and if they were 
followed it woidd lessen my work very 
much," said the Chief of Police in Yoko- 
hama to the Rev. Henry Loomis. This 
official, who possessed a Bible and studied 
it, cheerfully consented to the distribution of 
the Scriptures among the policemen, and 
was willing to aid in placing the Bible and 
religious books in the hands of the fallen 
women of Yokohama who were under his 


A recent writer in an English review 
says that Persia will remain under Mozaffer- 
ed-din, as it was under the government of 
the late Shah, a nation of highly civilized 
barbarians, ruled by a benignant despot. 
The late Shah was no idle or vicious despot; 
he did not smoke, and his diet was of the 
simplest, and lie was a merciful king. It 
was he who did away with the hateful cus- 
tom of the Shah presiding in person at exe- 
cutions. The long struggle that took place 
betweeu the late king and an arrogant 
priesthood lasted for many years, and the 
Shah succeeded in shaking himself free of 
the mollahs, and in reducing their claims 
upon the public purse. Persia is no longer 
a priest-ridden country. 


The London Christian says of John Rob- 
inson that he was the founder of the Amer- 
ican Commonwealth, since from the Separ- 
atist Church at Gainsborough went the 
exiles to Holland, who afterwards proceeded 
to New England in 1620. At the laying 
of the cornerstone of the John Robinson 
Church in Gainsborough, June '2!), a letter 
of congratulation from President Cleveland 
was read, and Ambassador Bayard, in his 
address, spoke of the influence such an 
event has in uniting the two nations. The 
present church organization in Gainsborough 
dates from 1776. 

world's student conference. 

The conference planned by the College 
department of the International Committee 
of the Young Men's Christian Association 
held its eleventh annual gathering at North- 
field in June. Mr. Robert E. Lewis, 
writing of this conference, emphasizes one 
important branch of its work, the mission- 
ary institute. It is composed of two 
hundred men, chosen out of all the colleges 
to study the mission problem as it relates 
to students, and to be trained to lead classes 
in the study of missions next year in 
the various colleges. In more than two 
hundred and fifty colleges was the study of 
missions established and eai'ricd on last year. 
The conference also discussed the problems 
of college work — devotional Bible classes, 
the religious awakening of the college, 
perils of college life, and Christian work 
among the students. 


Some of the most highly educated men 
in China have discovered the defectiveness 
of the Chinese educational system, writes E. 





T. Williams in the Independent. The war 
opened the eyes of self-satisfied mandarins 
to the inefficiency 6f their own government, 
and to the superiority of at least some 
western methods. One of the chief pro- 
moters of the Reform Club is an old man 
from Canton named Kang Chang su, a 
stern moralist, who realizes that China's 
only hope is in a moral regeneration. He 
has prepared a new commentary on the 
classics, of a much loftier character than 
that which is accepted by the orthodox 
school. He has just visited Peking, and 
has preached repentance to His Imperial 
Majesty and to all the powers that be. It 
has been hinted by some that this attempt 
at reform may be the beginning _ of a 
national parliament, which shall assist the 
emperor in the administration of the gov- 


Mr. Arnold White, who was intimately 
associated with the late Baron de Hirsch, 
assures us that to understand the keynote of 
his life one must have lost, or be about to 
lose, an only son. Says the Hon. Oscar S. 
Straus in the Forum : " He was cosmopolitan 
in his affinities, friendships and associations. 
The misery, and not the race, nor the 
religion of the Russian Jews, attached him 
to their cause and summoned him, as by a 
voice from God, to assume the colossal task 
of devising plans and pouring out his 
treasures with endless munificence in colo- 
nizing them in other lands. He had hoped 
that his son would make it the aim of his 
life to carry forward and perfect his pro- 
jected works of benevolence and philan- 
thropy. The loss of this promising son was 
a severe blow to him, and doubtless had the 
effect of enlarging and extending his bene- 
factions. When some one spoke of the 
loss of his son and heir, he replied, ' My 
son I have lost, but not my heir— humanity 
is my heir.' " 


Mr. Charles N. CrittenLon, a merchant 
in the city of New York, afflicted in the 
death of a little daughter, sought consolation 
in active work for the saving of degraded 
men and women. When to one who had 
fallen he repeated the words of the Master, 
" Go, and sin no more," he was asked, 
" But where can I go ?" This led him to 
purchase a large house on Bleecker street. 

Turni.g it " from a brothel into a bethel," 
he named it, in memory of his daughter, 
The Florence Crittenton Mission. The 
work has grown. A National Association 
of Florence Crittenton Missions, for mutual 
encouragement and help, was organized last 
year. There are now forty rescue homes 
that have adopted the name and methods of 
the original mission in New York. Mr. 
Crittenton, who devotes his whole time to 
this work, has fitted up a Florence Critten- 
ton Rescue Car, in which, in company with 
others, he travels about the country and 
accomplishes work that could not be done 
in any other way. 


' ' Because Christian Endeavor is a thing 
of national importance," was the reason 
given in a document signed by government 
officials, granting certain privileges in the 
Nation's capital to the fifteenth annual con- 
vention of the Christian Endeavor Societies. 
President Clark in his address mentioned 
the chief planks of the Christian Endeavor 
platform, one of which is, " Our ultimate 
purpose — to deepen the spiritual life and 
raise the religious standards of young peo- 
ple the world over." While each year has 
been noted for some advance step, each 
convention signalized by some great 
thought, as Citizenship, Missions, Fellow- 
ship, the watchword for the coming year is 
Spiritual Power. " Deepening the Spir- 
itual Life ' ' was the topic at the preliminary 
meetings held in twenty churches on Wed- 
nesday evening. Secretary Baer's report 
was full of interest. There are now 46,125 
societies of Christian Endeavor, and 
10,048 Juniors, with a total membership of 
2,750,000. But best of all, the report 
shows that during the past year 231,900 of 
this number have confessed their faith in 
the Lord Jesus Christ and become members 
of Christian churches in this country. At 
the Presbyterian rally addresses were made 
by Dr. George B. Stewart, Dr. R. J. Service, 
Dr. John L. Withrow, Dr. R. F. Coyle and 
Secretary John W. Baer. Pledging anew 
their loyalty and love, the vast audience 
unanimously resolved to make the effort to 
secure from each Presbyterian Christian 
Endeavorer a thank-offering of at least 
twenty-five cents, during the first week in 
November, for the liquidation of the debt 
of the Board of Home Missions. 




The Independent, commenting on the 
prominence given to " Christian citizen- 
ship," in the deliberations of the Christian 
Emleavor Convention, pertinently says: 

" The great need of the world is that 
God should be everywhere and constantly 
present. We want God in our business, as 
well as in our churches; in our amusements, 
as well as in our devotions; in our politics 
most of all. What are politics ? In the 
language of President Hitchcock, politics 
are ' the principles by which nations should 
be governed and regulated,' and are ' only 
a branch of ethics,' or rather, ' a special 

application of the principles of morality and 
religion.' It is a fair field for Christian 
Endeavor; and we believe that any En- 
deavorer may be as much ' a missionary of 
God in American politics as in the forests of 
Africa. ' He should go to the primary, the 
polls or the political convention as regularly, 
as religiously as he goes to church or to 
conference or to prayer meeting. Let us 
all be not only Christians, but citizens; not 
Christians in the church and citizens out of 
it; but always Christians, always citizens, 
citizen Christians, Christian citizens." 
Our citizenship is in heaven (1'hil. 3: 20). 


Our readers have learned from the weekly 
papers that this beloved man has found it his 
duty, under competent medical advice, to 
lay down the burden of official resjxmsibility 
which he has borne so gracefully, so faith- 
fully and so long. His desire to do so was 
announced to the Board of Ministerial Re- 
lief in November last, but he was persuaded 
by the Board to refrain from insisting upon 
their immediate acceptance of his resigna- 
tion. Suffering not a little from the fatigu- 
ing cares of his office and its continual 
draft upon his sympathy, he was at 
length assured by his own son, Professor 

H. W. Cattell, M.D. that longer endur- 
ance of such strain was wholly unsafe for 
him. Informed of this, the Board, on 
June 18, consented to release him. In 
doing so the Board placed on record its 
" most emphatic testimony to the profound 
and affectionate regard felt for him by each 
of his colleagues. To them," so their 
record continues, " he has endeared himself 
in an altogether singular degree, and largely 
because of his uniform courtesy and loving 
manner, the meetings of the Board have 
invariably been delightful occasions. Per- 
sonally, Dr. Cattell will always be cherished 




by the members of the Board, in their in- 
most souls, as a brother and friend most 
dearly prized and loved. 

"As an officer, the Board testifies to the 
great efficiency of Dr. Cattell in every 
direction in which the work of the Board 
calls for effort. He has done the Church 
noble service in the fulfillment of the trust 
that has been committed to him. His 
whole being has been given to it, and the 
profiting has appeared on every side. His 
fine intellectual qualities, his deep and ten- 
der sympathies, his superior executive power, 
his manifold gifts of nature and grace, have 
all been enlisted beyond measure. The 
Board gives him up as its executive with a 
sorrow and reluctance which words cannot 

This action of the Board of Ministerial 
Relief is in perfect harmony with that of 
the last General Assembly, which com- 
mended the Board's reluctance to part with 
Dr. CattelPs " invaluable leadership," and 
added: " It is our profound hope and that 
of the whole Church that with the return of 
health and vigor he may be spared to this 
work for many years." 

While the more recent action of the 
Board expresses their consent to the termi- 
nation of their beloved secretary's official 
services, it gives renewed expression to the 
hope that " strength and vigor may be 
restored to him" when thus " relieved from 
responsibility and active duty." 

The Board and the Church need no assur- 
ance that such returning strength and vigor, 
if graciously granted, will need no official 
obligation or temporal reward to secure their 
hearty devotion to the interests of Christ's 
cause and people in every practicable way. 

The twelve years which Dr. Cattell has 
given to such faithful and efficient service 
for the relief and comfort of aged and in- 
firm ministers and the widows and orphan 
children of deceased ministers, were pre- 
ceded by a much longer period of conspic- 
uously useful labor in other spheres. 

In early manhood a successful teacher in 
Lafayette College, then a happy pastor of the 
Pine Street Church in Harrisburg for three 
years, he was called thence to the presidency 
of Lafayette College, and was for a score of 
years the trusted leader of that precious in- 
stitution to the height of prosperity in which 
all its alumni and friends now rejoice. 

Its noble suite of commodious and beauti- 
ful buildings, its generous endowments, its 
eminently wise, practical and Christian 
course of instruction and discipline contin- 
ually recall to the men who now faithfully 
administer them and the youth who duti- 
fully enjoy them, other honored names 
indeed, but no one more gratefully than 
that of President Cattell. The busy, sturdy, 
honored men, alumni of Lafayette, whom 
Dr. Cattell fondly calls his " boys," are 
many, and they occupy not a few positions 
of eminent usefulness. 

The Church at Home and Abroad 
contains in almost every one of its 116 
monthly issues some pages written by Dr. 
Cattell for the illustration and advocacy of 
the particular branch of our Church's work 
with which he has had official connection, 
and the editor has enjoyed his friendly coun- 
sel, his brotherly sympathy and encourage- 
ment, his generous support and assistance, 
with a constancy and heartiness deserving 
and receiving his fervent gratitude. 

Dr. Cattell's valuable contributions to the 
pages of this magazine are not limited to 
the single topic of Ministerial Relief. The 
breadth and catholicity of his intelligence 
and his sympathies are illustrated by the 
following articles from his pen: "A Sec- 
retary's Visit to the Indian Territory" 
(Vol. vii, p. 131); the same subject con- 
tinued in a subsequent number (p. 221); 
" The Reformed Church of Bohemia and 
Moravia" (Vol. viii. p. 325); "John 
Amos Comenius " (Vol. xi, p. 402). 

His knowledge and appreciation of 
Church history are indicated not only by 
such articles, from his pen, but by his dili- 
gent and wise efforts to sustain and promote 
the interests of the Presbyterian Historical 
Society, of which he is the president. 

We cheerfully expect to see him still 
manifesting a lively interest in the work of 
that society, and hope still frequently to enjoy 
his cheerful and genial presence and fellow- 
ship. We cordially unite with the Board of 
Ministerial Relief in the hope " that, re- 
lieved from responsibility and active duty, 
strength and vigor may be restored to our 
beloved friend, and we assure him that, so 
long as he shall live, no presence in the 
rooms of the Board [or in the rooms, of 
the The Church at Home axd Abroad] 
will be more welcome than his own." 





The sanctuary of the Jews was their 
tabernacle and afterwards their temple, 
and especially, in the highest emphasis of 
the term, the innermost recess of that holy 
edifice. That was the holy of holies, the 
sanctuary of sanctuaries, the place of super- 
lative consecration, entered only by the 
high priest, and illuminated by the super- 
natural light (shekinah) which symbolized 
the presence of Jehovah, between the cher- 
ubim, over the mercy seat, the golden lid of 
the ark of the covenant. 

This was the local centre of the whole 
religious economy of the old dispensation — 
the focal point of all the influences of the 
Jewish national worship. Thither they 
brought their material offerings to God ; 
thither their periodical pilgrimages were 
directed ; thither their devout thoughts ever- 
more tended from the remotest habitations 
in their land, and from the more distant 
places of exile, to which more than once 
they were driven in punishment for their 

It was in accordance with this view con- 
stantly inculcated upon them by God, that 
their inspired poet invoked upon them the 
help of their covenant God " from the sanc- 
tuary" and " out of Zion," the divinely 
designated place for the jiermanent location 
of that sanctuary (Ps. xx). 

He surely did not conceive of Jehovah as 
located, or in any way subject to limitations 
of space. He knew that heaven and the 
heaven of heavens could not contain him, 
much less any terrestrial mountain or any 
house that men could build, yet he did 
know that this limitless, absolute God had 
been pleased to give to his peojfle that par- 
ticular spot, and to accept from their hands 
that particular building, as the place for the 
peculiar manifestation of himself and accept- 
ance of their worship, and for the bestow- 
ment upon them of his spiritual benefits. 
He knew that by divine institution and 
prescription, the sanctuary was the medium 
of communication between God and his 
people — for the offering to him of their wor- 
ship, and for the bestowmeut upon them of 
his favors. He did not pray — he had no 
right to expect — that they would be helped 
and blessed by God, without the diligent 
and faithful observance of his ordinances, 
which had their local centre at the sanctu- 

ary. No profane contemner, no careless 
neglecter of the sanctuary was embraced in 
the psalmist's prayer, or could receive the 
blessing and help which he was inspired to 

How far, and in what way, is our present 
case the same as that of the ancient worship- 
ers ? 

Certainly we are not restricted to that 
particular locality, nor to any other for our 
worship and enjoyment of religious ordi- 
nances. We have no national temple. 
No city and no mountain ki all our wide 
land can lay claim to peculiar sacreduess, 
as the one sole place of acceptable 
approach unto Jehovah; and surely no 
obligation is imposed upon us to travel to 
Jerusalem, or to any other foreign city, to 
worship. The .ancient ritual, with all its 
local and national restrictions, is abolished 
— has " waxed old and vanished away." 
But worship is not abolished. The assem- 
bling of ourselves together for worship and 
religious instruction is not obsolete, is not to 
be" forsaken" (Heb. x. 25). 

For these Christian uses we need, and arc 
accustomed to have, wherever there are 
Christian people, places specially provided, 
houses built and set apart for this particular 
holy use. These we not improperly call by 
the same names which were applied to the 
ancient place of divine service — " temple," 
"house of God," "sanctuary" — none 
more frequently, jierhaps, than this last — 
none more expressively. Our customary 
place of assembling for religious worship, 
and attending to the word of God, and the 
observance of his ordinances, is properly 
our sanctuary. There is a proper and Scrip- 
tural sense in which we ought to regard the 
sanctuary as the medium of communication 
between us and God, and ought to expect 
him to send us his help and blessing from it. 

It is in it that we unitedly worship God. 

We have our family altars, hallowing our 
homes ; and we have our closets, or places 
of secret communion with God, secluded 
from all but omniscient observation, as was 
Nathaniel's place of retirement, under the 
fig tree (John 1 : 48). From each of these 
God sends us " help." At each of these 
he daily strengthens us for our daily tasks 
and daily trials. But it is quite remarkable 
that generally those Christians who value 




most aud most diligently use these private 
and domestic sanctuaries, are the same who 
attend most devoutly and earnestly upon 
public worship, and set the highest value 
upon the hallowed edifice in which they are 
wont to enjoy it. They who have the best 
experience of the sweetness, and the sup- 
port, and all the ineffable benefit of secret 
prayer, are the same who value most highly 
the superadded power of combined supplica- 
tions. They who kneel together in their 
own homes with the most steadfast hope in 
God's covenant mercy, and who feel most 
deeply the sacredness which Christian faith 
adds to family affection, are the same to 
whom the Church association is most pre- 
cious, aud whose ideas both of home and of 
heaven are most delightfully combined aud 
blended in the scene of their Sabbath enjoy- 
ments, the holy house in which they ap- 
proach unto God amid the assembly of his 

Here we feel that both our prayers and 
our praises go up into the ear of God, in 
harmonious combination with those of many 
fellow worshipers, and while we rely not upon 
this for their acceptableness with him, but 
only on the effectual mediation of Christ, we 
cannot forget the special encouragements 
which the Scriptures give to united prayer, 
nor think it unscriptural to bilieve that 
such union does add to the proper power of 
prayer. It is right for the humble believer 
to value and to seek an interest in the pray- 
ers of his fellow-believers. It is a privilege 
on which the Scriptures teach us to set a 
high value, to know, in auy case, that a 
whole Christian assembly is ottering united 
prayer for us. The sick ou his bed of lan- 

guishing, the afflicted in his chamber of sor- 
row, the tempted and tried, bowing his head 
iu despondency in the midst of his fellow- 
worshipers, who kno\V not what burden is 
weighiug down his spirit — each of these may 
properly be comforted by knowing that 
hundreds of souls, with whom he is wont 
to worship, are offering up their united 
prayers for him, and for all such as he ; nor 
is it a small privilege of the infant, brought 
in parental arms into the holy place, to 
receive the seal of the covenant upon him, 
that he thus obtains a peculiar interest iu 
the prayers which are there offered up to 
the God of Abraham. We cannot accu- 
rately tell what part of the blessings, tem- 
poral and spi ritual, which we enjoy, come 
upon us in answer to the prayers of God's 
people, offered up in his house, nor what 
evils are averted from us by the same agency. 
But we have good reason to believe that no 
small share of the good which we enjoy, 
and of our exemption from evils, is to be 
ascribed to it. God does, in liberal meas- 
ure, give us help and strength in answer to 
the prayers offered up in his sanctuary. 
He does, in this way, make good the assur- 
ances of his word, that it is good to have 
an habitual connection with his holy house. 

" Blessed are they that dwell in thy 
house" (Psa. 84 : 4)'. 

" Blessed is the man whom thou choosest, 
and causeth to approach unto thee, that he 
may dwell in thy courts " (Psa. 65: 4). 

' ' Those that be planted in the house of 
the Lord shall flourish in the courts of our 
God. They shall still bring forth fruit in 
old age; they shall be fat aud flourishing " 
(Psa. 92 : 13, 14). 


Christianity claims no exemption from that 
rule of judgment sanctioned by Christ. 
Convince us that Christianity, sincerely 
embraced, makes men worse, or even that it 
does not make them better, aud we should 
not know how to defend it. It is to be 
hoped that, in that case, we should have no 
disposition to defend it. In that case we 
should be obliged to confess that Christianity 
was a failure. But such a conclusion does 
not, by any means, follow from the admission 
that those who have honestly embraced Christ- 
ianity are not as good as they ought to be. 

If a competent commission to investigate 
a public hospital were to rind and bring be- 
fore the authorities conclusive proof that 
persons who enter it are apt to contract 
diseases which they did not have before 
entering it, or that the diseases of patients 
eutering the hospital, instead of being cured 
or alleviated, are aggravated by the treat- 
ment given there, such a demonstration 
ought surely to condemn the hospital. 

But no such conclusion could be properly 
drawn from the fact that the inmates of a 
hospital are not free from disease, or that 




some of them show worse symptoms than 
some people who never entered its doors. 

The patients are in the hospital because 
they are diseased ; and the question is, Are 
they better for being there than they would 
be outside ? Do so many of them as accept 
the treatment prescribed, and submit them- 
selves to it with docility and fidelity, find 
relief and improvement, and make steady, 
though perhaps not swift, progress toward 
good health ? 

So the candid inquirer, investigating 
Christianity, will not reject it because its 
professors are faulty, morally imperfect — 
sometimes more obviously so, and more dis- 
agreeably, than some who make no such 
profession. His question will be: Does the 
reception of Christianity into a sinful man's 
heart, and the teachable submission of him- 
self to its ordinances, put him in the way of 
becoming better than he was before — of 
being cured of his moral and spiritual disor- 
der and disease ? Do so many as thus truly 
accept it find essential spiritual benefit ? 

Let it be frankly admitted that the disci- 
ples of Christ do find themselves, and are 
found by others, to be very different from 
what they ought to be — are found to possess 
traits of character which are discreditable 
to them, and which bring reproach upon the 
religion which they profess. Their own 
faces are filled with shame, and scoffers 
sneer at their manifestations of selfishness or 
impatience or other unlovely characteristics. 
Sometimes they betray a paltry ambition or 
envy or jealousy in matters directly pertain- 
ing to the kingdom of Christ, as the two sons 
of Zebedee and their mother did (Matt. 20 : 

Then perhaps some proud unbeliever curls 
his lip and flings some bitter sarcasm at that 
particular manifestation of selfishness from 
which he himself is free only because he 
cares nothing for the great and sacred 
matters, which the sincere but imperfect 
disciples are dishonoring by their conten- 
tion, but which, after all, is to them dearer 
than life. 

They are sadly at fault as they at times 
bitterly feel ; but it is not true that they are 
worse than they would be if, by mere in- 
difference to such sacred things, and by 
coldly neglecting them, they escaped the 
manifestations of their faults in connection 
with them. 

When such faulty disciples accept with 

meekness the humiliating illustration of their 
own imperfection and infirmity, and accept 
with gratitude the Master's kind forbear- 
ance, and his gracious encouragement, then 
are they in the best and surest way to essen- 
tial improvement of character. 

Such patients of the Great Physician are 
convalescent under his treatment. They 
are growing spiritually and morally better. 
They do overcome pride and envy and sel- 
fishness of all forms and flavors, just as 
John and James and Peter so evidently did. 
They become meek and gentle and forgiving 
and kind, like their Lord; like him also in 
diligence and zeal and intrepidity in what- 
ever service he calls them to. 

An eminent physician, who had not be- 
come a happy believer in Christ as a Saviour, 
though he honored his moral teachings, was 
prostrated by sickness that baffled his own 
skill and that of all his professional breth- 
ren. His robust muscular frame dwindled ; 
his strong face grew thin and sallow, and 
his manly voice, " changing to childish 
treble, jiiped and whistled in its sound." 
He was convinced that he was on his death- 
bed. He had a friend of his own age, a 
minister as eminent in his profession as he 
himself was in his own. He sent a message 
to that friend, desiring a visit from him. 
Coming promptly to his friend's chamber, 
the white-haired minister, sitting beside his 
bed, said kindly : 

" In your condition, doctor, I do not 
think it well to enter into any extended pre- 
sentation of the evidences of Christianity. 
I will only ask your consideration of one 
simple thing. That is the effect of a sincere 
belief in Christ as the Saviour from sin, upon 
the character of those who thus accept him. 
I dare say you have known some — perhaps 
many — professing such a faith, in whose 
Uvea you have not seen any evidence of im- 
provement thereby. Put I think that you 
•have known some, and known them well, of 
whose sincerity in that profession you have 
no doubt, and upon whose character you 
plainly see that faith in Christ has had ad- 
mirable effect." 

The sick man reached out his thin hand, 
and pointed toward a drug-store just across the 
street, saying, in the husky tones of his weak 
voice: " Yes, there's Dr. S — . That man 
is all the while in my mind." 

Did the light of Christ's countenance, re- 



fleeted from the godly life of his neighbor, 
shed ;i saving beam upon that doubting soul 
in the valley of the shadow of death '? 

The quiet, patient, persistent and consist- 
ent living of such a godly life is the best 
possible Christian Endeavor. 


The Fourth of July, 1896, marks 
the completion of one hundred and twenty 
years since thirteen colonies of Great Brit- 
ain were declared by their representatives to 
be, as they " of right ought to be, free and 
independent States." The " more perfect 
union " afterwards established has endured 
all the tests of a century. The twenty- 
seventh term of the presidential office is in 
its last year, and the people are preparing 
to make their twenty-eighth choice of a chief 
magistrate. The number of States in this 
Union has increased from thirteen to forty- 
five, with still more impressive extension of 
territory and increase of population, wealth 
and power. Has there been also an increase 
of that righteousness which exalts a nation 
— that wisdom which alone can insure long 
life to any people ? 

In a conversation with ex-President 
Hayes in nearly the last year of his life, this 
(piestiou was put to him: " Does it seem to 
you that Christian ethical principles have 
more, or less, decisive control over public 
affairs now than wheu you were a young 
man ?" 

He frankly replied : " In most respects it 
dues seem to me that there has been consid- 
erable improvement. Ethical considerations 
enter into political issues and discussions 
more influential!}'. Candidates for office 
have more need to be, or at least to per- 
suade the voters that they are, virtuous and 
upright, and that the measures they advocate 
are not merely politic but right. There is, 
however, one respect in which I cannot take 
so favorable a view. Money seems to me to 
go further in giving success to candidacy 
for office than it did in the earlier days." 
He illustrated that point especially by refer- 
ring to the United States Senate, in which 
he said there were several members of 
whom no intelligent person could think that 
they would be there if they were not rich. 
He did not mean that any of those men 
directly used money to purchase their seats. 
But so much money is used in prosecuting 
a political canvass, that a candidate is pre- 
ferred by party managers who is known to 
have plenty of money, and presumed to be 

willing to contribute liberally for what these 
managers declare to be " legitimate ex- 
penses." President Hayes did not seem to 
understand — who does ? — what legitimate 
use can be made of so much money in con- 
ducting a canvass. 

Since the foregoing sentences were written 
the conventions of the two principal political 
parties have nominated their candidates for 
the presidency and published their " plat- 
forms. ' ' No discussion of the financial or 
economical principles and doctrines thus 
announced can properly have place in these 
pages, but we are glad to record that both 
candidates for the presidency are known to 
be men of clean life and Christian charac- 
ter. There seems to be no reason why the 
' ' great debate ' ' to which the people of 
the land are thus invited, should not be free 
from vituperation, and conducted with 

Four years ago we asked, and we now 
repeat the question, Why should sueh a de- 
bate be called a campaign, and the dispu- 
tants in it find occasion to use terms of 
belligerency ? We hold the educating effect 
of such style of debate to be injurious, and 
earnestly wish that all such terms as " ene- 
my," "fight" and "victor" could be 
dropped from the vocabulary of political 
and ecclesiastical discussions. 

It is recently announced that one of the 
two candidates for the presidency proposes 
to the other that they shall engage in joint 
debate before assemblies of the people, as 
has long been customary with candidates fol- 
lower offices, representing local constituen- 
cies. We earnestly hope that the larger 
experience and greater maturity of the 
other candidate will prevent him from ac- 
cepting this proposal, and, as they are said 
to be strong personal friends, we trust that 
the younger man will accept the advice of 
the older, and of the more experienced men 
in his own political party, to follow the 
example of their predecessors in preserving 
a dignified silence, while other statesmen 
conduct whatever oral debate -a thoughtful 




and reading nation needs to aid its delibera- 
tion upon the grave question, to whom it can 
most wisely entrust its supreme magistracy. 
A large delegation of women have visited 
one of the candidates with cordial congratu- 

lation, and have received from him a grace- 
ful and suitable response. We greatly regret 
that the lady who made the address allowed 
herself to call her countrymen who will 
vote for the other candidate, " enemies." 


The Christian Endeavor hosts are 
gathering in the capital of the United States 
as our August number goes to press. Be- 
fore our next monthly issue, they will have 
returned to their homes all over the conti- 
nent, and the daily and weekly press will 
have reported the proceedings at Washing- 
ton. We shall hope to enrich the pages of 
our September issue with such statements 
and illustrations as seem most important for 
this more permanent record. The Associate 
Editor of The Church at Home and 
Akroad is in attendance upon the great 
convention for the purpose of securing this, 
and of enjoying the inspiration and encour- 
agement which cannot fail to come to him 
from such communion with consecrated 

What patriotic inspiration will not these 
young Americans have received by such a 
visit to the seat of their nation's government ? 
It is not indeed at a season of the year in 
which they might see the houses of Congress 
in session and have the pleasure of taking 
the hand of the President and of Mrs. 
Cleveland in the White House, but they 
will look upon the stately edifices in which 
the nation's business is done and the na- 
tion's treasures are kept; they will behold 
the statues of our country's heroes, and 
monuments of historic events; they will 
never lose from memory the peerless gran- 
deur of the Capitol and the monument of 
Washington, nor the beauty of the Poto- 
mac down which they sail to visit reverently 
ln's home and his tomb. The silent, potent, 
educating influence of what these myriads 
of youth will have seen by reason of their 
great convention being held at that place, 
will be worth vastly more than all it will 
have cost. The money and the time could 
not better have been spent, if we considered 
only the interests of patriotism promoted by 
such an opportunity and enjoyed by so 
many of the young men and women of the 
win ile wide land. 

Nu less beneficent will be the effect upon 
those who come from the great kindred 

country north of the great lakes and the 
noble river that carries their waters to the 
sea — a country whose civil and religious in- 
stitutions and the domestic life of its people 
are so hardly distinguishable from our own. 





Cuu any one of the young men who will 
sing and pray together in Washington 
imagine anything more monstrous than to 
be transported across that river or those lakes 
from either of these countries in hostile 
invasion of the other ? Can any one of 
those young women bear the thought of her 
brother or lover or friend ever being called 
upon to have part in such a moiitrous inva- 
sion ? May we not believe that this propi- 

tious assembling of these youth for so friend- 
ly and so sacred purpose, will greatly pro- 
mote the pending effort to unite these two 
great peoples in indissoluble bonds of mutual 
covenant to submit all future questions be- 
tween them not to the brutal arbitrament of 
force, but to the rational arbitrament of law 
— that law " whose seat is the bosom of 
God, and its voice the harmony of the 
world ?" 


Mk. Randolph has been a faithful 
member of the General Assembly's Com- 
mittee appointed to establish The Church 
at Home and Abroad, and to have 
supervision of it, from 1886 to the present 
time. His death at Westhampton, L. I., 
July 7, 1896, removes from that committee 
one of its most diligent, vigilant and wise 
members. His cultivated taste and judg- 
ment in literature and his large experience 
as a publisher, made his counsels invaluable 
to the committee and to the editors. We 
are only a few of the host of friends who 
admire and love him. His name, as pub- 
lisher, is on the title-page of many good books, 
widely circulated and profitably read by 
thousands of intelligent and devout people 
iu all the lands in which the English lan- 
guage is spoken. He published some poems 
written by himself. One little volume of 
such bears the modest title " Verses." 
Opening it two days after his death, we find 
a poem entitled Hopefully Waiting, from 
which we quote below some stanzas which 
comfort us " with the comfort wherewith he 
himself was comforted of God." We 
would fain share this comfort with our many 
readers who share our reverent love for Mr. 
Randolph : 

If for a time some loved one goes away 
And leaves us our appointed work to do, 
Can we to him or to ourselves be true, 
In mourning his departure day by day, 
And so our work delay? 
Nay, if we love and honor, we shall make 
The absence brief by doing well our task — 
Not for ourselves, but for the dear one's sake ; 
And at his coming only of him ask 
Approval of the work, which most was done, 
Not for ourselves, but our beloved one ! 

Our Father's House, I know, is broad and grand ; 

In it how many, many mansions are ! 

And far beyond the light of sun or star 

Four little ones of mine through that fair land 

Are walking hand in hand ! 

Think you I love them not, or that I forget 

These of my loins? — Still this world is fair, 

And I am singing while my eyes are wet 

With weeping in this balmy summer air. 

I am not homesick, and the children here 

Have need of me, and so my way is clear ! 

I would be joyful as my days go by, 
Counting God's mercies tome. He who bore 
Life's heaviest cross is mine for evermore ; 
And I, who wait his coming, shall not I 
On his sure word rely? 

So, if sometimes the way be rough, and sleep 
Be heavy for the grief he sends to me, 
Or at my waking I would only weep — 
Let me be mindful that these things must be, 
To work his blessed will until he come 
And take my hand and lead me 
Safely home. 

The following lines, written by Mr. 
Randolph in honor of William H. Seward, 
and dated March 4, 1869, the last day of 
that great statesman's public service, were 
after his death inscribed on the pedestal of 
the noble statue near his home in Auburn: 

"How, through these years in patience hast thou 

The cruel doubt, the slanders of debate — 
The assassin' s knife, and keener blade of scorn 

Wielded by party in its narrow hate ! 
How couldst thou pause each step to vindicate 

Of thy surpassing work ? Lo ! it is done : 
Freedom enshrined in our regenerate State, 

And they who were divided made as one I " 





I From The Evangelist.! 

No living being who passed through the 
horror of great darkness which descended 
on this city at five o'clock May 27, 1896, 
will ever forget its awfulness nor the fright- 
ful roar of the whirling tornado, which 
drowned all other sounds in its own howling 
vortex. Roofs were ripped off, chimneys 
dashed down, thousands of panes of glass 
shattered, giant oaks twisted up by the roots 
and carried away bodily, immense smoke- 
stacks and great factories crushed into heaps 
of brick, mortar, broken machinery ; and 
there were shrieking human beings, yet all 
combined were not heard. The experience 
of many people was : " I saw our roof go 
and the front of the house cave in, but I did 
not hear it; the compressed air was crushing 
me; my ear drums seemed bursting." 
Vivid lightning lent its terrors; the wind's 
force is told mutely, but pitifully, by the 
twisted stumps and splintered shredded 
branches of the grand old elms in Lafayette 
Park, the beautiful, once our pride and joy, 
now a place to weep over in its desolation. 

With the wind came the deluge; solid 
sheets of water pouring down chimneys, 
through broken windows, flooding the roof- 
less houses, and beating plaster and soot into 
oeds, carpets, closets, and whatever furni- 
ture the cyclone had not swept away. Oh, 
the misery and wretchedness of that awful 
night! Beds, clothing soaking wet, flues 
down, gas leaking, lamps broken, no chance 
for fire or hot coffee, no light possible, the 
streets a black mass of telegraph poles, 
roofs, trees, branches, furniture, bricks, all 
woven together by miles of twisted electric 
wires, those death-dealing "live wires" 
which kept people from venturing out. 
Hundreds of families passed the night in their 
cellars. Fortunately, all currents were cut 
off at once, but that left the darkness total. 

There was brightness, however, and that 
was in the free, unstinted hospitality ex- 
tended by every family who had even a part 
of a roof over their heads. Those who had 
lost all but their kitchens and pantries, made 
coffee for their neighbors. Those whose 
attics remained, opened cedar chests and 
emptied closets, wrapping their clean blan- 
kets and warm flannels around draggled, 
dripping women and shivering little chil- 
dren, while the men tried to rescue the 

wounded and dying who were imprisoned 
under the debris. 

That the death roll did not reach 2000 
instead of not quite 200 is a matter of 
perpetual wonderment and thankfulness. 
Nearly a hundred new babies opened their 
eyes that wild night to no shelter from the 
pouring rain but a bed-quilt tent and the 
mother's arms. 

Thursday morning broke at last, and was 
a marvel of clear sunshine, brilliant sky and 
cool breeze. But it revealed a horror, the 
extent of which seemed to paralyze the 
people, and which beggars description. 

Oh, the bravery, cheerfulness and self- 
sacrifice of the sufferers! It was hard to 
find the worst cases. Again and again we 
met the reply, " We will do well enough; 
help those who have been injured ; none of 
us are hurt." 

Yet it came from those whose homes were 
piles of rubbish, and whose clothing was 
borrowed while their own things were drying 
on prostrate trees or the projecting rafters. 
Gentlewomen, accustomed to every luxury, 
went back and forth carrying armfuls of 
soaked bedding or clothes to be dried on the 
wreckage or grass in the park. Men stared 
ruin in the face, the accumulation of years 
swept away, and yet with a manly ring in 
their voices cried: " Thank (Hod, we are all 
alive; Ave'll have to begin again, that's all." 

A heart-breaking case, just to instance 
one out of hundreds, is that of two ladies, 
teachers in the public schools. All their 
patrimony, not large, and their own savings, 
had gone to purchase a pretty little home 
for themselves and their widowed mother. 
In early May, the last payment, $300, was 
made, the house was their own, free from 
debt. The storm swept over them, and not 
one brick was left upon another, not even a 
window frame remained, it was just kind- 
ling wood and rubbish. The mother was 
prostrated by the shock, and these cultured 
women were penniless, homeless, almost 
naked, and the long vacation before them. 
Of course, all immediate wants were sup- 
plied, but what of the future ? 

All unstricken St. Louis hastened to help. 
The dead were to be buried and the wounded 
cared for first. Alas, the great city hospital 
was in ruins. By Monday the district was 




divided and apportioned to the four estab- 
lished charity organizations of the city, and 
under them the work of relief went on 
rapidly and efficiently. 

But I want to tell of some Presbyterian 
grcat-heartedness which quite antedated the 
general relief work. The women of several 
of our churches called hurried meetings, 
and sent over to see what was most needed 
in the terribly stricken households of the 
Lafayette Fark Church, they meanwhile 
collecting clothing, bedding and provisions, 
and making new things. I shall not soon 
forget the scene of Dr. Niccolls' lecture- 
room early Saturday morning. The girls 
were sorting out great bundles of clothing, 
and such nice things as they were ! Those 
Presbyterian women— God bless them ! — did 
not send their stricken sisters a lot of cast- 
off, dowdy trumpery, but gave as they 
would be given to, things they would have 
been willing to accept, adding loving, sym- 
pathetic messages and — act of a womanly 
woman — slipping a fresh handkerchief into 
the pocket. A dozen women were busy 
making up baskets of provisions, and, oh ! 
such goodies as they did put in! Real 
picnic baskets they were — sandwiches, 
crackers and cheese, sections of boiled ham, 
hard-boiled eggs, jelly and cake, besides a 
package of rolled oats, a jar of beef ex- 
tract, and little papers marked " coffee," 
" tea," " sugar," " salt;" three candles, 
a box of matches and some odd cups and 
teaspoons that need not be returned, such a 
basket as would gladden a hungry man's 
heart, bring tears of joy to a tired mother's 
eyes, and go to the right spot in the small 
boy's anatomy; a something comfortable, 
ready, that you needn't stop to hunt for. 
What comfort and cheer those baskets did 
give, how exactly the right thing at the 
right time they were! 

The Second Church ladies give the First 
Church ladies the credit of suggesting the 
idea. All I know is that both churches sent 
them, and kept on sending them and the 
bundles day after day, and Dr. Gauss's 
church, way down in Carondelet, sent up 
carriage loads of clothing and boxes of 
lunch, and were met at the " gang-plank " 
leading into the Park Church (our steps 
were demolished) by delegations from the far- 
off West Church, and Dr. Brookes' church, 
who were climbing over the heaps of stone and 
window frames and eagerly inquiring, " Has 

our wagon come ? We loaded it and sent 
it off before we started." The next excla- 
mation invariably was, ' ' Oh, your beautiful 
church! Isn't it terrible? Can anything 
be done with it ? How sopping wet every- 
thing is ! " 

But I anticipate. Those Saturday bas- 
kets were carried around to the homes, a 
specially nice one going to Dr. Palmer's, 
with a suspiciously tearful laugh about Sun- 
day dinner. During Saturday, some of the 
members, forgetting their own losses, had 
rescued the carpet in the auditorium, 
moved the pews and cushions to a place of 
safety, and covered in the big organ with 
tarpaulin. The lecture-room was cleared 
out, and we were ready for service on 

A-cold, rainy, dreary Sunday it was, but 
a large number gathered together, and oh, 
how we did sing! I half suspect that Dr. 
Palmer was afraid to trust his voice just at 
first; indeed, most of us seemed to be 
husky ; dampness has that effect sometimes. 
It was like whistling to keep our courage 
up, with the drip, drip of the rain coming 
through the great holes in the upper room, 
and the wind soughing through broken 
windows. It made one feel nearer of kin to 
one's Covenanter or Huguenot ancestors, 
but when we started, 

"How firm a foundation," 

the clouds lifted, every soul was buoyed up 
by the grand old hymn, and when the 

" I will be with thee thy troubles to bless, 
And sanctify to thee thy deepest distress," 

came, we just felt the everlasting arms 
beneath us and knew it would all come 
right in the end. Pale faces brightened, 
tear-dimmed eyes looked up with though- 
he-slay-me faith, and trembling lips grew 
firm as they sang, 

" I* 11 never, no never, no never forsake. 

Dr. Palmer, all worn out though he was 
with trying to rescue something from his 
own wrecked home, spoke inspiringly from 
Nehemiah's brave words, " We, his ser- 
vants, will arise and build," and the people 
said, "Yes, God helping us, we will." 

God and his people have helped us. The 
lecture-room has windows, and the roof is 
going on rapidly, and almost enough money 
has been sent us to pay for both. 

St. Louis. N. M. H. R. 



: erin 








In the last number the writer expressed 
the opinion that whatever plan was adopted 
to encourage systematic giving, it would be 
found that its efficiency depended upon the 
active personal interest of the pastor of the 
church. It may be added that when the 
pastor can have the earnest cooperation of 
the officers of the church, success becomes 
practically assured. The following letter, 
just received, shows how one church cares 
for the interests of the different Boards. 
Were the plan thus outlined, or some similar 
plan adopted and worked with equal dili- 
gence in all of our churches, there would 
be no lack of needed supplies: 

Dear Sir .—As we take a collection for the Board 
of Church Erection on the second Sabbath of June, 
we would like to have you send us out what printed 
matter you have for distribution, so that we may 
be able to increase our subscription to this board. 
If you have envelopes for this special purpose we 
could use about 300. 

Our elders have divided up the different boards 
of our Church and each elder is supposed to make 
a special effort for the Board he represents, believ- 
ing this to be the best way to get our people inter- 
ested in the work of the different boards. 

I am one of the committee on this board, although 
not the chairman, but as he lives in the country 
and cannot always be present, I am looking after 
this part of the work. 


Two letters have lately reached this office, 
one from the chairman of the Committee 
upon Church Erection of the Presbytery of 
Fort Dodge, and the other from the stated 
clerk of the Presbytery of Madison. 

They are so encouraging and suggestive 
that we are sure they will interest the breth- 
ren who are engaged in similar work in other 

Rev. M. T. Rainier, of Fort Dodge Pres- 
bytery, writes: 

Will you please to send me a list of the churches 
in the presbytery with the amount contributed by 
each last year, as I want to begin my campaign for 
this year with July. 

I am sure we made some progress last year and 
hope to make more this. 

The encouragement is indeed great when 
we note the last year's advance, to which 
Bro. Rainier refers. 

There are forty churches in Fort Dodge 
Presbytery. In the year before last of these 
forty churches only sixteen made contribu- 
tions to the work of this Board, and the 
total amount received from the presbytery 
was $105. 54. Last year, under Bro. 
Rainier' s wise and energetic leadership, the 





Presbytery did indeed, as he modestly 
expresses it, " make some progress." Con- 
tributions were received from twenty-eight 
churches, amounting to $164.47. In other 
words there was an advance of sixty-four 
per cent, in the number of contributing 
churches, and of nearly fifty-six per cent, 
in the total contributions. 

A like advance the present year would 
bring every church in the presbytery into 
line, and unless there were speedy progress 
in other presbyteries make Fort Dodge in 
point of contributions for Church Erection 
the "banner" presbytery of the synod. 
Why may not a similar work be done in 
every presbytery. If so, the number of 
contributing churches would rise from 3477 
to 5702, and the work of this Board be ad- 
vanced as never before. 

The other letter is from the Rev. C. L. 
Richards, stated clerk of Madison Presby- 
tery. It touches upon a very important 
point, viz., the oversight of the churches 
that apply to the Board for aid or which 
have received such aid in the past. He 
says : 

In my duties as chairman of Home Missions I 
have found serious trouble to arise in connection 
with church building. Believing that presbytery 
should exercise better oversight in this matter I 
asked for a standing rule. Two of the brethren 
drafted one which you will see upon the fourth 
page of the circular. I think every presbytery 
should be more watchful. 


(a) It shall be the duty of the Standing Commit- 
tee on Church Erection, and said committee is 
hereby authorized, to visit any field where it is 
proposed to build or procure a church edifice or 
parsonage with aid from our Board of Church 
Erection, to examine the suitableness of the site 
proposed, the character of the title to the property 
in question, and the desirableness of any change 
in the location or condition, in such cases, of ex- 
isting church property, and to recommend to the 
church in question such action as said standing 
committee shall in their judgment deem best. 

( b ) In case one of our church organizations is, 
or is about to be, dissolved, leaving a building or 
other church property to be disposed of, it shall be 
the duty of the Church Erection Committee, and 
said committee is hereby authorized, to act with 
the legal claimants of said property, under the 
laws of our State, so as to help secure any claims, 

in law or equity, which our Board of Church Erec- 
tion may have upon said property. 

(c) In the discharge of such service the neces- 
sary traveling expenses of the chairman and one 
other member of said committee shall be paid on 
or before the following meeting of presbytery out 
of the funds of presbytery. 

If such a rule as the above existed in 
every presbytery it would greatly simplify 
the work of this Board, increase its effective- 
ness, and insure the return to its treasury 
of appropriations no longer used for church 



I learned yesterday that the I'oard had gener- 
ously made the grant asked for by the Boswell 
Church. I want to be like the Samaritan who re- 
turned to give thanks. I know, too, that it is a 
marvelous uplift to our little company of people 
out there and an everlasting blessing to that whole 
community. I believe that that region will be im- 
pressed with our Presbyterianism more and more. 
1 cannot well express to you the gratitude that I 
feel toward the Board. Its treatment has been 
most considerate indeed. I sincerely trust that our 
churches in this synod may realize more fully their 
obligations to the Board of Church Erection. 


Your favor is received with draft for amount of 
grant. We are under great obligations to the board 
for this money as we never could have rebuilt in 
time to save our organization without this help. 


We are more and more conviuced that 
every church should have a manse. Per- 
sonally it has come home to us very pain- 
fully, twice in three years having to move 
out of a rented house wanted by the owners, 
with no guarantee that such a thing will 
not occur at any time. If a congregation 
realizes the amount of time lost by such 
removals, and the inevitable impairing of 
usefulness for a time at least, in the natural 
wear and tear of such experiences, no effort 
will be missed to secure a home which, be- 
longing to the church, can be used by the 
pastor during the continuance of the pas- 
torate. — Michigan. Presbyterian. 

— Of the Rev. William C. Burns, English Pres- 
byterian missionary to China, it has been said that 
his life was far more powerful as an influence than 
as an agency. He was distinctly a sower of the 
seed which others have reaped. 

— It is said that the Censors of Turkey prohibit 
the importation of educational books because of the 
discovery in one of them of the formula, H 2 0, 
which was interpreted to mean "Hamed II. is 
naught — a cipher— a nobody." 





Woman has a strong claim on our Church 
— the claim of motherhood, of pioneer sac- 
rifice and fortitude, of missionary service 
and suffering, of persistent Chuich devotion 
and beneficence. It is, however, a claim 
honored in psalm and sentiment rather than 
by any enduring monument. The Presby- 
terian Church has neither great column nor 
institution dedicated to women. A Church 
of educated men demanding educated 
women for wives, we have not a single first- 
class college in America for women only. 
Mr. Bryce's "American Commonwealth" 
records no such Presbyterian foundation. 
Neither Vassar, nor Smith, nor Wellesley, 
nor Bryn Mawr memorialize Presbyterian 
gratitude or Presbyterian ambition. 

Jane Patterson Coates, of Greencastle, 
Ind., was, therefore, righteously impelled 
when she gave her money to the higher 
education of women. And the more, in 
that she planted her seed in the Central- 
West, where, in twenty-jive States, no young 
girl could find a good semblance of an East- 
tern college for women. Thoroughly earnest 
this good woman denied herself much of 
life's comfort that she might found Coates 

College ; thoroughly consecrated she planted 
her tree by the waters, ordaining that the 
word of God should be the fountain of its 
culture and discipline. Heroically she 
wrote: " The Bible shall be its chief text 

True to this injunction, Coates has lifted 
the Scriptures to their rightful plane in a 
college curriculum. Their place is never 
incidental, never subordinate ; always settled 
first and other subjects adjusted. 

Equally loyal, Coates engages on its fac- 
ulty only such women as indulge no quib- 
bles about the Bible being the word of God 
and Jesus Christ being the Son of God and 
the world's Redeemer; and such as pledge 
themselves to the doctrine that the develop- 
ment of Christian womanhood is as much 
their professional obligation as is the secur- 
ing of fine intellectual results. 

This fidelity to him God has honored, 
even if through much tribulation. " Few 
American schools unendowed have in ten 
years acquired the enviable reputation en- 
joyed by Coates. Poveity, misfortune, an- 
tagonism, indifference, prejudice have all 
beset its path. But inspired by its founder's 
faith, it has fought, first, for existence, then 
for land to build on, for buildings to live in 
and work in, for books and apparatus and 
faculty, and in and through all for high 





Wvm HP Ifl BBS 


standard of scholarshij) and character. It 
lias quadrupled its original acreage, multi- 
plied its insurable values by five, increased 
its patronage even more proportionately, 
paid off' three times as much debt as its total 
assets were in 1888, and has risen from 
pitiful insignificance to a respect and dig- 
nity that makes strong women glad to enter 
its faculty and representative parents to en- 
dorse it by patronage, while the older schools 
pay it most respectful consideration. 

Coates, if small, is withal a real college. 
It is not " college" gone a-masquerading. 
It is not a preparatory skeleton liveried in 
collegiate passe-menterie. Its Bachelors are 
bachelors of intrinsic merit. One recently 
secured a professorship of mathematics in a 
contest with fifteen representatives of our 
oldest colleges. Only two had done more 
mathematics than the Coates candidate 
(and this a trifle). 

The grounds are spacious; the buildings, 
of plain exterior; but, as to interiors, invit- 
ing, though not elegant (see July Forum ; 
August 13, Interior). 

Coates speaks well for the Board of Aid's 
power to develop small gifts. There was 
but little to begin with. No appropria- 
tions have been made except for current 
expenses. Yet unsuspected power has 
been made manifest, much local liberality 
drawn out; jiermauency greatly fortified, 

and the Board's financial encouragement 

Coates glows with vitality. Its faith -born 
life seems — is — unquenchable. It has done 
its best financial work right in the midst of 
the distresses of the last three years. The 
past year has been its best. 

But the burden is great. Its needs are 
many. It needs books. It now has twenty- 
five hundred volumes. It needs handsome 
buildings. It particularly needs immedi- 
ately a music and assembly hall. It needs 
a rally of Western Presbyterianism and of 
Eastern philanthropy. It needs the fostering 
interest of the Synod of Indiana. 

Coates represents what Western girls 
yearn for, what many are denied. 

With its momentum of ten years' success- 
ful struggles, Coates offers an opportunity 
for the safe investment of devoted funds. 
As such a investment in his name, God 
has enabled every dollar given by Mrs. Coates 
to earn for his cause five unincumbered dol- 
lars. Nor does this take account of those 
inestimable, imperishable accumulations 
and dividends that lie treasured in the lives 
of the young women Coates has sent forth. 

The writer appeals to the givers of our 
great Church, the men and women who 
would honor the memory of sainted mothers 
of yesterday and who would make richer the 
lives of the women of to-day and to-morrow. 




In one of the recent numbers of a Pres- 
byterian weekly newspaper there appeared 
a communication in which attention was 
called to the unusually large size of the 
class about to be graduated from one of the 
theological seminaries of the Church, and 
to the alleged fact that only a small propor- 
tion of them knew where they would be 
located. In immediate connection with this 
statement, the remark of one, supposed to 
have unusually good opportunities for judg- 

ing, was quoted to the effect that the semi- 
naries are turning out more men than there 
are churches requiring their services, and 
that the result is inevitably an unseemly 
scramble to find a place. This communica- 
tion calls attention to a most important sub- 
ject which needs renewed and earnest study 
— the subject of the careful supervision of 
candidates for the ministry both during their 
course of preparation in college and seminary, 
and during their period of probation as 
licentiates. It would hardly be wise to 
close the doors of these institutions of sacred 
learning in the face of any man who 





wished to attend the lectures and "pursue the 
course of studies there provided. These 
privileges might be freely accorded to all 
who bring good testimonials and maintain a 
good character, while the conditions for ma- 
triculation, for the enjoyment of scholarships, 
for the bearing away of the diploma of the 
institution, might be made much more strict 
than at present. There are none too many men 
of the right stamp offering themselves for the 
m in istry of the gospel. We are very earnestly 
of the opinion that the scholarships which 
are entrusted to the seminaries and to the 
Board of Education should be restricted in 
the most careful manner to the men who 
give evidence of being called of God to 
the ministry, who are willing to take the 
time and endure the privations and toil 
which may be necessary to get a complete 
education, who maintain a reputation for 
scholarly and rhetorical ability throughout 
their course, and show the sincerity of their 
zeal by a willingness to stand the test of a 
probation of reasonable length in some mis- 
sion field, or humble parish, at its close. The 
impression is abroad in some minds that there 
is an indiscriminate granting of scholarships, 
and, however unjust the impression may 
be, the inevitable result is to cast discredit 
upon the whole system of scholarship aid by 
which the Church has been able to acquire 
her excellent reputation for a learned min- 

It is no idle boast when we assert that the 
Board of Education is exercising a most 
powerful influence in the way of restricting 
the granting of this aid to such persons as 
are found to be pious, scholarly, faithful, 
giving promise of usefulness. Its rules make 
full provision for the careful selection of 
candidates at the beginning, and for the 
watchful supervision of each one throughout 
his whole course, never hesitating to remove 
from its roll each year those who, after fair 
trial, prove themselves unsatisfactory. The 
Board is deeply grateful to those presby- 
teries and to the faculties of those colleges 
and those theological seminaries which 
have cordially cooperated with it in the 
effort to carry these wholesome rules into 
effect. It makes, however, an earnest plea 
for fuller cooperation. It begs presbyteries 
to redouble their care in the recommenda- 
tion of candidates. Scholarship money is a 
precious trust. Not a dollar is to be wasted. 
It begs presbyteries never to renew an 

application in behalf of a candidate without 
a new investigation of his case, and a study 
of the record he has made during the year. 
It begs the faculties of the several institu- 
tions where our candidates are under instruc- 
tion to be more particular than ever in 
reporting to it any delinquencies in charac- 
ter or conduct which would make it doubt- 
ful whether the candidate should be further 
encouraged to seek the ministry. A mod 
grave responsibility rests upon them. The 
Board makes or withholds payments of 
its precious trust funds in accordance with 
the reports it receives from their hands. It 
pledges itself to be as faithful as it knows 
how to be in the administration of the 
money committed to its trust. There are, 
however, many scholarships over which it 
has no control. These are administered 
with the utmost care and conscientious 
fidelity by the faculties of the several sem- 
inaries. Still it cannot be doubted that 
they are distributed with a freer hand than 
are those which are controlled by the Board 
of Education, and it is a question certainly 
deserving consideration whether the result 
is altogether satisfactory. It is possible 
that a policy of restriction would be a great 
advantage to the whole cause of ministerial 
education. This does not mean that there 
are too many ministers ; but only that it is 
possible that scholarships might with great 
advantage be more sparingly given. That 
there is ground for this feeling appears from 
the fact that new consideration and study 
is being devoted to this subject in more than 
one of our theological seminaries. The 
Board is made very happy by the informa- 
tion which it has to this effect; and we take 
this occasion to ask these gentlemen who are 
considering what improvements can be made 
in the all-important matter of scholarship 
aid to make a careful study of the rules of the 
Board of Education, which are the result of 
more than three-quarters of a century of 
constant experience and painstaking thought 
on the part of some of the very first men in 
the Church, and which are constantly de- 
monstrating their value and their usefulness 
We call attention again to the fact that at 
least one of the seminaries already has 
among the " terms and conditions " under 
which its scholarships may be enjoyed, the 
following requirement: " In the distribu- 
tion of these funds the faculty are still 
further bound to apply the same tests that 




are applied by the Board of Education of 
the Presbyterian Church." We are firmly 
of the opinion that, if every one of our 
seminaries could see its way clear to adopt 
similar terms and conditions and faithfully 
adhere to them in the distribution of the 
scholarships which they control, new confi- 
dence would be everywhere inspired, the 
money of the Church would be more freely 
and cheerfully given, more good would be 
accomplished, and a better tone be found 
among the students themselves. Such action 
would give unity to the policy of the 
Church, and greatly stimulate the effort to 
keep the standard of admission to the min- 
istry reasonably high. 

We believe that too large inferences were 
drawn from the impression that compara- 
tively few of the graduating class of a certain 
seminary knew where they would be located. 
It is too much to be expected that they 
should generally have had the oppor- 
tunity to find places of settlement before 
the completion of their studies. We, too, 
have had some opportunities of judging 
and we have reason to believe that a very 
large proportion of each class as it grad- 
uates from a theological seminary find 
settlement within a short time after they 
leave the institution. We have very lit- 
tle doubt, from what we have heard, that 
such has been the case very generally this 

We think that it can be easily shown that 
the Church has a place and a welcome for 
all the yearly product of our seminaries so 
far as the graduates prove themselves to be 
men of talent and unselfish devotion to the 
work of Christ; and there is no doubt that 
there are many fields ready to be reaped for 
the care of which the utmost difficulty is expe- 
rienced in finding ordained ministers. We 
have recent letters on file telling of the des- 
titution, and of the necessity of employing 
students in term-time, both from the theo- 
logical seminary and from the college, to 
occupy places for which no minister can be 
found. And yet there are some hundreds 
of unemployed ministers on the roll. What 
we i eed is a better system for the putting 
of our ministers to work in appropriate 
fields, and more care in keeping men out of 
the ministry who have no aptitude for the 
calling, or are lacking in that spirit of de- 
votion and self-denial which makes them 
ready to work in any place where human 

nature in its sin and degradation cries out 
for a helper. 


We do not believe that the churches will 
allow this; but great anxiety is felt for the 
moment. The Board has every reason to 
believe that the Church is in hearty sym- 
pathy with the work which it is carrying on 
in its name, and with the careful methods 
employed, which have had a success which 
may be described as extraordinary. This 
is shown by the fact that everywhere pres- 
byteries are heartily cooperating with its 
plans and operations. They have con- 
tinued to recommend men in increasing 
numbers, until last year a total of 1100 
was reached, of whom the Board accepted 
1037. Eleven years ago the number was 
only 619. One thing the churches do not 
seem to have appreciated, and that is that 
increasing the number of candidates at the 
rate of more than 400 in ten years in volves a 
very large increase of expenditure, to meet 
which the churches have made vo increase 
in gifts. It is high time that they under- 
stood that, in order to carry on the work 
which they have committed to the Board, 
an expenditure has been necessary in ten 
years of almost $200,000 more than the 
amount of offerings from the churches in 
thai time. Help has providentially come 
in times of great emergency, but, alas, the 
meagre amount allowed to our candidates 
has been reduced to an almost insignificant 
sum. We dare not depend upon help from 
some unknown source for the coming season. 
The income in sight does not warrant our 
nulling any promise now to a single new 
candidate. We are looking anxiously for a 
response to our message to the churches in 
the good hope that it will be of such a char- 
acter that we may make a promise to at 
least the usual number in the fall. We 
are only asking from every church a promise 
that the congregation may be allowed a fair 
opportunity to contribute to this tvorlc after 
a faithful presentation of the came with the 
help of our new leaflet. The work of the 
other Boards of the Church, and the suc- 
cess of all our great schemes for the main- 
tenance and spread of religion at home, and 
through the world, are intimately related 
with the prosperity of this Board. The 
people of God are true, and loyal, and 




zealous. They only need to know the actual 
condition of affairs and they will see to 
it that all necessary provision is made for 
every want in the house of the God 
whom they dearly love and reverently wor- 

ship. They may have perfect confidence in 
the methods and work of the Board of Edu- 
cation which the wisdom of the fathers 
established, and which the experience of 
many years has abundantly vindicated. 




There are some curious and interesting 
things in connection with the movement of 
the cars on our cable lines of street railway. 

As is generally known, the motive power 
for these cars is furnished by an endless 
rope of wire running underground in the 
centre of the track. This rope is kept in 
constant motion at a uniform rate by a pow- 
erful engine located somewhere along the 
line of the road. From the bottom of each 
car clutchers run down through a slit or 
opening iu the track parallel to the rails, 
and catch hold of this moving chain. Of 
course the movement of the chain moves the 
car that is thus attached to it. If a slow 
motion is desired, as in starting, a slight 
clutch or hold is taken on the chain, which 
in part slips through the clutch. If more 
rapid motion is desired, a tighter hold is 
taken until, if the hold is strong enough, the 
car moves as rapidly as the chain to which 
it is attached. If, on the other hand, the 
operator wishes the car to stop, he lets go of 
the chain altogether. One of the most curi- 
ous things is the way in which one of these 
cars is run down a steep grade or hill. How 
do they keep it from going too fast, from 
attaining a speed that would be dangerous ? 
One way is to put on the brake, but this is 
laborious and not always sufficient if the 
hill is steep. What, then, do they do ? 
Why simply clutch the wire rope running 
under the car with a stronger grip. They 
are then safe, no matter how steep the hill. 
The car moves just as fast and no faster than 
the cable, and that has an absolutely uni- 
form movement, up hill and down, night 
and day, all the time. 

In some respects this relation of the car 
to the cable illustrates the relation of the 
Freedmen's Board to the Church. It is 
only as the Board is connected with the 
Church that it can make any progress at all. 

Our Church is progressing. With great 
earnestness — though not always at a uni- 
form rate — she is moving forward along the 
lines of Christian activity and service. The 
closeness and firmness of the hold the Board 
has upon the Church will therefore, deter- 
mine how rapidly it will move forward in 
its great work. It matters not how many 
cars, how many forms of missionary effort, 
are on the track at a time, they will all, if 
firmly holding on to the cable, move on as 
rapidly as it does, and each will move as 
rapidly as the others. 

Some have thought during these hard 
times, that the Church has undertaken too 
much — that the engine is being overtaxed, 
and that it cannot keep up its forward move- 
ment with all these different Boards clinging 
to it, and dependent on it for life and 
movement. But I do not think this feeling 
is general. People are apt to get discour- 
aged in times of difficulty and embarrass- 
ment. But the Christian should remember 
who is back of the Church. There can 
hardly be a question that God has called it 
to every form of Christian activity in which 
it is engaged. Whatever we have under- 
taken in obedience to his commands he will 
enable us to carry through. 

The work of evangelizing the Freedmen 
has made real and lasting progress in the 
past thirty-one years. It is to-day advanc- 
ing more rapidly than ever before in its 
history, in every respect save one, that is, 
its financial resources. Will any one claim 
that the Board has undertaken a larger 
work for these people than their situation 
demands, or than our Church is able to main- 
tain : This can hardly be thought when 
the desolateness and needs of the freed peo- 
ple are considered on the one hand, or, on 
the other hand, the prodigality of expendi- 
ture of many of Our people for personal 
pleasure and profit. Is it because the 
Board, or the cause it represents, has not 
taken a firm enough hold on the great throb- 




bing heart of the Church ? Perhaps so; 
but why has not this cause the heart of the 
Church ? Is it because of lack of fidelity 
on the part of the Board ? Certainly the 
Board has by argument and by entreaty, 
by showing the condition and great need of 
this people, by presenting the claims of 
Christ, and showing the fruitfulness of the 
work — by such means the Board has en- 
deavored to awaken an interest in the salva- 
tion of this people, and to deepen it when 
already existing. How then can we account 
for the fact that, when there are promising 
fields in the South inviting our work, and 
capable colored men saying to the Board, 
" Here am I, send me," the Board is com- 
pelled to say to these men: " We cannot 
send you," and to these fields, " We cannot 
give you the gospel you ask for, because the 
Church does not give us the money to en- 
large the work ?" Does some one say that 
it is an old story, and therefore has lost its 
interest ? It is true, the needs, the claims, 
and the precious opportunity of this work 
have been frequently presented, but are 
they any the less real on that account ? 

It should be remembered that, in one 
sense, those for whom we plead now are not 
the same the Church has been helping for 
thirty-one years. Of the nearly 10,000 
children and youth, now in our schools, the 
great majority are under eighteen years of 
age, and a large proportion of our Church 
members have been born since the war and 
so are not freedmen but free-born. Unless 
we are to lose the results of past efforts, 
unless we are to suffer those who will give 
shape to the future life and destiny of the 
race to grow up without that training which 
will make them wise and safe leaders, we 
must continue for more than one generation 
longer, the work of Christian education. 
Thus only shall we meet the obligations 
placed upon us by the providence of God. 

While the progress, nay the very existence 
of the Freedmen' s Board depends upon its 
holding fast to the sympathy and confidence 
of the Church — there is another ' ' holding on' ' 
to which both the Board and the Church 
will do well to give heed — I mean, " hold- 
ing on " to God. " Our God is marching 
on." If we hold on to him, we shall 
move when he moves, and move steadily 
and safely. 

Sometimes it is thought this work moves 
too slowly. If so, it is because we have not 

close enough hold upon God. Sometimes it 
is thought the work is pushed too fast, is 
getting into debt, is going down hill to 
financial ruin. What is the remedy ? As 
before, the remedy is to get a closer hold on 
God. His movement through all the years 
for the redemption of mankind is steady, 
constant, safe. There can be no danger in 
a forward movement that is under God's 
guidance and control. The trouble and the 
harm come from not keeping a close hold 
upon him, and so not moving forward when 
he would have us. 

As I have said, the reason why these ask- 
ing fields are not supplied with the gospel, 
the reason why these waiting young men 
are not sent to gather the ripened harvest, 
is, the lack of money. With an empty 
treasury, a threatening debt, and the com- 
mand of the Church to keep its expenses 
within its income, the Board does not feel 
justified in incurring obligations that it sees 
no prospect of meeting. 

What, then, is to be done ? Only one of 
two things. Either the Board must decline 
to enlarge its work — as it is now doing — or 
the gifts of the Church to this cause must 
be increased. In these trying times, God's 
people can only add to their gifts by adding 
to their sacrifices. It is more difficult to 
give this year than it has ever been before, 
or perhaps ever will be again. But if we 
fail to give, if we wait until better times, 
souls will perish and interests that are as 
lasting as eternity will suffer. 

Let us remember that all our sacrifices in 
this cause are for the sake of him who loved 
us and gave himself for us, and who also 
loved and gave himself for these lowly ones, 
that thus he might lift them up to himself. 

Let us all get a closer hold upon God, a 
stronger grasp of his truth and his j)romises, 
and we may be sure he will carry us safely 



One of the very important questions 
facing American civilization is the im- 
provement of the Negro residing on Ameri- 
can soil. The war for the Union unloosed 
the shackles from four millions of pairs of 
hands. Thirty-two or three years have 
more than doubled the number. Their in- 
tellectual, social, domestic and political 




habits and ideas are not by any means 
advancing in proportion to their numerical 
strength. In all four of these phases of 
life, they are hindered by past associations, 
present conditions, and even by the efforts 
of some to impede their progress. The 
Negro must be improved if America hopes 
to escape his possible evil influence in the 
future, or desires to be a blessing to some of 
the most abject members of the human race. 
Tell us not he is not capable of high educa- 
tional advancement and literary attainment. 
Only a little while ago, March 3, 1896, in 
Carnegie Music Hall, New York, a Negro 
who was born and reared in slavery in Vir- 
ginia, stood before one of the most represen- 
tative and cosmopolitan of American audi- 
ences, yea, even on the same platform with 
the chief executive of this nation, and pro- 
nounced an original address which would do 
honor to any ordinary college graduate. In 
that address he not only shows the possible 
development of the Negro, but also empha- 
sizes the glory of our American institutions. 
He shows how, starting in 1881 in a small 
shanty with one teacher, lie has conducted a 
work which to-day is valued in property at 
$225,000 and costs $75,000 per year to 
carry on. All this in fifteen years by one 
who, thirty-five years ago, was a slave boy, 
in Virginia. AVhat cannot our American 
institutions, under the lead of Christianity, 
accomplish for this portion of the black 

This is the main object of the Board. To 
give the Negroes in the Atlantic and Gulf 
States a practical Christian education and 
a plain gospel. We do not have to cross 
some wide stormy ocean to reach them. 
We do not have to send our missionaries to 
them into any deadly climate as West 
Africa. We do not have to labor and wait 
years among them to see any results of our 
work. They are ready at our door, in the 
sunny Southland, along the Gulf, ready and 
anxious to have an opportunity given them 
to obtain these things. There are eight 
millions of them — two-thirds of the popu- 
lation of all Korea. Some thirty years ago 
our work among them began. Since then 

some 40,000 have professed faith in Jesus 
Christ as their Saviour and Redeemer ; 
314,000 children have been enrolled in their 
Sabbath -schools, 196,000 in day schools. 
Last year the Board had 166 colored minis- 
ters of the gospel among them, and 9 white ; 
306 churches with 17,000 communicants; 
Sabbath -school scholars, 19,000; 87 schools 
with 10,529 pupils. The work, as far as 
financial support has reached, has been a 
great success. But the Board has been hin- 
dered very much by lack of money. The 
Board has advanced as far as the bounds of 
safety would permit. Its energies have 
been unflagging, its determination steadfast, 
its fidelity to duty unswerving, in the midst 
of financial embarrassment. Repression, 
retrenchment, and many forms of cutting 
down expenses as well as of withdrawing 
opportunities from heart-broken pupils and 
teachers, have been forced upon the Board 
and received only with sorrow. This year 
help from legacies has been greatly reduced. 
The demands of the " already established " 
work cannot be met, to say nothing of 
undertaking new work. Unless some of 
the wealthier members of our Church come 
to their relief, it seems that some of the 
schools now flourishing must be closed. 
The Negroes have the special claim on 
Americans of having enslaved them. The 
Negro's desire for aid is intense. He 
wants very much to be enlightened. He 
seeks better things for his children than he 
himself has had. "One million colored chil- 
dren are to-day growing up," " who never 
saw the inside of a school house;" 2,500,000 
colored women and children can neither 
read nor write. Are not these facts enough 
to speak loudly to one and all in every 
church to give as God has prospered them ? 
The hard facts should impress upon all pas- 
tors and elders the great importance of 
presenting this cause forcibly at least once 
a year. The cry of the colored man comes 
up with all the. echoes of past years. He is 
in bondage to darkness, superstition and 
immorality. Let us send men and women 
and money, to aid in lifting him to a respec- 
table place among the people of our land. 



[The report of The Daily Saratogian.] 

The address began by calling attention 
to tiie fact that it was just twenty years 
since the Board of Ministerial Relief was 
organized by the General Assembly — the 
fund having been managed previously to 
that time by a Committee. 

" I was a member of that Assembly of 
1876," said the doctor, " and entered with 
the deepest interest into the feelings which 
animated all the commissioners in taking 
this advanced step in the cause of Minis- 
terial Relief — -for there never was a time in 
my whole ministry when this subject did not 
lie upon my heart. But little did I think 
then that God would give me the privilege 
and joy and put upon me the high honor of 
being officially called to the thrice-blessed 
service of the Board." 

He then briefly called attention to the 
review of these twenty years presented in 
the annual report, and said that, while it 
must be admitted that the Church was still 
far from having attained its ideal in the care 
of its disabled ministers and their dependent 
families, nevertheless the Relief cause stands 
to-day in a position far in advance of that 
which it occupied in 1876. 

Its objects and aims are more intelligently 
appreciated; it is more clearly seen that the 
Board doss not represent the duty of the 
Church to its poor, sacred and imperative 
as that duty is. It represents the distinct 
and no less sacred and imperative duty of 
the Church to its ministry. Its appropria- 
tions, while made indeed only to those who 
are poor, are nevertheless payments for 
value received. The clearer recognition of 
this fact has larely removed that sense of 
humiliating dependence once felt by many 
upon the roll of the Board, in being re- 
garded as objects of public charity. 

The resources of the Board had largely 
increased since 1876. In that year the 
total amount received for current use and 
for the Permauent Eund was $98,285. In 

the past year it was $228,197. (In 1.S76 
the Assembly found occasion to rejoice 
because the reduction of one-quarter which 
had been made in all the appropriations of 
the year was not a reduction of one-half, as 
it had been the year before; and because, 
though all new applications were discour- 
aged, those already upon the roll had re- 
ceived at least a part of the amount which 
had been promised them. But during the 
year just closed, though the roll of the Board 
had doubled since 1876, every appropria- 
tion had been paid promptly and in full. 
In fact, could this Board, like the other 
Boards, have used for current expenditures 
at its discretion any of its legacies not spe- 
cially designated for the Permanent Fund, 
the close of the year would not only have 
shown no debt, but a large balance on hand. 
Even as it is, though a debt of $9673 is 
reported, report is also made of the large 
sum of $56,6-39 added to the Permanent 
Fund in the last year. ) 

" For this progress of the Church, in the 
care of its disabled ministers, made in these 
twenty years," said the doctor, " we may 
well rejoice and give thanks, all the more 
because there is in it the promise and po- 
tency of the still greater things for which 
the Church must ever hope and pray and 

He emphasized what the report for this 
year says of the Board's duty to distribute 
among these dependent servants of the 
Church only what is actually given to it— 
not what it thinks should be given. He 
quoted the action taken at the Assembly in 
Pittsburg, by the following resolution: 

"Resolved, That instead of asking our 
churches and individuals to contribute as 
hitherto the annual sum of $150,000 for 
the Board of Ministerial Relief, the Gen- 
eral Assembly urge upon them the duty and 
privilege of giving $200,000 the coming 
year, so that out of a full treasury each 
beneficiary of the Board may receive the 
whole amount recommended by his presby- 

The doctor said it was well the Board 





did not bank upon this resolution, for 
the entire amount received during the 
year was but little over one-half of the sum 
which the Assembly had so earnestly recom- 
mended. Indeed, while contributions from 
individuals had increased, the amount of 
the collections received from the churches 
was about $2000 less than their contribu- 
tions of the previous year, when the As- 
sembly had asked for this Board only 

" I do not want to believe," said he, "I 
cannot believe that this falling oft' shows 
that pastors and elders to any considerable 
extent have lost their interest in this tender 
and sacred cause, and I am sure that among 
the people at large the cause is one to which 
they gladly, gratefully give when oppor- 
tunity is offered. One explanation no 
doubt is in the fact that so many take it 
for granted that their own lack of effort 
will be made up by others. They would 
grieve to see the treasury of the Board not 
filled, but they are willing that it shall be 
filled through the efforts of others. Last 
year 3714 churches took up no collection 
whatever for this cause." 

Then an additional explanation of the 
falling off was assigned. The doctor had 
met it in his personal contact with pastors 
and elders at General Assembly, at synods, 
at presbyteries. It was mentioned again 
and again in letters received at the office ; 
the belief that the large Permanent Fund 
of the Board enables it to carry on its work 
without much help from annual contribu- 
tions. He read some of these letters to 
show how deep and widespread was this 

Turning then to the question what is to 
be done about it, he expressed the hope that 
they had all read the earnest appeal of Mr. 
George Junkin, President of the Board, in 
a recent number of The Church at Home 
and Abrovd. He spoke very apprecia- 
tively of Mr. Junkin's long and valuable 
service to this cause. Chiefly to his intel- 
ligent and painstaking labor, as Chairman 
of the Finance and Investment Committee, 
was due the fact that the Board could report 
concerning the great fund held and invested 
by it, that not a dollar had ever been lost. 
What business corporation can report a 
similar exemption from loss in an invest- 
ment which years ago passed beyond the 
million dollar mark '? In this article the 

writer emphasizes the policy of the Board 
to avoid debt, even by a reduction of the 
appropriations. Speaking of his being 
associated as a trustee and director for more 
than thirty years with the administration of 
Ministerial Relief, sitting with his fellow- 
members around the table where the scanty 
supply given by the Church for the partial 
supply of its worn-out ministers and their 
widows and orphans has been frugally 
divided, Mr. Junkin says: 

"Ah, could you sit with us and hear the 
letters telling of the long years of service 
rendered by these brethren, of their age 
now, and of their actual want, your hearts 
would break before you would tell us to cut 
down those slender and hardly sufficing 
sums. ' ' 

Such language is none too strong to express 
the feelings of one who is brought into 
actual contact with this work. The chair- 
men of Presbyterial Committees for Relief, 
in forwarding their recommendations to the 
Board, are continually writing, " This par- 
ticular appropriation must be granted, it is 
so pressing, so urgent." He read from one 
such letter which had reached him as he 
was leaving home. The chairman says of 
an aged mother in Israel, " She is passing 
through troubled waters now, and every 
moment is precious;" and then referring to 
a small sum which had been previously sent 
to her, he adds: " Had it not been for that 
relief she would have been dead of starva- 
tion." The doctor gave other illustrations 
of extreme want; but these, he said, were 
exceptional cases. The Church revolts from 
the very thought of them. It is not the 
mind of the Church that its honored ser- 
vants shall be reduced to abject poverty 
before their names shall be placed upon the 
roll of the Board. It demands rather that 
the scholarly, educated men, the refined, 
cultured women, who have served it all their 
lives, shall not only be kept from hard and 
bitter want, but shall have in their time of 
disability and old age, some of those per- 
sonal comforts which in the years of their 
health and strength they could and did go 
without, in the self-denying discharge of 
their sacred duties. If all our pastors and 
elders could only be brought into like per- 
sonal contact with these homes, in which 
extreme want is but partially relieved by 
the pittance we are able to send them, their 
hearts would indeed break, as Mr. Junkin, 




says, before they would tell the Board to 
cut down their slender and hardly sufficing 

He added: " But you know that the 
claim of the disabled minister is not based 
on the fact that he is poor. That fact only 
emphasizes the duty of the Church to pay 
promptly, gladly, the debt which it owes 
him. It is in the sacred name of justice 
that this claim comes before us. The Bible 
tells us that he who would walk humbly 
with his God must love mercy, but before 
even this are placed the words: Do justly. 
So when ' the word of the Lord came unto 
Zachariah,' we hear the same language, 
' Thus speaketh the Lord of Hosts, saying, 
Execute true judgment, and show mercy 
and compassion.' Mercy and compassion 
are to be shown, but justice comes before 
even these. 

"To cut down these appropriations is not 
merely to cut into quivering nerves ; to inflict 
still further pain upon those who have 
already suffered enough in their lives of 
self-sacrifice. Is it not also to keep back 
the hire of the laborers, whose cries, as the 
prophet says, ' are entered into the ears of 
the Lord of Sabaoth?' " 

He then dwelt upon one point, which he 
said differentiates the Board of Relief from 
the other Boards of the Church in retrench- 
ing so as to end the year without debt. In 
their case to reduce expenditures is simply 
to cease incurring new obligations. They 
are never to withhold payments for work 
already done. But the work of the vener- 
able men upon the roll of this Board is in 
very deed a work already done ; and it was 
done upon the distinct promise of the 
Church, that if they would give themselves 

wholly to their sacred calling, without turn- 
ing aside to make provision for themselves 
against the time of disability and old age, 
the Church would make provision for them. 
That promise has been made over and over 
again by presbytery, by synod, by General 
Assembly. It is a promise to pay for value 
received. What would be thought of a 
business corporation which should publish 
such a promise, and default in the payment 
after receiving the value specified ? 

In conclusion he said: "Brethren, the 
Board of Relief would repeat and emphasize 
the fact that it does not ask to be, it does 
not intend to be, an exception to the Assem- 
bly's rule against debt. It has entered the 
present year determined that, come what 
may, it will keep within its income. Taught 
by the experience of the last two years, the 
Board has now a special committee en- 
gaged in examination of the averages of its 
expenditures and income from all sources, 
and the added factor of the natural increase 
of the members upon the roll from the 
growth of the Church. There will be a 
schedule upon which the Board will carry 
on its work, keeping itself strictly within its 
income. But, oh, Fathers and Brethren : 
I implore you to take efficient measures in 
all your synods and presbyteries, that its 
income shall be what the last Assembly de- 
clared it ought to be — so ample that ' out 
of a full treasury each beneficiary of the 
Board may receive the whole amount recom- 
mended by his Presbytery.' Whatever 
chauge there is in the amount of these ap- 
propriations, let it be in the direction of a 
much- needed increase; but as to a reduc- 
tion, let the very thought of it be to you an 
abhorrence. ' ' 

— The British and Foreign Bible Society issued 
last year 3,970,439 Scriptures and portions. Of 
every seven Bibles sent out by the Society one goes 
to Russia. 

— The Young Men's Christian Association, says 
Dr. Cuyler, is a recruiting station for Christ and 
an effective training-school for Christian work and 
the development of Christian character. 

— A single glimpse of the true character of Jesus 
Christ through the eye of faith has an immediate 
power of transformation, writes C. M. Heard, 
D.D., in North and West. It faces a man right 
about, turns his back upon his past, cheers him 
with a revelation of the future possibilities of life 
and fills him with present energy to begin anew the 
race necessary to win the prize. But it is not 

enough to begin. lie must continue. It is not 
fully saving a man to fish him out of the sea, carry 
him o'er the breakers and land him half dead on 
the shore. He needs for a time special nursing 
and care. We must not leave the new-born chil- 
dren of God to provide for themselves. Christian 
culture must follow regeneration. Nourishment is 
necessary to sustain and increase life. The end 
sought through the rescue of the perishing is their 
restoration to orderly and normal ways of life. 
They are to be built into Christian society through 
the reconstruction of their homes and through a 
vital union with the Church of Christ in some of 
its branches. They must be trained to exercise the 
functions of good citizenship in the state and to pa- 
tiently upbuild character in the discharge of life's 
common duties. 



Every year the affairs of the Boards of 
our Church are subjected to thorough scru- 
tiny by Standing Committees of the General 
Assembly. These committees are charged 
with the great responsibility of making 
impartial inquiry, listening to criticisms, 
weighing carefully every proposition that 
may come before them relating to any fea- 
ture or department of work, and making 
careful and exhaustive reports. There is a 
committee for every Board, the Moderator 
of the Assembly in the unquestioned exer- 
cise of his prerogative and judgment decid- 
ing who shall serve on each committee and 
thus appointing the members to their respec- 
tive posts of duty. 

In May of this year the One Hundred 
and Eighth General Assembly of our 
Church convened at Saratoga, N. Y., the 
sessions beginning on May 21 and closing 
on May 30. [t is fitting here to refer to 
the report of the Standing Committee on 
Publication and Sabbath-school Work. The 
commissioners composing this committee 
were: Ministers — T. V. Moore, D.D., J. 
Clement French, D.D., Charles G. Matte- 
son, A. L. Light, A. H. Cameron, A. B. 
Nicholls, H. K. Sanborne, F. W. Gross- 
man, M. J. Dennis, William Travis, John 
C. Lord ; Elders -D. A. Knowlton, R. 
Tyler, Hon. C. C. Adams, J. A. Russell, 
Charles May, W. L. Hood, O. G. Burch, 
A. S. Calder, W. H. Sellers. The annual 
report of the Board, including its statement 
of accounts, was carefully examined ; the 
overtures of sundry presbyteries suggesting 
certain changes on points of administration 
were carefully considered; officers of the 
Board and representatives from presbyteries 
referred to were heard, and every oppor- 
tunity was given for a free expression of 
views on the details of the work; after 
which the committee went into private 
session and prepared their report. The sub- 
stance of this report we will now proceed to 
give, anticipating, however, the final result 
by stating that the report was unanimously 

adopted by the General Assembly, and is 
therefore to be regarded as the deliberate 
act of that body. 


The committee introduce their report by 
this important remark, which tersely and 
correctly describes in general terms the 
work of this Board : 

Although in its formal organization this Board 
exists in three coordinate departments — the Sab- 
bath-school and Missionary department, the Edi- 
torial department, and the Business department — 
yet in reality it is primarily a great missionary and 
educational agency which carries on a Business 
department as coordinate in plan, but subordinate 
and auxiliary in purpose to its great religious and 
educational work. 


The report points out the valuable aid 
which this department renders to the 
Church : 

It neither asks nor receives one cent of the gifts 
of the churches either for its capital or for its 
expenses. But on the contrary it contributes a 
handsome sum annually to the Church in the fol- 
lowing ways : 

1. By publishing denominational records and 
other literature without expense to the Assembly. 

2. By paying out of its own earnings two-thirds 
of the salary of the Secretary of the Board, and all 
the expenses of the Editorial department. 

3. By saving to other agencies of the Church a 
sum equal to about $10, 000 per annum in supplying 
them free of cost the rental, heating and care of 
rooms in the building at Philadelphia. 

4. By contributing annually two-thirds of its net 
profits to the fund of the Sabbath-school and Mis- 
sionary department. This contribution amounted 
last year to $20,764.22. This amount not only 
paid all the expenses of the Sabbath-school and 
Missionary department, thus enabling it to put 
every dollar contributed by churches and Sabbath- 
schools into its missionary work, but also this 
timely aid from the Business department has ena- 
bled the Sabbath-school and Missionary depart- 
ment to come before the Assembly with a balance 
in its treasury of $20,167.37, instead of with a 
deficit of nearly ! 

The enlarged facilities of the new building 
in Philadelphia, now in course of construc- 
tion for the use of this Board and other 
agencies of the Church, are then spoken of 
in approving terms. The earning capacity 
of this building in rentals, over and above 




the space occupied by the Business and other 
departments and by the Church agencies 
referred to will approximate $100,000, and 
it is announced that, after providing for a 
sinking fund and expenses, the entire net 
income remaining will be devoted to the 
Sabbath-school and Missionary department. 


The report speaks in the highest terms of 
the work of this department during the 
past year, noting the changing of the bright 
little paper Forward, to a weekly, with 
an increased circulation of nearly a million 
and a quarter copies over the preceding 
year, and the issue of the Westminster 
" Sabbath-school Blackboard," and of 
various publications in the interest of Young 
People's Societies. The principal work, 
however, has been the completion and pub- 
lication during the past year of three sepa- 
rate editions of the new " Hymnal," which, 
say the committee, " has already met an en- 
thusiastic reception in many of our churches, 
and should receive the hearty support of all. 
The report also refers to the laborious and 
effective services given by the members of 
the Board to the preparation of the Hymnal 
and to all the various departments of work. 


The committee report severally as to the 
missionary and the educational features of 
this work. 

Missionary Work. — This should awaken, 
in the opinion of the committee, the pro- 
foundest interest and sympathy. No set of 
men are doing a more gracious, blessed, and 
self-denying work than the Sabbath -school 
missionaries. They are not colporteurs and 
book agents, but missionaries of Jesus 

They visit from house to house, finding the lonely 
disciple in his spiritual isolation, bringing to him 
Christian greeting and encouragement ; speaking 
personally to the impenitent and unbelieving whom 
no others warn, praying with the sick, the aged and 
the dying far from the ministry of the Word, 
preaching to the churchless, Sabbathless, reckless, 
godless communities in mining and lumber camps, 
gathering young and old as they can into organiza- 
tions for the perpetuation and development of the 
work, fostering these organizations by constant 
watchful encouragement into permanence of life, 
and leaving behind them in the homes of the people 
good, wholesome, healing literature — above all the 
Bible — to work silently and ceaselessly unknown 

and incalculable blessing. Such is the mission work 
of this Board. 

And yet this work is circumscribed and 
hampered for want of means; and, all the 
while, the young of the land are growing 
into maturity and fixity of character, and 
sin and unbelief are doing their deadly 
work. The committee ask: "Shall we 
surrender millions of our children and youth 
to Christless influences?" To a large ex- 
tent this has been done, for instead of in- 
creasing the Board has reduced its expendi- 
ture, both in the number of missionaries 
employed and in the grants of literature, 
which latter were cat down by more than 
$10,500 from those of the previous year. 
The committee therefore call for larger gifts, 
and in particular, in this crisis, they appeal 
to the women of our Church. The follow- 
ing paragraph from their report deserves 
the prompt and thoughtful attention of those 
to whom it is addressed : 

Recognizing the immense efficiency and 
zeal of our presbyterian women in any 
cause they may champion, we suggest that 
in tnis pressing demand tiiey might well be 
organized in some simple way to help the 
cause for which this board stands. 

Educational Work. — The committee re- 
cognize the intrinsic interest of this subject 
and the demand coming from all parts of 
our Church for advance. It considers that 
the Board has designed the most complete 
system of reaching Sabbath- schools with 
educational agencies, and specifies the Home 
department and Graded Supplemental Les- 
sons as examples to this point, giving them 
its cordial approval. Referring to certain 
criticisms regarding the expense of Chil- 
dren's Day, it vindicates the policy of the 
Board in liberally providing supplies, sug- 
gesting, however, more care and variety in 
the matter of the programmes, so that they 
may meet the varied circumstances of our 
many schools. The committee deem that 
a distinct advance should be made along- 
educational lines and methods. They refer 
to the widespread desire in our Church for a 
course of instruction which shall include 
such matters as the doctrine and history of 
our Church, and they note the prospect of 
the Board's issuing a series of popular 
theological text-books in this connection. 
" But it is evident," say the committee, 
" that the mere creation of such a course of 
instruction will not be enough. Some plan 




must be devised for its general introduction 
into our churches, its maintenance from year 
to year, and to encourage our young people 
to pursue it. ' ' 

The recommendations and resolutions 
adopted were entirely in a line with the 
foregoing sentiments. The work of the 
Board was cordially approved and the fidel- 
ity and efficiency of the officers commended. 
The use of the Bible itself during the Sab- 
bath-school hour and the training of all 
members of our schools to familiarity with 
it was urged. The Hymnal was warmly 
endorsed. The American Bible Society 
was heartily thanked for its grants of the 
Bibles distributed by the missionaries, and 
the churches were exhorted to remember 
this society in their gifts. Churches, Sab- 
bath-schools, Young People's Societies and 
individual members, were urged to give 
promptly, liberally and universally to the 
blessed work of Presbyterian Sabbath-school 
missions, for which the Standing Committee 
and the General Assembly ask that $200,- 
000 be raised for the expenditures of the 
current year. 

During the winter months our Presbyterial 
S. S. missionaries hold frequent evangelistic 
services in different parts of their fields, and 
many conversions are witnessed. A pastor 
writes from Michigan : " Surely the song of 
Moses and the Lamb will contain something 
about this blessed Sabbath-school work. ' ' 

Mr. Joseph Brown reports the organiza- 
tion of a school at a village in Wisconsin 
twelve miles from Wausau, the superintend- 
dent of which drives over from Wausau every 
Sabbath. He adds: "Three weeks ago I 
visited every family in the settlement. Here 
were about 100 persons, some of whom had 
been there fifteen years, and until this time 
had never been visited nor blessed with any 
Christian agency in their midst. The peojde 
welcomed the Sabbath-school with open 
hearts. One woman, the mother of twelve 
children, said to me, ' Mr. Brown, how 
could Ave be otherwise than bad ?' The ben- 
efits of missionary work are already seen. 
The superintendent had placed a Bible in 
every home. The mothers and children 
come to the school in neat apparel. Here, 

as elsewhere, I found an intimate connection 
between godliness and cleanliness. " 

In November last, Mr. Joseph Brown, 
our synodical missionary in Wisconsin, and 
Mr. J. W. Bain, presbyterial missionary, 
held several Bible institutes and evangelistic 
meetings in Wisconsin. A two-days' insti- 
tute was held at Brodhead, a city of 2000 
people, all evangelical churches uniting. 
Several new mission schools lie out from this 
city, and all were greatly aided by these inter- 
esting services. At Cottage Grove, Verona, 
Deerfield, Madison, Arlington, and Cambria 
there were also successful meetings. At Deer- 
field a Presbyterian church building is being 
erected at a cost of $2000. Several mis- 
sions have been opened up around Madison, 
some of which have regular preaching ser- 
vices conducted by theological students from 
the Madison University. There are also 
two missions in the suburbs of Madison 
under the care of Christ Presbyterian Church. 
A Sabbath-school has been organized at 
Pleasant Branch, across Lake Mendota from 
the capital, the only Christian institution in 
the village, which boasts a brewery and 
two saloons. A little to the east another 
school has been planted. 

[The following letter comes to us from the 
Home Mission Rooms. In our make-up it 
is most convenient to put it here. And is not 
S.-S. mission work home mission? — Ed.] 

Rev. Benjamin Hunter, Taysmouth :■ — We had 
a very pleasant Children's Day last Sabbath. Our 
church was filled to overflowing and each child did 
his part exceedingly well. Collections from the 
children's banks, $6.25 ; collection from congrega- 
tion, $3.90 ; making a total of $10.15. I am sure 
this is surprising considering our hard times. The 
children have worked like little majors to get this 
amount, they were so anxious to help other Sab- 
bath-schools away on the frontier settlements. It 
was quite amusing and affecting, even to tears of 
both old and young, to hear our little ones, four 
and five years old, telling how Jesus loves the little 
children and the beautiful little voices singing of 
his mighty love. It was a little heaven here below. 
Was it any wonder that our blessed Saviour said : 
"Suffer little children to come unto me?" Dr. 
Word en's letter of greeting was spoken by a farmer's 
daughter with wonderful force and eloquence, and 
made a great impression upon our people. 

We are very thankful that we are not made suffer- 
ers by cyclone as our neighbors only twenty-five 
miles from here were. Poor souls. They lost, many 
of them, both life and homes. We have just paid 
$30 more on our new organ. Our Ladies' Aid are 
striving hard to pay for it ere the year closes. 
They now have $35 to finish paying for it. 



The General Assembly was a thoroughly 
missionary Assembly. It was preceded by 
a conference attended by members of Pres- 
byterial and Synodical Committees, repre- 
sentatives of Women's Boards and Societies 
and of the Assembly's Board. Many of 
the sermons preached on the first Sunday 
were missionary sermons, and the spirit of 
the Assembly reached high-water mark on 
the foreign mission day. 

The following is a portion of the report 
of the Committee on Foreign Missions: 

Deeply conscious of the supreme importance of 
the work committed to the management of our 
Foreign Board, and impressed with the crying need 
of more systematic and rigorous efforts in its sup- 
port throughout all the churches, and the hearty 
sympathy and cooperation of the whole Church in 
meeting the obligations which the great head of 
the Church had laid upon it, your Committee begs 
leave to offer the following resolutions for adoption 
by this Assembly : 

In view of the fact that nearly one-third of the 
offerings of our Church made for the cause of For- 
eign Missions come through the Women's Boards, 

Resolved, That the Assembly recognizes and ex- 
presses its high appreciation of the noble service 
rendered by the women of our Church in this 

Whereas, The pressure for expansion and fuller 
equipment in all our mission fields is so great, and 

Whereas, The estimates from the various mission 
fields for the current year reach the sum of $988,- 
000, and the deficit reported at the end of this fiscal 
year is about $46,000, therefore, 

Resolved, That this Assembly call upon the 
Church to raise not less than $1,034,000, to be 
placed at the disposal of the Board for the extin- 
guishment of the deficit and the carrying on of the 
work of the current year ; and authorize the Board 
to make its appropriations on this basis. 

Whereas, In the Missionary Conference of Syn- 
odical and Presbyterial Workers, held in connec- 
tion with the Assembly, resolutions were adopted 
expressing on the part of these workers a new sense 
of responsibility and a desire to be led by the Board 
to a larger usefulness, therefore, 

Resolved, That this Assembly hails with delight 
these evidences of zeal and solemn sense of respon- 
sibility on the part of those set for the advance- 
ment of this cause in the presbyteries and synods. 

Whereas, At various times irresponsible parties, 
representing themselves to be missionaries, native 
workers or prospective missionaries in or from mis- 
sionary lands, have obtained hearings in and pecu- 

niary help from many of our churches to the serious 
detriment of the treasury of our Board and the 
hindrance of our work, therefore, 

Resolved, That the Assembly utter a note of warn- 
ing to the churches to be on their guard against all 
such irresponsible parties in their solicitations for 
pecuniary help ; . . . . 

Your committee would recommend that the 
Assembly express its cordial appreciation and ap- 
proval of the methods and results of the missionary 
campaign so successfully carried out in New York 
and other cities and urge that similar campaigns 
be inaugurated this year wherever it is possible to 
do so. 

Medical missionaries are divided as to the 
wisdom of attempting to make the medical 
missionary work self-supporting, some con- 
tending that the example of Christ and the 
purely unselfish character of the work should 
preclude the acceptance of any remunera- 
tion or requiring in any way payment for 
medical help; others contending that it is as 
desirable to make the medical work self-sup- 
porting as the evangelistic, and that the 
effects of gratuitous medical help in com- 
munities where the medical missionaries are 
known are as deleterious as the effects of 
other beneficence which is detached from 
any service or sacrifice on the part of the 
beneficiaries. Dr. Wachter, of Siam, in 
stating his position, probably expresses the 
view of the majority of the medical mis- 
sionaries. He says : 

Any case of emergency brought to me is treated 
and the question of pay is not brought up by me 
until the patient is about ready to leave. Then he 
may pay me the sum I ask or may not pay at all, 
or pay more : all this has happened. Children 
and old people as a rule receive treatment at half 
rates or without any charge. I have never yet 
charged any patient as much as a native doctor 
would charge. And I am convinced that the peo- 
ple are more able to pay the medical missionary's 
bill than the people at home are able to pay their 
doctor's bills. This fact is important in its bearing 
on the self-support of our churches. If medicines 
and treatment are free, how can we expect the 
Christians to pay for the preaching they get ? The 
amount of money wasted in gambling and drinking 
is astonishing. A man who lives from hand to 
mouth may lose 10 to 15 ticals in one evening. 
But it costs them so little to live that they don't 
mind it. 





Two of our most active Mexican workers, 
Julian Mesa and Manuel Gonzalez, were 
converted while serving their terra in Belera 
prison, Mexico City. The former for sev- 
eral years had a large Bible class that he 
instructed week after week, among his fel- 
low-convicts. They are doing earnest, 
active work now as teachers and preachers, 
and have the respect and confidence of 

It was feared when Mr. Mesa left the 
prison that no one could carry on the work 
among the prisoners. Two have been raised 
up. One, F. Chauez, is the son of a weal- 
thy man, from whom years ago Mr. Morales 
rented his humble home. After conversion 
Mr. Morales began to hold services in his 
rooms, and the owner, an intense Romanist, 
had him cited before the authorities, and 
tried to have him silenced. His son, serv- 
ing a term in Belem, by reading the Faro, 
was led to take an interest in gospel work, 
and sent Mr. Morales a letter telling of a 
class of twenty-six he was instructing in the 

Mr. Morales has recently received into 
the Church a man who, eighteen years ago, 
helped to burn the Methodist church at 
Mixcoac, and stoned our people in Tizapan. 
For subsequent crimes he was imprisoned, 
became converted, and is now an ardent 
believer in that same Jesus whom he once 
reviled and persecuted in the person of his 

Rev. T. V. Moore, Helena, Mont., in a 
recent sermon gave this pungent answer to 
a common objection to missions : 

It is true that there are heathen at home. But 
how long will it take to reach and save them all ? 
England has been doing home mission work for 
fourteen centuries, and yet there remain in Eng- 
land alone of registered criminals 90,000, with 
3,000,000 of people in the lapsed masses. In 
America the proportion is not better. How long 
will it be, at this rate, before you will consent to 
our helping the heathen abroad ? Meanwhile the 
number of the heathen abroad is increasing at the 
rate of 2,000,000 every year, in spite of the fact 
that they are dying at the rate of 35,000,000 a 
year. Moreover, how do these heathen at home 
compare with those abroad? Consider their num- 
bers. There are 800,000,000 real heathen abroad, 
who never even heard of Christ. Are there 8000 
in America who never have heard the gospel? 
( onsider the relative opportunities. In the United 
States there is one Protestant minister to every 700 
people. In heathen lands there is one to 400,000 
people. In the United States there is one Protes- 
tant Christian worker to every forty-eight persons. 

In the face of these facts shall we talk of doing 
less for the heathen abroad, who are such by neces- 
sity, in order that we may do more for the heathen 
at home, who are largely such by choice ? And 
do you not know that in proportion as the Church 
has labored for those abroad she has had power at 
home? One of the leading arguments against 
Christianity is that if Christians really believed 
their religion they would hasten to tell it to all 
men. The best way to answer such heathen at 
home as say this, is to hasten the work abroad. 

Not all the signs of the times are dark in 
Japan. The Rev. A. V. V. Bryan writes: 

The Professor of English in the naval college lo- 
cated near Hiroshima is an earnest Christian man, 
and invites me frequently to go there to preach. He 
is reaching the people connected with the college as 
well as the people in the little village. I saw the 
Christmas exercises at Kuri, the naval station, and 
seven marines took part in these exercises ; there 
seems to be quite an interest in Christianity among 
the marines of the different men-of-war, and so 
our work is branching out in different directions. 
On the whole, the late war has been a help in our 
work, I think. For one thing it has been proven 
that a Christian can have a love for country. 

In sending some money from a native 
church to the Board, Mr. Fitch, of Shanghai, 

In the sermon which preceded the collection the 
native pastor used the following illustration : Some 
years since it was desired to rebuild a bridge in one 
of the villages near the city of Ningpo. A 
wealthy banker of Hangchow, noted for his "good 
works," was appealed to for help. He inquired 
how much was necessary for the whole work. 
When informed, he exclaimed, "Oh, I will give 
the whole amount myself." "No," said the peo- 
ple, "if you give all the money, you will have all 
the blessing. We wish to have our share also. 
Moreover, if we were to give nothing, what ' face ' 
should we have hereafter when it was remarked 
that the people of High Bridge village would not 
even help to build their own bridge, but allowed 
another to do the whole?" 

Liberal men at home understand this. One 
generous supporter of missions came to the 
Board rooms recently to give some money 
for the work in Laos, not desiring to increase 
his already large gifts through the church 
to which he belonged, lest it should lay 
upon him responsibilities which all should 
bear. Our Lord's work is for all our Lord's 
disciples, not for a few. 

The work in Jico, Mexico, is mainly car- 
ried on by a former member of the Jalapa 
Church, Dona Florencia. There are about 
twenty who profess to be Protestants. 
They gave a striking proof of sincerity by 




so enrolling themselves at the last census in 
spite of the opposition of the census-taker, 
and the jeers of their Romanist friends. 

One of the friends of- the mission cause 
and its Master writes from Texas : 

After the death of our little girl, in July, we 
found her little box of dimes and pennies which 
she had laid away as a contribution, as we remem- 
ber, to foreign missions. She was named for a for- 
eign missionary. We had thought of her as one 
to be some day a worker in the foreign field ; but 
she was called away to fill another place. The 
amount was $1.15. As we send this we pray the 
Lord to make it a great and living power for good 
in the work to which we feel her life would have 
been given. 

Such gifts, we may he sure, are met by 
the Lord of the harvest with double bless- 

Recent letters from Persia give some fresh 
facts regarding the death of Nasr-ed-Din 
Shall, and the immediate effect upon the po- 
litical situation as it affects our missionaries. 
Dr. Wishard writes as follows, May 3 : 

" You have undoubtedly heard of the 
tragic death of the shah on May 1. He 
was out at a shrine near the city when the 
assassin, a political crank, fired the shot 
that in a few minutes proved fatal. I was 
called to see him, and on the road out to 
the shrine met them bringing him into the 
city. The party consisted of the prime 
minister and other officials, with a mounted 
police of perhaps a thousand men. We 
turned and hurried on to the palace and 
assisted in lifting him into a chair when he 
was carried into one of the reception rooms 
of the palace. His physician, Dr. Tholo- 
zon, and the German physician, Dr. Muller, 
also having arrived at the same time, I was 
invited by Dr. Tholozon to assist in the ex- 
amination. But it was too late to do 
anything save sign a death certificate, for 
he had evidently been dead some time when 
we saw him. The ball had probably struck 
the heart or its membranes, and he had died 
a few minutes after. Everything is quiet 
and the crown prince has been declared 

' ' In the meantime, or until the new shah 
can get here from Tabriz, the prime minis- 
ter and minister of war are in charge of 
affairs in the capital. 

" There is great and profound sorrow 
throughout the city over the death of the 

shah, for he was greatly loved and respected 
by all classes. He was always kind to me 
and to all foreigners. Next week we had 
expected to join in the celebration of his 
golden jubilee, hut instead it will be a 

Another missionary in writing speaks of 
the late shah as " the good old Nasr-ed- 
Din," the best king Persia has had in cen- 

The new shah, Mozaffar-ed-Din, has 
shown much tact and ability since his acces- 
sion to the throne. By his efficient action 
good order has been maintained in nearly 
all parts of the kingdom. The anarchy 
which it had been the custom to predict 
would follow the death of his father, and 
which has ever followed the decease of a 
Persian monarch, did not develop. The 
army has been promptly paid its arrearages, 
and so heartily transfers its allegiance from 
the old regime to the new. The Kurds and 
other restless tribes have been kept quiet. 
At the same time pressure from the govern- 
ment has brought down the price of bread 
and other commodities in the provinces, and 
large donations by the shah from his treas- 
ury have relieved imminent suffering among 
the poor of Tabriz. When the shah started 
from Tabriz for Teheran, escorted out of the 
city by large crowds of the populace, he shed 
tears at leaving them, and asked their 
prayers that he might be a good king. 
Thus the hearts of the whole population go 
with him as he enters upon his new career. 
Certainly the skies are propitious for a 
peaceful and prosperous reign. 

The attitude already taken by the new 
shah towards our missionaries is auspicious 
in a high degree. Dr. Holmes arrived in 
Tabriz from Hamadan, escorting his daughter 
thither on her way to America, soon after the 
death of the old king. He was warmly 
welcomed by his former friend, the Vali 
Ahd and now the new shah, with whom 
during his previous residence in Tabriz he 
was in the most cordial relations. The king 
immediately renewed to Dr. Holmes his 
request of former years that he should be- 
come his private physician. He laid his 
hand upon his shoulder and said: " I want 
you with me." This high mark of confi- 
dence and honor Dr. Holmes felt constrained 
to decline, though all the other physicians 
of the king joined in urging him to accept 
it. In other ways his majesty gave expres- 





sion to his affectionate regard for Dr. 
Holmes. Our physician, Dr. Vanneman, 
residing in Tabriz, has been the family 
physician of the new shah for some months 
past, and his confidence in the doctor, both 
professionally and as a trustworthy friend, 
led him to request Dr. Vanneman to accom- 
pany to Teheran the queen and her infant 
son, who, if spared, will be the successor to 
his father. 

These incidents furnish us ground for 
hoping that the missionary work in Persia 
is to enjoy the fullest royal protection as in 
the years past. May we not believe that 
the Lord is saying of Mozaffar-ed-Din, as 
he said of that other Persian monarch who 
did such large things for the ancient people 
of God: " I have raised him up in righte- 
ousness, and I will direct all his ways. 
He shall build my city and he shall let go 
my captives, not for price nor reward. ' ' 

At the meeting of the Board of Foreign 
Missions on June 15, Dr. Ellinwood com- 
pleted his twenty-fifth year of service as a 
secretary of the board, and on Saturday of 
the same week was seventy years old. 

All who have been associated with Dr. 
Ellinwood in these years have grown into an 
ever-deepening admiration and love for him, 
and the young men who have been from 

time to time associated with him have learned 
many lessons from the unfailing considerate- 
ness and respect with which he has treated 
their opinions and met their plans. 

It is the common hope of all to whom the 
missionary cause is dear that his alert mind, 
progressive spirit, warm heart and broad 
experience may be long preserved to the 
work which has commanded them for a 
quarter of a century. 

At its meeting on June 15, the board 
adopted the following address: 

The service of the Rev. F. F. Ellinwood, D.D., 
to the Board of Foreign Missions as one of its sec- 
retaries covers full twenty-five years. He began 
this work at the high meridian of his usefulness, 
having been for several years the pastor of a large 
congregation in Rochester and then successively 
secretary of the Board of Church Erection and of 
the Presbyterian Reunion Memorial Committee. 
In 1871 he obeyed the call of the reunited Church 
and came to the service of this board while it was 
still occupying its limited quarters at the corner of 
Reade and Centre streets. 

It is worth recording in this connection that all 
the clerical secretaries of the board, with the excep- 
tion of the Rev. J. Leighton Wilson, D.D., who 
had been many years a missionary at Cape Palmas, 
Western Africa, were pastors of beloved and pros- 
perous churches before becoming secretaries of this 

The Hon. Walter Lowrie, sacrificed his posi- 
tion in the Senate of the United States and his 
ideal home. Mr. Robert E. Speer obeyed the call 
of the Church while pursuing his chosen way to the 
mission field. When Dr. Ellinwood became sec- 
retary he was mature in intellectual culture and 
ministerial power. He brought to the service of 
the board in the office, the pulpit, and on the 
platform, a combination of qualities rarely meeting 
in any one man. 

It would be offensive to him on the twenty-fifth 
anniversary of his official relations to the board, 
and in his presence, to magnify personal qualities 
which, with him, the board ascribes to the grace 
and providence of God, fitting him for work that 
was waiting for the workman. Special importance 
is attached to Dr. Ellinwood' s addresses, to his con- 
tributions to the missionary journals, and to other 
papers, religious and secular, and his addresses and 
his work on comparative religions. We con- 
gratulate him that he has been permitted to see 
and help the enlargement of the work in the parts 
of the world where our missions are established, 
and to render valuable service in conferences relat- 
ing to the Indians of our country, and missionary 
conferences that have brought together representa- 
tivesof nearly all branches of the Protestant churches 
in the United States and Canada for mutual counsel 
regarding the common work and the great princi- 
ples in accordance with which the work should be 
done. It is our hope and prayer that his bow may 
abide in strength, and that the arms of his hands 
may be made strong by the hands of the mighty 
God of Jacob for still other years of service to the 
great cause, and the blessed Master of us all. 




Once again God has manifested his love 
toward the Gaboon and Corisco mission by 
taking one of its members home to the glory 
and the rest of the heavenly service. A cable- 
gram received on June 20 announced that 
on May 30, Mrs. Oscar Roberts passed away 
with fever. No later information has been 
received, but grave apprehensions had been 
long entertained for Mrs. Roberts, to whom 
the conditions of the work in Africa have not 
proven easy, but who with indomitable 
bravery and devotion served her Lord in 

Mrs. Roberts sailed from New York, 
September 19, 1894. Her name before her 
marriage was Florence N. Stanbrough. She 
had had a thorough medical training at Ann 
Arbor University, and, by means of this, to- 
gether with the thorough practical training 
of Mr. Roberts as an engineer, a great 
amount of good was accomplished even in 
the year and a half of her useful life at 

The day prior to the receipt of the cable- 
gram was the day set apart in the Prayer 
Book for Mr. and Mrs. Roberts. There is 
need now of the more earnest prayer that 
Mr. Roberts, first through the deep trial 
of the temporary loss of his sight, and 
now through this heavier sorrow, may be 
purified for yet more holy service of him 
who is life for evermore. 



May 30 — From New York, to join the 
Colombia Mission, Miss Jessie Scott. 

June 6 — From New York, to join the 
Brazil Mission, the Rev. and Mrs. R. F. 
Lenington ; returning to the Eastern Persia 
Mission, the Rev. S. Lawrence Ward. 


May 12 — At New York, from the Colom- 
bia Mission. Miss M. B. Hunter. 

May 16 — At San Francisco, from the 
West Shantung Mission, the Rev. J. A. 
Fitch, wife and two children. 

May 20 — At Vancouver, from the Central 
China Mission, Mrs. L. A. Abbey and 
Miss Mary Lattimore. 

May 26— At New York, from the Colom- 
bia Mission, the Rev. T. S. Pond. 

June 5 — At New York, from the Eastern 
Persia Mission, the Rev. Louis F. Essels- 
tyn, wife and three children. 

June 6 — At New York, from the Gaboon 
and Corisco Mission, the Rev. W. C. Gault, 
wife and one child, and Miss L. Babe. 

June 19 — At New York, from the Wes- 
tern Persia Mission, Mrs. J. H. Shedd and 
Mary E. Bradford, M.D. 


May 30 — Mrs. Oscar Roberts, of the 
Gaboon and Corisco Mission. 

Concert of Prayer 
For Church Work Abroad. 

JANUARY General Review of Missions. 

FEBRUARY Missions in China, 

MARCH Mexico and Central America. 

APRIL Missions in India. 

MAY Missions in Slam and Laos. 

JUNE Missions in Africa. 

JULY . . Hainan ; Chinese and Japanese in U. S. 

AUGUST Missions in Korea. 

SEPTEMBER Missions in Japan. 

OCTOBER Missions in Persia. 

NOVEMBER .... Missions in South America. 
DECEMBER Missions in Syria. 


Seoul : the capital, near the western coast, on 
the Ham river and twenty-five miles overland from 
the commercial port, Chemulpo ; Mission begun in 

1884 ; laborers — Eev. II. G. Underwood, D.D., and 
Mrs. Underwood, Rev. D. L. Gifford and Mrs. 
Gifford, Rev. S. F. Moore and Mrs. Moore, Rev. 
F. S. Miller and Mrs. Miller, C. C. Vinton, M.D., 
and Mrs. Vinton, O. R. Avison, M.D., and Mrs. 
Avison, Misses S. A. Doty, Ellen Strong, Anna P. 
Jacobson, Miss Georgianna Whiting, M.D., and 
Miss Katharine Wambold ; licentiates, 2 ; teacher, 
1 ; Bible-women, 2. 

Fusan : on the southeast coast ; occupied as a 
Mission station 1891 ; laborers — Rev. W. M. Baird 
and Mrs. Baird, Charles H. Irvin, M. D. , and Mrs. 
Irvin ; 1 licentiate and 2 native helpers. 

Gensan : on the northeastern coast ; occupied 
as a Mission station, 1892 ; laborers — Mr. J. S. 
Gale and Mrs. Gale, Rev. W. L. Swallen and Mrs. 
Swallen ; 1 licentiate, 1 Bible-woman, and 1 na- 
tive teacher. 

Pyeng Yang : laborers — Rev. S. A. Moffett, 
Rev. Graham Lee and Mrs. Lee, J. H. Wells, 
M. D. ; 3 native teachers and 1 Bible-woman. 






When Presbyterian and Methodist mis- 
sionaries opened work almost simultaneously 
in Korea nearly twelve years ago, they 
found themselves circumscribed in all de- 
partments of evangelistic effort. Tolerance 
as residents for the sake of the physicians 
among them was sufficient privilege in those 
earlier days, and the language task the one 
to which all apjilied themselves closely. It 
may have been due to this comparative 
leisure, as well as to the felt need for books 
to distribute when later the period of tour- 
ing and preaching arrived, that Korean 
missionary literature presents such variety 
and abundance after but little more than a 

A recent enumeration collects the titles 
of about seventy -five works prepared by 
missionaries in the 6n-mun, or vernacular 
speech, with a view to aid in the several 
departments of their work ; and of these 
some have gone through as many as six 
editions. The larger part are distinctively 
didactic in their nature, many of them 
bearing the title " catechism," to signify in 
especial the conveyance of doctrinal instruc- 
tion in the form of question and answer. 
Among the others are found hymn books, 
school books, one or two narrative works, 
and a considerable number of sheet tracts 
for free distribution. 

Of titles of Scripture portions the list 
contains nearly a dozen, each denoting a 
separate effort on the part of some worker 
at Bible translation. The earliest in point 
of time were made by Rev. John Ross, 
D.D., of Moukden, Manchuria, and were 
printed between the years 1882 and 1888, 
thus antedating the beginning of missionary 
work upon Korean soil. He had but slight 
acquaintance with the language he was 
using, but came in frequent contact with 
traders and others from Korea, whose sight- 
seeing propensity led them to travel the 
Manchurian roads. It was upon some of 
these men that Rev. J. W. Maclntyre, his 
fellow-laborer, conferred the rite of bap- 
tism, when, in 1876, it was for the first 
time administered by a Protestant clergy- 
man to a Korean. His translations of 
Scripture were effected by the aid of such 
men and largely by the transliteration of a 

Chinese version. In this way the entire 
New Testament was ultimately issued, the 
gospels and some of the epistles first ap- 
pearing separately as completed. This 
method produced a work which was widely 
circulated by Dr. Ross' agents in the north 
of Korea, and which has formed more or 
less the basis of subsequent translations. To 
one who takes them up at the present day 
they present the aspect of a literary'curi- 
osity, more particularly by reason of the 
type in which they are printed— a type dis- 
tinct both from that used by native book- 
makers and from that in which other works 
of foreign origin have appeared. The spell- 
ing is very quaint, archaisms abound, and 
the dialect is that of the north. Five such 
portions have been seen by the writer: 
Matthew, Mark, Luke, John, and the entire 
New Testament. 

A subsequent issue of Luke and another 
of Romans consist merely of reprints of 
Ross' translations in modernized type and 
with the spelling conformed more nearly to 
the manner familiar among Koreans. 

About the time that Dr. Ross was pre- 
paring these translations a Korean refugee 
in Japan, Li Sou Tjyen by name, undertook 
a similar task at the instance of Rev. 
Henry Loomis, agent of the American Bible 
Society at Yokohama. Of this work the 
gospel of Mark is the only portion ever 
printed. Its appearance is decidedly mod- 
ern, but it was found from the first faulty 
in many respects, and, although it subse- 
quently underwent revision at the hands of 
missionaries upon the field and was published 
successively in a second edition by the 
American, and in a third by the Scotch 
Bible Societies, it never attained general cir- 

In view of the inadequacy of these and 
of certain other individual versions, a com- 
mittee was several years ago formed from 
those upon the field most competent for the 
purpose of making the best attainable trans- 
lation of the Scriptures. Their first issues 
were entirely tentative and are among the 
bibliographical rarities of the subject. Last 
year the four gospels and Acts were issued 
by them in a form for popular circulation, 
and have this year been reprinted, but in a 
closeness of type displeasing to Korean 

The tract most extensively sold through- 
out Korea for many years is the " Bible 




Catechism " This also was prepared origi- 
nally by Dr. Koss, and contains a very 
simple presentation of the vital truths of 
Christianity. In 18!)0 it was revised, 
chiefly as to spelling, by Mrs. M. F. Scran- 
ton, of the Methodist Mission, and has since 
gone through four editions under the auspices 
of the Korean Religious Tract Society, the 
last being of ten thousand copies. 

Among recent publications the most no- 
table is a translation of Pilgrim's Progress, 
made jointly by Mr. and Mrs. J. S. Gale, 
of Gensan. This forms also the largest 
work, excepting the Ross New Testament, 
hitherto put forth. It is in two editions, 
appearing simultaneously, one of some sev- 
enty large octavo leaves iu closely set type 
upon manilla paper; the other in two vol- 
umes, each of more than a hundred leaves in 
large type on thick Korean paper and neatly 
bound. Both editions contain the same 
illustrations, forty-two in number, and 
representing Christian and his fellow-char- 
acters in Korean dress and amid Korean 
surroundings. The handsomer of these two 
editions, five hundred copies, was printed at 
the expense of a Sunday-school Teachers' 
Bible Class in Philadelphia, taught by Rev. 
Arthur T. Pierson, D. D. Both editions are 
found to sell well, considering their cost, in 
the light of the means possessed by most 

Three hymn books have been printed, one 
by each of the missions, and one a private 
venture. All obtain a good sale and are 
popular among the Koreans, who relish the 
foreign style of music in worship much 
better than their own. 

The text-books referred to consist of a 
Korean primer and two geographies, all 
issued as helps in the iustruction of native 
youth. The list is expected soon to be in- 
creased by a treatise on arithmetic and by 
others on physiology and anatomy. One of 
the geographies, prepared by Rev. H. B. 
Hulbcrt, formerly professor in the govern- 
ment school and now manager of the Meth- 
odist press iu Seoul, is a work of much 
merit. Its plan embraces not only the 
physical description of natural and pobtical 
divisions, but also the correlation of many 
facts concerning their social and economic 
condition. It has recently received the 
compliment of being translated into Chinese 
by the educational department of the Korean 

It is not to be supposed that any work has 
been issued by a foreigner without the 
assistance and revision of native scholars. 
But it is a fact of interest that on this, as 
on other mission fields, several treatises 
upon religious subjects have been wholly 
written by native Christians. 

In large part the works comprising the 
enumeration above referred to have been 
published either by the Methodist Tract 
Society or by the Korean Religious Trait 
Society. The former, as its name implies, 
is distinctly denominational, but has printed 
several works in popular use by workers of 
all denominations, among them the Bible 
Picture Book and Conversation* with a Tem- 
ple Keeper enjoying the largest circulation. 

The latter society, familiarly spoken of 
as the K. R. T. S., was formed in 1889 in 
response to the efforts of the lamented Dr. 
Heron, and is destined probably to hold a 
foremost place among agencies for the evan- 
gelization of Korea. Its machinery is com- 
plete and its annual output large, its sales 
to natives and missionaries aggregating many 
hundreds of dollars annually. Among its 
more popular publications are an annual 
Calendar, the Bible Catechism, Peep of Day, 
The Two Friends, Guide to Heaven, J>is- 
course on Salvation and Pilgrim's Progress. 

In addition to the publications of these 
two societies not a few tracts are printed by 
private means, more particularly a series of 
trauslations and original works by Rev. H. 
G. Underwood, D. D. , whose pen seems 
never idle. Among these the Christian, 
Catechism and Exhortation to Repentance 
have proved most acceptable to fellow- 


Sometime since an account received from 
Rev. S. F. Moore, concerning the guild of 
butchers and the movement which in the 
providence of God had been started for then- 
emancipation from serfdom, was published 
iu The Church at Home and Abroad. 
It was stated that placards had been ordered 
by the imperial government with the re- 
quirement that they should be publicly 
posted in all the cities and towns, enjoining 
the people to respect the butchers and grant- 
ing them the privilege of wearing the 
ordinary costume of Korean citizens. Only 




to a partial extent were these requirements 
fulfilled. In many communities no procla- 
mations were posted. Nevertheless a most 
interesting work has gone on, and a later 
letter received from Mr. Moore, gives an 
interesting resume" of a sermon preached 
by Mr. Pak, a converted butcher, to the 
men of his guild. Mr. Moore's account 
is as follows : 

" That Sunday evening a large company 
of butchers gathered at the house where we 
were stopping. As they could not half of 
them get into the house, mats were spread in 
the yard and they sat there under the stars. 
Pak, the butcher, first spoke to them. He 
said : ' We all, every one of us, I suppose, 
have a grievance. We butchers for hun- 
dreds of years have been treated like dogs, 
and we often think if we could only be- 
come men like other people how good it 
would be. Well, there is something else 
possible for each one of us that is much 
better, and that is to become the children of 
the true God.' He then told briefly the 
story of his life, how his parents died when 
he was a child, leaving him to be brought up 
by others; how he came to Seoul, was mar- 
ried, and had children born to him. After 
the children came he thought of his parents. 
As he did not know the date of their death, 
he had never offered the annual sacrifices 
(this is the greatest of sins according to the 
Korean view, though he fixed up their grave 
at a good deal of expense). Besides thus 
dishonoring his parents, he used to drink, 
gamble and treat his own wife and children 
badly. He first heard of God through the 
Catholics and thought the doctrine good. 
He sent his boy to the Presbyterian day 
school because he did not want to pay tuition 
at the other (Catholic) school. He told of 
his severe sickness, and that the disease was 
infectious and no Korean would come near 
him. His own people were afraid, but the 
missionary was not afraid. The missionary 
brought the doctor (Dr. Avisou), and 
came many times to see him and saved his 
life. Then he listened to the Protestant 
doctrine and cast off Romanism as they had 
many man-made customs, whereas the Jesus 
Church follow God's word only. At first 
his wife did not like this doctrine because it 
forbade sacrificing to spirits and ancestors, 
but as he read the books aloud and told her 
about it her opposition gradually disap- 
peared. He told [how his mind changed, 

how he gave up his badness, and found love 
for his wife and children naturally springing 
up in his heart; how he had now found his 
Heavenly Father whom he had lost before. 
He spoke of the Israelites' bondage in 
Egypt, and of God's wonderful miracles 
wrought for their delivery — the dividing of 
the lied Sea and of the jnllar of fire to lead 
them. ' Although the Israelites did not 
have as hard a time as we Korean butchers, 
yet they had a hard time and God delivered 
them. It looks now as if our time for de- 
liverance had come. By God's help we 
have come thus far. And there is not one 
cash worth of help to be looked for else- 
where than in God. With him all things 
are possible, so let us all believe in his Son 
Jesus, and all will go well.' " " Mr. 
Chun followed," adds Mr. Moore, "relat- 
ing his experience and giving the main 
facts of the gospel, dwelling at length on 
the particulars of Jesus' death and resurrec- 

' ' Within a few days Mr. Pak expects to 
start for the south provinces, where are 
thousands of butchers. A trusty colporteur 
goes with him. All Mr. Pak's expenses 
are borne by the butchers' guild. He asks 
for 1500 books for this trip. There are said 
to be some thirty thousand butchers in all 
Korea. All of these will doubtless have 
presented to them the claims of Christ. 
The teaching and shepherding of these 
scattered sheep is a great work. Through 
these butchers it seems probable that Chris- 
tian books will be placed in every large 
town in Korea. 

" Let the Church at home offer earnest 
prayer for thtir butcher brethren in Korea." 



The great problem that confronts mission- 
ary work in the far east is the oriental mind. 
It is comparatively easy to reach the heart, 
to gain the afiection and esteem of the peo- 
ple, and at the same time to be perfectly 
mystified by the peculiar mental make-up that 
is the groundwork of it all. So much of life 
seems reversed, or standing on its head in 
the universe of thought, just as it actually 
exists in the universe of matter. The Korean 
says, if it is true that the world is round, 
then we in the west must have power like 




flies to walk on the ceiling of the under- 
work! ; while wc answer, No ! the heavens 
are above us, it is you who are upside down. 
Thus are we born hopelessly reversed, and 
thus must we ever continue to be, unless we 
are given the gift to be all things to all 
men, to stand on our heads, too, and learn 
something of our Brother Oriental eye to 

To this end we have to review many of 
our axioms of life, for here in the east we 
And them sadly upset. With all due respect 
to Korea, one cannot but see that love has 
yielded up the ghost to what is called neces- 
sity. Unselfish love does not appeal to the 
oriental mind. In fact the Korean has no 
word for love, in his whole vocabulary. 
You have to arrive at the thought by a com- 
bination of terms. He talks of kindly 
condescension, reverence, esteem, etc., but 
he has no true word for love. 

The husband marries a wife whom he does 
not love, and this is proper in the mind of 
the orient. On the death of the first he 
takes a second whom he does love, and it is 
all wrong; in fact, is a sin, and he feels that 
he has indeed outraged his conscience. The 
wife was not meant to be loved, but simply 
as an inanimate object to serve its use, in 
supporting one span of the family line from 
father to son. Planted deep in the mire she 
stands, bearing her portion of the weight of 
this ancestral bridge connecting the ages. 

Once out Avalking, my wife and I came 
on a man like the Ancient Mariner, sitting 
alone on a stone, weeping in a most hopeless 
way. What was the matter ? He lifted 
his eyes for a moment, and then bowed his 
head again and gave himself up to his grief. 
We persisted in our inquiry. His wife had 
left him, he said, aigo! aigo! At last a 
true case of love it seemed, but we said, to 
try him with the philosophy of this world, 
" If she does not love you why should you 
love her?" "Love! Who loves her? 
But she made my clothes and cooked my 
food, how can I live without her ?" 

Neither does the independence of the 
west appeal to the Korean. The glory of 
the American eagle with his e plwribus 
unum he thinks to be sheer madness. Why 
men should ever think of such a horse-race 
existence he cannot imagine. He conceives 
of life as a condition of subjection only. 
Independence to him suggests suspicion, 
mistrust of each other, lawlessness, etc. 

" Where are you going ?" is the ordinary 
question of the street. " What's your busi- 
ness ?" usually follows. " Whom is your 
letter from ?" they demand, while all join 
in helping read it. It would be an insult 
not to share these commonplaces with every 
comer. A native would rather have a com- 
panion at his task than take twice the pay 
and do it alone. So we find them hitched 
three and four to one shovel, doubling up 
over work that is mere child's play, bearing 
the inconvenience of companions where they 
might be doubly comfortable alone, were it 
not for their dread of independence which 
seems to run contrary to the flow of all 
their mental faculties. 

In educatiou, too, we are at the antip- 
odes. We aim at the development and 
preparation of the student in a practical 
way for life before him. The Korean has 
no such thought. He aims to fix or as- 
phyxiate the mind in order that he may 
shut the present out from him and live only 
in the past. Development is our idea, 
limitation his. A western student rejoices 
at a variety of attainments, and the number 
of branches to which he has been intro- 
duced, while he in Korea, in the fact that 
he knows nothing of any subject but the 
reading and writing of Chinese characters 
only. Twenty years of separation from the 
rest of life in order that he may be able to 
read and write, and many fail even in this, 
after so long a time. With us education is 
an exercise of the faculties in order that 
the mind may grow; in Korea it is like a 
foot bandage or plaster-of-paris jacket for 
the mind — once fairly put on and all growth 
and development is at an end. Hence the 
fact that Confucianist scholars, more than 
any others, oppose the teachings of Chris- 

However shiftless an American maybe he 
feels, deep down in his heart, that labor is 
ennobling. In theory, at any rate, chil- 
dren are taught the dignity of labor, while 
in Korea there exists the very opposite idea. 
The word for labor is il, and its secondary 
meaning's are damage, loss, evil, misfortune, 
all of which ideas are associated with and 
expressed by the word. An idle existence 
brings with it no stings of conscience, in 
fact, the native who can scheme to do noth- 
ing, proves by all the logic of antiquity his 
right to be classed among the gentry. 

To us the mind acts as a sort of tele- 




graphic communication between the heart 
and the countenance. The joy or sorrow 
that overtakes us is flashed from one to the 
other, so that we learn naturally to read the 
inner soul of a passer, by these waves of 
light and shadow. In Korea the mind has 
other duties to perform, the principal one of 
which is to cut off communication between 
these two and to make them entirely inde- 
pendent, to flood the countenance with mere 
surface expression, or, if need be, to trans- 
form it into an expressionless wilderness. 
A Korean in his phlegmatic way shows utter 
indifference when his wife or his father dies, 


while a westerner, true to himself, expresses 
by voice and countenance all that his heart 
feels. It needs but a short sojourn in Korea, 
however, to teach us that heart and coun- 
tenance are not necessarily in communica- 
tion ; that there are beneath it all hidden 
depths and undercurrents that we would 
never dream of. 

A striking reversal that often pains one is 
that of mere appearance for reality. Truth 
is not loved for truth's sake, but only in so 
far as it is necessary for appearances. The 
mind seems incapable of understanding 

what truth is. When the king goes out on 
procession, the whole city is ransacked to 
contribute to the show : flint-lock guns and 
tattered saddle-bags, five-cent fans and 
paper umbrellas, old rusty swords dangling 
with streamers, red, green and yellow, no 
semblance of order, high and mighty gen- 
erals bumping along in their saddles or held 
from falling off by tattered runners. On it 
thunders, this royal procession, a screaming 
mass of discord and color. The westerner 
is amazed, while the oriental is in an ecstasy 
of delight at so magnificent an ensemble, 
no thought of how becoming, or useful, or 
genuine the component parts may be. 

The more hangers-on he has the greater 
the man. A servant knows of no better way 
to honor his master in the eyes of the 
community than to urge him to hire an 
extra coolie or two, to loaf about his kitchen 
or squeeze cash from those who call. The 
house may be falling into ruins, gates and 
doors off the hinges, poverty staring in at 
every chink, and yet if only sufficient cere- 
mony and commotion is kept up, the own- 
er's position as a man of importance is 
assured, appearance, not reality, being the 
aim of life. 

It is a saying in the west that when you 
cannot depend on a man's word all hope of 
him as a moral quantity is gone. To apply 
such a rule to the east would be to con- 
demn a whole continent. The Korean can- 
not understand why we should arbitrarily 
lay so much stress upon one's word. 
Words they consider the cheapest factor in 
life. To demand that they be held sacred 
is to attempt to build righteousness out of 
what costs us nothing, and to interfere 
materially with the even flow of conversa- 
tion, a much more important consideration 
than the words themselves, and so, with the 
most reasonable mind imaginable, they live 
on in the understanding that words may 
mean nothing more than a passing compli- 
ment, as we say, How do you do ? and are 
answered by, How do you do ? Neither 
one for a moment taking it as a serious ques- 
tion to be answered by an affirmative state- 

When a lady in the west sends word to an 
unwelcome caller that she is out, there fol- 
lows an unpleasant communication between 
mind and conscience, but when a Korean 
says that he is out, or is ill, he settles down 
on his cushions with the feeling that he is 




very clever indeed in doing quite the proper 
tiling. When I first reached Korea I en- 
deavored to be faithful to my friends, and 
to be on hand when they called. One of 
the commonest parting salutations was, Nail 
do orita (I will come and see you again 
to-morrow). Many never came; those who 
did left with the same promise, so that, 
sooner or later, I found that all my best 
friends failed to keep their word. After a 
time it dawned on me that words and prom- 
ises did not necessarily mean anything, and 
here I found I was on safe ground, and able 
to walk in a measure peacefully and trust- 
fully with my oriental friends. 

So we remain at the antipodes of thought. 
Nothing but the gospel can ever bring us 
within hailing distance of each other. As 
we see how far mortals may drift away from 
God and how little truth and reality and 
love may mean, our prayer becomes, " Send 
forth thy light and thy truth, O God! send 
them forth through each one of us!" 



One day last winter, as I was seated in 
my study with my native language teacher, 
I saw a Buddhist priest walking about the 
house, outside, sight-seeing. About his neck 
was a fine string of beads — the Buddhist rosa- 
ry. I had been wanting to secure a string of 
such beads for some time ; so I asked my 
teacher if he thought the priest could be 
induced to sell them. Saying that he would 
see, he went out and engaged him in con- 
versation and invited him in. 

It is curious that while many of the 
Koreans are Buddhists, the Buddhist priest 
is looked upon by the people as the lowest 
of the low. A Korean coolie will use low 
talk to a priest.' My teacher was very 
polite to this one and turned the conversa- 
tion to his beads. They were very nice 
ones, made of a kind of seed rare in Korea, 
and worn and polished with the countless 
prayers of several generations of priests. 
Finally he intimated that I would like to 
buy the beads, and said that as there were 
no temples and priests in my own country, 
they would be a rare sight to my count ry- 
men. The priest replied with many polite 
phrases that there was no such custom 

among the priests as to sell their beads, but 
that since I had received him into my house 
and treated him as a guest he would be 
pleased to make me a present of them. So 
the transfer was made, and before he left lie 
invited us up to the temple where he lived. 
Some weeks after Dr. Irvin and I went. 
Korean temples are usually situated high 
on the mountain sides or summits. They 
choose the ideal sites — at a distance from all 
other dwellings, surrounded by forests and 
where the best springs of water can be 
found. The temples are often endowed by 
devout Buddhists with ample means to meet 


their running expenses. Thus the priests 
are enabled to live in that condition which 
is supposed to be most conducive to medita- 
tion and abstraction from all worldly de- 
sires. The name of this temple is Pumusa. 
It is a very large one, and is situated in the 
head of a rocky mountain gorge, down which 
flows a stream of clear spring water, which 
has its source near the mountain top behind 
the temple. At the mouth of the gorge the 
path turned suddenly straight up the moun- 
tain side for two or three hundred feet and 
then we issued upon a level, broad and well- 
worked road — driveway, I had almost said, 




but such tilings do not exist in Korea — which 
wound around the mountain side up to the 
temple a couple of miles beyond. We 
were now within the temple grounds. At 
the entrance we passed between two im- 
mense stone pillars, one on either side of 
the way, inscribed with the name of 
Buddha — Namou-aml-ta-poul. As we drew 
near we discovered that Pumiisa was 
in reality a number of temples scattered 
through the forest around the mountain 
side, and the road led up to the one 
main central temple. On either side of the 
way the rocks were carved with tableted 
inscriptions to departed saints. 

As we went up through the series of 
arches and gateways which covered the 
approach to the large temple, we heard 
somewhere before us the rattling clang of 
cymbals aud the occasional " bomb " of a 
drum, so we hurriedly pressed on. Pres- 
ently, rouudiug the back of a large build- 
ing, we came out in front of an immense 
hall open on its longer side which served as 
the front of the building. In this the de- 
votions were being carried on. At one end 
of the hall stood a priest with a big drum 
and another with an immense pair of brass 
cymbals. These kept slow time and seemed 
to determine the actions of the other per- 
formers. At the other end were seated a 
number of ancient ascetics. One in partic- 
ular looked not far from his coveted Nirvana. 
He was old and wasted. While the other 
priests looked curiously at us, he took no 
notice. On his forehead was a huge jagged 
scar and from the bottom of it glistened the 
white of the skull. This also was a mark 
of his advanced position in Buddhistic 
attainment. When they have succeeded in 
so abstracting their minds iu meditation 
from things earthly that they can have a 
red-hot iron pressed into the skull without 
feeling it, it marks progress toward their 

Between these two ends, behind a kind of 
bench, stood a row of priests. These were 
dressed in priestly regalia; in one hand they 
held aloft a small brass gong swung from a 
stick, which they struck in time with the 
music with another stick ; with profound 
bowings and chanting iu unison they 
swelled the noise of the cymbals and drum. 
In front of these was the main feature of 
the performance. Two young priests dressed 
iu the most gorgeous regalia were going 

through a mutual bowing which baffles 
description. Over their shoulders, hanging 
down in front and behind, was an overdress 
made of broad ribbons of bright red and 
yellow, inscribed down their length with 
symbolic characters. On their heads were 
towering hats of starched linen cloth, and 
these had wings extending on either side. 
The hats were also marked with symbolic 
characters. These two, in perfect time with 
the music, and in really beautifully rhyth- 
mic motion, were bowing, turning, gesticu- 
lating, heel and toeing, and at the same 
time singing the common chant of all. The 
slow grinding crash of the great cymbals, 
the drum, the gongs and the chant rising 
above all gave a barbaric touch to the 
whole and stamped it at once as distinctively 

Presently we inquired our way to the 
temple where our friend lived, and were 
directed to a path which climbed further up 
the mountain side. The day was bitterly 
cold; the path, winding over great masses of 
fallen rock, was covered with frozen snow. 
We climbed up and up and up, with the 
north wind biting at our backs until we had 
climbed completely over a spur of the moun- 
tain and found our temple nestled amongst 
some trees beside a spring on the other side. 
It was so high that although twelve miles 
from the coast we could see far out to sea. 

As soon as we were espied, the whole 
brotherhood came rushing out to greet us, 
and when we had taken off our shoes and 
put on our Korean socks we were asked into 
the temple room, which is also the common 
living room of the priests. They spread a 
mat on the floor aud gave us the seat of 
honor under the sacred picture. There with 
the high priest on my right they all gathered 
around and commenced to satisfy their curi- 
osity upon every point which had any relation 
to us from our ancestors to our clothing. 
The high priest was a fat, jolly, intelligent- 
appearing man of about forty-five. One 
old patriarch, who was especially curious, 
had been iu the temple for fifty years. The 
temple room was spacious, with immense 
pillars supporting the roof. At the back 
and centre between two pillars was the 
shrine, with a gilded image of Buddha 
under a glass case and the ever-burning 
incense before it. Soon after we arrived 
the time came for the evening devotions. 
The priests donned their regalia and each iu 




his place began. I wish I could paint the 
scene, for I cannot describe it. The short 
winter day was failing and indoors it was 
dark. A single lamp had been lit above 
the sacred image; the rest of the room was 
in shadows. The burning incense gave out 
a faint odor. The bowing, prostrating forms 
of the priests, the appealing tones of the 
chant, now rising into a cry, now dying 
away; the impressive form of the Buddha 
seated cross-legged on his shrine, with only 
the glint of the light on his gilded body, 
with eyes that could not see, ears that could 
not hear, hands that would not help — it 
seemed to me as I watched the scene that I 
caught such a glimpse of the divine com- 
passion as I had not known before. I 
understood better the powerful motives that 
tugged at the heart of Christ and brought 
Him down from His glory; I understood 
better why He had so iterated and reiterated 
His great commission to His people before He 
left; and, alas! I realized more what a 
miserable failure His people had made of it. 
That night in our little eight-by-eight-foot 
room from the temple room across the court 
we could hear the ' ' tap, tap ' ' of the 
wooden hand bell, used to call Buddha's 
attention and the never-ending, merit-gain- 
ing cry of his name, ' Namou-aml-ta-poul, 
Namou-aml-ta-poul." At prayers that 
night we happened to read in the sixth chap- 
ter of Matthew, "When ye pray use not 
vain repetitions as the heathen do ; for they 
think they shall be heard for their much 
speaking." We went to sleep listening to 
the cry, and awoke in the morning hearing 
it. Poor, ignorant, wayward ones; how 
God's great father heart must yearn over 
them ! And how I longed to break the 
barriers of language and tell them of his 

After dinner we dropped down the moun- 
tain side into life once more, and returning 
home resumed our grind upon the language. 



I spent five weeks in country touring 
during the fall. On September 13 I started 
southward with Mr. Gifford, returning on 
October 3. We went first to An San, as 
usual. There the outlook seemed discour- 
aging at first. The half-dozen young men 

who had taken a stand for Christ in the 
spring appeared indifferent for the most 
part. By degrees we perceived that it was 
for want of continuous instruction, and that 
their minds were in a haze as to what was 
expected of them. They needed pastoral 
work and a leader. As the best substitute 
we left them a definite course of study to be 
followed, instructing them how to follow it, 
how to observe the Sabbath, and in other 
details, and telling them we should examine 
them upon this course when we came again 
in the spring. One of them, we hope, will 
come up to Seoul to attend the class for the 
instruction of inquirers which Mr. Gifford 
will open next Monday. When we left 
them one or two names had been added to 
their number, and both they and we felt 
that some further progress had been made 
by them in the comprehension of Christi- 

Orinai was our next stop. We had never 
been here to preach before, but came now 
at the invitation of the school-teacher, at 
whose house we stayed. We found that it 
was the doctor and not the evangelist whom 
he had invited, and the opposition of his 
elder brother led us to leave after a two 
days' stay. Both of them visibly softened 
when they found at our departure that we 
paid cash value for all we had had from 
them. Not a little seed was sown here, and 
we believe it worth while to visit the place 
again and to stop at the inn. 

From here we went to Moosung, where 
Mr. Gifford had met gratifying success in 
the spring. The town has but two house- 
holds outside the ccau of Han. The young 
men we found friendly, but the elders of the 
clau, many of whom lived in other villages, 
were inimical, and had threatened our host 
with deprivation of his chieftiauship if he 
continued to harbor us. Out of deference 
to his embarrassment we left in two days. 
But before doing so we left such Scripture 
words with him as might lead him to a full 
decision, and his son consented to attend the 
inquirers' class. We confidently expect to 
be able to visit him again and to lead him 
and his household and neighbors into clear 

Haijuwan was our next stop, and here we 
stayed nearly a week. It was a new place 
to me, but not to Mr. Gifford. Our host is 
a sort of Yankee peddler, a man who is 
known throughout the district, and has a 




finger in nearly every trade. Of ingenuous 
nature, he seems to have a clear conception 
of salvation and has been preaching Christ 
wherever he went. Consequently our stay 
at his house was most profitable. Of all 
those who professed themselves inquirers we 
cannot tell how many were in earnest, but 
our hope for the district under the guidance 
of such a man is great. 

At Tangmori, four miles from Haijuwan, 
and nearly surrounded by the sea, we spent 
a Sabbath and a rainy Monday, and seemed 
to reach our host and an old man who had 
formerly presented himself before the church 
session in Seoul and had been asked to wait 
for further enlightenment. In all this 
region we met the utmost cordiality. 

My impression of the trip as a whole is 
that no one of its incidents is to be regretted. 
God's leading was plain in many events, 
and we may expect fruitage soon from much 
of the seed sown. Several of the personal 
encounters would interest you, but I have 
not time to dscribe them. 

On October 29, three days after the close 
of the annual meeting, I started with Mr. 
Miller for Ka Hpyeng magistracy, which we 
visited together last spring. Our first stop- 
ping place was Mat-tol-moro, where Mr. 
Miller spent several days in the spring of 
1894. We read books and preached 
throughout the neighborhood, but seemed to 
reach no response from the people. The 
opinion of both was that it is not worth while 
to pay this town any further extended visit, 
while so much more promising districts are 
awaiting our scanty allowance of time. 

On leaving Mat-tol-moro we went to 
Cheng Hpyeng Nai, where we had spent 
nearly a week in the spring. Here we were 
cordially received by old friends, and were 
able to make new ones. Probably we shall 
not again stop so long here at one time, but 
a regular visit of a couple of days each 
spring and fall is likely to bear its appropriate 

Over a pass we came next to Soupouri, 
where a few hours' stay had brought me so 
many patients and both of us such abundant 
opportunity to preach on our previous visit. 
Here we stayed some four days and held 
much religious conversation with the people. 
The promise of work in this region is very 

Four miles farther on we made the small 
hamlet of Saimal our last stopping place. 

It was entirely new to us both, but we fully 
enjoyed our stay here. Although small 
itself, it is a centre for work in an almost 
complete and well-populated circle of vil- 
lages. Here we met many kind receptions 
and sold not a few books. One of my 
especial friends, the young General Min, the 
nephew of the late queen, has his principal 
country house near by, and owns most of 
the cultivated land throughout the region, 
being one of the richest men in all Korea. 
He was not at home, but we were enter- 
tained very kindly by his retainers. I had 
previously received an invitation to visit him 
there and hunt deer in the mountains with 
his younger brother. Those who apparently 
heard our message with most readiness were 
a household of four eunuchs residing in the 
neighborhood. They are of the number 
who have been excluded from the palace by 
the past year's events, and they have bought 
land and settled down in this fertile valley. 
They manifested little vulgar curiosity, but 
paid good attention to the doctrine we 
taught. Altogether we felt our stay at 
Saimal to be a thoroughly profitable one. 

From here we came directly to Seoul. 
Since returning home we have effected the 
purchase together of a most desirable piece 
of property upon the East Gate street di- 
rectly in front of the old palace. It is very 
centrally located, about a quarter or three- 
eighths of a mile this side of the Girls' School 
property and Mr. Gifford's residence at 
Yen-mot-kol. It has a street front upon 
three sides, and adjoins another building 
upon only one side. Upon one side of the 
door are rooms admirably adapted for a small 
dispensary ; upon the other for gathering an 
audience and preaching to them, while in 
the rear are apartments for the native evan- 
gelist and where women may enter by a 
separate gate and wait. This affords an 
excellent opportunity for Mrs. Giffbrd and 
Mrs. Vinton to use the building for work as 
well as ourselves. 



The year which has passed since Korea's 
month gave her a hearing in our missionary 
reviews has been quite an eventful one 
in every way. The cholera, which for 
some inexplicable reason has not visited 




the country since 1887, appeared about 
the middle of July, and, while it did 
not rage as fiercely as before, carried away 
hundreds of people. This was our great 
opportunity, and, at once securing the inter- 
est and aid of the government, inspection 
offices were opened, and a couple of hos- 
pitals were made ready. Some of our 
Korean native Christians did grand work. 
Gentlemen — who according to all the tradi- 
tions of their class have never done any 
menial labor — worked night after night over 
the poor, revolting victims of a foul conta- 
gious disease, never shrinking from the 
humblest service that was called for. On 
they went as agents of the inspection office, 
into the filthiest and most infected districts, 
administering relief, and teaching the people 
how to disinfect their homes and to prevent 
disease. One man, however, tried a differ- 
ent remedy. He went up on the mountain 
and prayed all night that God would spare 
the people of his church and of his neigh- 
borhood, and when some of them told him 
they thought they had better be getting 
some foreign medicine, he said, " No — have 
no anxiety, none of us will be sick, God will 
protect us. I have prayed to him about 
it. ' ' Not one of them was sick, though_in 
the midst of a cholera district. It was piti- 
ful to see the paper prayers flying every- 
where, hung up for the eyes of imaginary 
and helpless gods, pitiful and awful to see 
the numbers of those who were smitten down 
suddenly in the midst of perfect health, 
dying in a few hours, with no opportunity to 
listen to or understand the words of life we 
longed to whisper. The people appreciated 
the efforts made by the missionaries for their 
sick. I heard a man remark: " Do you 
see that man ? He is working night and 
day for the sick." His neighbor replied: 
' ' Oh, yes, of course, he is a Jesus man. ' ' 
Another said, as I bent over his mother, 
rubbing her cramped limbs, " Would any 
Korean — any of our own friends do as much 
as this for us ?' ' God gave us a marvelous 
number of recoveries in the hospital which 
was known as the missionary hospital, and the 
government itself, in a very handsome letter 
of thanks, acknowledged what had been 
done. But the chief reward we had was the 
opening thus made in the aflections of our 
people and the joy of serving them in their 
awful need. 

Scarcely had we begun to rest a little after 

the cholera had abated, when the sad death 
of the queen threw the whole country into 
a foment, and from the very cordial rela- 
tions which have always existed between 
our mission and the palace, we could not 
escape being involved somewhat in all that 
followed. As a great many false statements 
have been made in various papers with 
regard to the part played by the missionaries 
in public affairs at this time, perhaps a word 
or two of explanation may not be out of 
place. The king, completely unnerved and 
prostrated by the murder of his beloved 
consort almost under his eyes, begged that 
a few foreigners might be placed near his 
person every night. As according to inter- 
national etiquette and law no foreign sol- 
diers could be given him, some of the mis- 
sionaries were asked to remain with him to 
prevent, perhaps by their presence as wit- 
nesses, any further evil. This they gladly 
did. Two or three of them also gave their 
services as interpreters for the king and the 
foreign officials, as the natives could not be 
trusted, and as the king wished it. Three 
of them were with the king on the night 
when the second attack was made on the 
palace — that made by the king's friends 
without his knowledge— for his release. 
The missionaries had absolutely nothing to 
do with this attack, knew nothing of the 
plans or leaders of it, till all was over, nor 
did any of them have any connection with 
any schemes or plots whatever on one side or 
the other. We sheltered in this home two 
or three poor frightened gentlemen who had 
committed no crimes, either civil or political, 
who fled from the murderers of their queen ; 
among them, the king's younger son, and 
this we felt it our happy privilege to do. 

In all the disturbances and excitement of 
the fall and winter the people have seemed 
to turn to us for comfort and help. Num- 
bers more than ever have flocked to the 
church and to the weekly meetings and 
sought membership among us. Several 
small churches have been built or bought 
by the natives themselves, and that built by 
the church of which Mr. Underwood has 
charge is now already too small, and about 
seventy-five dollars have already been con- 
tributed toward its enlargement. A good 
many of our people come from one to five 
miles to church, often remaining all day 
without any dinner. 

During the early winter, and in the midst 




of political excitement, was held what is 
called the theological class. A number of 
the brightest and most zealous of the native 
Christians are invited once a year at the 
expense of the mission to spend a month 
here studying the Bible and methods of Chris- 
tian work, in order to train them for lead- 
ership in the native church. This year the 
meetings were marked by deep interest and 
great spirituality. Their instructors were 
Mr. Underwood, Mr. Giffbrd and Mr. 
Moore of our mission, and Mr. Pauling of 
the Baptist mission. While they were 
here, when crossing the city one day to go 
to Mr. Gifford's, the whole class were 
arrested and thrown into jail. As nearly 
everybody arrested at this time was being 
cruelly beaten and tortured, we were horri- 
fied to hear that our poor country Christians 
were among the number. We knew not 
what to do to release them ; our petitions in 


their behalf might only cause them heavier 
torture, when suddenly word came of 
their release. Their odd farmer dress 
attracted the suspicious notice of some sol- 
diers, and they were taken off before 
some military official, to whose ques- 
tions they replied that they were only 
country people here studying about Jesus, 
and were then on their way to a mission- 
ary's house. "If so," said the man, 
" show us your beads, or your books," 
thinking they were Catholics. Beads they 
had none, but on careful inspection of 
their pockets was found one or two Sun- 
day lesson leaves with names of Jesus 
and Mary and Joseph. "And who is this 
Joseph and Mary ?" asked the officer suspi- 

ciously. Then our dear Sard, one of the 
shrewdest and cleverest, as well as most 
earnest and spiritual of our natives, gave 
officer and soldiers and bystanders all a 
short sermon on Jesus and his coming to this 
earth, until in great alarm, lest, like Felix, 
he should be almost persuaded to become a 
Christian, he fairly begged them to go, and 
bundled them out of court. Dr. Avison and 
Mr. Underwood somewhat later, about the 
middle of January, took rather an extended 
trip through the country, finding the people 
everywhere in a pitiful condition of un- 
rest and terror, knowing not whom to 
trust, or where to turn for protection and 
help, verily as sheep without a shepherd, 
but everywhere welcoming Americans and 
English and especially missionaries as their 
friends. They found one unique official 
who, though not a Christian, appreciated 
so highly the beauties of Christianity 
that he kept a stock 
of Christian tracts 
for presentation to all 
criminals brought to 
his preserve, inform- 
ing them that if they 
would only read those 
g| books they would 
never need be 
brought into a court 
of justice. When 
presented with a copy 
of the Bible in Chi- 
nese, he said he 
would read it on his 
knees as God' s word. 
But I have no time 
or space to tell the 
many interesting incidents connected with 
our work which remain. Just now again 
nearly our whole mission are afield. 
Mr. Giflord and Dr. Vinton together about 
fifty miles from here ; Mrs. Gifford and Dr. 
Whiting out for four days ten miles away ; 
Mr. Moore and Mr. Underwood on the 
river on the way to Chungyan, a three 
weeks' trip ; Mr. Lee and his family with 
Dr. Wells to return to Pyeng and to settle 
there permanently in a few days. While 
you read these lines probably Miss Doty 
and Mr. Moffett will be with you, as they 
return to America, God willing, this spring. 
They can tell you more than we can write 
of all the blessed work going on in this poor 
storm-tossed country. 





Mr. M. H. Kerr, Ebolewo'e, Africa: — Ebo- 
lewo'e station to-day presents a peculiar picture. 
Approaching the hill from the southwest, one 
would be led to believe that we are but a few feet 
above the surrounding country. But upon looking 
around from the top of the hill, which is from 
forty to fifty feet above the towns at the foot, we 
find we are on the highest ground for a number of 
miles around with the exception of a large moun- 
tain about 1500 feet high to the west of the hill. 

The first sight of the white man's town is a 
house eighteen by twenty-six feet. It is only a 
thatch roof with a bark wall at one end ; the other 
three sides are open. This is known as the "Sun- 
day House," because we hold service in it on Sun- 
days and station prayers with the workmen every 
morning, which the people say belong to the same 
"family" as the Sunday service. For seats we 
have the regulation log set rbout a foot above the 
floor. The past few Sundays we have had an aver- 
age attendance of over one hundred. 


The next building is one of the seven wonders 
of the Bule world, the one in which we live. It 
has so many things in it. Our blankets, three or 
four small tin trunks, several boxes of trade goods, 
some tools, saws, etc. When we consider how 
little they have and know, it is no wonder that 
they are curious and want to see all. One of our 
great trials is when a stranger comes and asks to 
see our house. We of course allow him to come in, 
but every one from the near-by towns seems to 
think this another chance for him, and they do 
their best to crowd the stranger back and push in. 
We have to be most careful not to offend them, and 
still be firm. 

workmen's house. 

Just back of our house is the workmen's house, 
eight by twenty feet, with the ridge pole about 
seven feet from the ground, the side walls about 
five feet high. This is one of the native houses we 
bought when we first came. We have moved it up 
on the hill. To the left of the workmen's house is 
the saw pit and close by is a roof, ten by sixteen feet, 
under which we have sixty logs ready for sawing. 
We had the people cut the trees, then our men cut 
them in lengths and hewed them. The people 
then carried them to the station. One set of eight 
logs of a brown wood, the only kind we know of to 
make doors and windows, was carried over half a 

To the right of our house and close to where we 
expect to build the permanent house is the work- 
shed. Here we have stored a lot of the material 
for the house — bark, thatch, floor beams, etc. In 
the workshed every morning may be seen the begin- 
ning of one of the most important lines of work, a 
school. One of the Bule boys from Efulen has for 
his work the teaching of the letters and figures to 
about twenty boys who come from the towns every 
morning. We have no school building, but any 

roof answers the purpose, and it is a queer sight to 
see these chaps sitting around, some on logs_ or 
pieces of bark and the rest on the ground working 
away like good fellows. The boy who teaches 
them is one whom two years ago I had a hard time 
to get to come to school. He did not like work, 
smoked a pipe, and I don't know what else he did. 
Now he stands first among the school boys, is a 
member of the inquiry class, and always opens and 
closes school with prayer. He is only about fifteen 
years old. We hope that by having the boys 
taught their letters many of them will almost know 
how to read a little when we are able to start the 
regular school. 

At our station meeting the school work was 
assigned to me. I enjoy this work very much, and 
when we think best to do so, I hope to give most 
of my time to it. Of all the dear ties I had in a 
measure to break upon leaving Efulen, none was so 
strong as the one that bound me to those young 
hearts I used to meet every morning in the bark- 
walled schoolhouse at that station. The first single 
object other than the general work I want to ask 
your prayers for is the school work at Ebolewo'e. 


Next Monday I expect to start for Efulen. I 
did not expect to go until April 6, but we are 
having trouble to get carriers from the coast. The 
coast tribes do not like to see us go to the "bush 
people," as they call them, and one of the ways 
they take to stop us is to refuse to carry unless we 
give them about twice as much as they get for 
carrying for the factories. About twenty-five of 
the Bule here have promised to go and carry if I 
go all the way to Efulen with them. This I am 
glad to do in order to give the coast people a chance 
to see that we can get along without them if they 
insist upon being mean. I expect a hard wet trip, 
but I will try and be as careful as possible not to 
get sick from the exposure. 


We of this station have been hunting for a 
name other than Ebolewo'e, because when we go 
out to visit other towns and ask the people to come 
to our station, when we use Ebolewo'e (as the name 
means all the native towns) they seem to think we 
are only part of the people at Ebolewo'e, and they 
have trouble with the people and are afraid to 
come, but if we had another name for the station 
it would be one of the helps for the people to un- 
derstand we are living in a "town" of our own, 
and not having all things in common as the old 
head-man tries to have all other clans believe. We 
hope very soon to settle upon a name that really 
means something in the line of our work, and from 
the name the Bule may judge the nature of our 


Rev. J. A. Eakin, Bangkok, Siam : — If there is 
any odium attached to an avowed optimist, I must 
try to bear it ; for I find no other position tenable 
in view of the glorious promises of the word. 
Sometimes I hear mention of discouragements in 
mission work for the Siamese, but I must plead 
ignorance on that point. I do not like discourage- 




merits, and make it a point never to recognize them 
when I meet them on the way. But it is never a 
wise thing to underestimate difficulties. 


Buddhism, as a religious system, is losing its 
hold on the Siamese, as is clearly seen in the decay 
of temples and the increase of crimes of violence 
among the people, but the effects of Buddhist teach- 
ing, as seen in the indifference of the people, are 
still in full force. The Siamese have been taught 
for centuries that indifference is the supreme good. 
It is only by carefully cultivating a spirit of indif- 
ference that they can prepare for Nirvana, and 
nearly all the men have served a period of appren- 
ticeship in the practice of the art under the priests 
in the temple. 

I have been working at Paknam for about 
eighteen months, formerly going once in two weeks, 
and more recently every Sabbath. I usually spend 
from three to five hours in preaching, singing 
hymns and talking to inquirers. Almost every 
Sabbath we have special tokens of the presence of 
the Spirit. Often we have public testimony, on 
the part of inquirers, of faith in the Saviour ; but 
thus far I do not know of a single convert. Those 
who are roused for a time seem to lapse into their 
former sluggishness of soul as soon as they are away 
from the influence of the preacher, and after at- 
tending service for a few times they disappear and 
are seen no more. 


You are acquainted with the physical effects of 
climate, but I am convinced that the moral and 
spiritual effects have never been sufficiently taken 
into account. You know how difficult it is to keep 

— On Tuesday, June 23, the cornerstone of a 
Home for Missionary Children in Oberlin, Ohio, 
was laid. 

— A monthly magazine in the English language, 
called The Far East, for Japanese readers, has just 
been started in Japan. 

— Dr. Blackburn likens the legacies received by 
missionary societies to ammunition taken from the 
cartridge boxes of dead soldiers. 

— rWhen a missionary in Africa described God as 
love, he received this reply : " God a God of love? 
Then why has he left us in this wretchedness so 

— A Brahmin confessed that the future was dark 
to his soul, but that he hoped some day to find, as 
he entered the unseen, some light shining on his 
gloomy way. 

— A curious Chinese custom consists in throwing 
thousands of small pieces of paper, each inscribed 
with a prayer, into the ocean when a friend is about 
to sail. — Presbyterian Review. 

— The house of worship occupied by the Presby- 
terian Church in Waterloo, Iowa, was built in 1891 
at a cost of $20,000, out of a huge glacier granite 
boulder. This boulder, partly buried in the ground, 
was thirty feet long, thirty feet wide and twenty 
feet thick. Enough of it is still left for a manse. — 
Herald and Presbyter. 

up an interest in the churches at home from the 
first of June to the first of October ; but you must 
remember that we have June to October all the 
year round. During ten months of the year we can 
hardly bring our people to really spiritual worship 
in a service at night because their minds are so dis- 
tracted by the pestering mosquitoes. Added to 
this are the actively evil effects of the climate. 
Self-control is weakened, while all the baser pas- 
sions are strengthened many-fold. The moral 
effect of a tropical climate is to stiile virtue and to 
foster vice. 


But if you are thinking that the presence of these 
difficulties will have a damaging effect on the mis- 
sionaries themselves, I think you need have no fear 
of that. I know of no members of the Siam Mission 
who regret that they were sent to this field. It is a 
poor soldier who repines because the commander 
has selected his company for the most trying service 
on the whole field of conllict. If he is a true man, 
that fact is rather a stimulus to him to do his best 
and to hold on until he is relieved, and there is 
much of the true soldierly spirit in this mis- 

These things which seem so hard to us are none 
of them hard to God, and while we are trying to do 
our best, we have learned to wait patiently on the 
Lord in assured confidence that he has great bless- 
ings in store for these people, which will be reveal- 
ed in his own good time. The first thing in build- 
ing in this country is to drive piles down deep into 
the soft, alluvial soil, and then lay a foundation on 
the top of them. The same sort of preparatory 
work seems to be necessary in building up Christian 

— In 1839 the darkest hour came to Turkish mis- 
sions, and the tyrant Mahmfid ordered all Christian 
missionaries summarily expelled from the empire. 
Dr. Goodell quietly said : "The great Sultan of the 
Universe can change all this." In July of that 
year MahmQd died. That order for expulsion was 
not only never enforced, it was never again referred 
to ! — Missionary Review. 

— The Church Missionary Society was organized 
April 12, 1799. On the twelfth of April, this year, 
the Society entered upon what is called the ' ' Three 
Years' Enterprise." This includes : 1. A compre- 
hensive review of the Society's position and 
methods in the mission field and in the home ad- 
ministration of the missions. 2. A large increase 
in the Society's evangelistic forces. " Advance first; 
commemoration afterwards," is to be the controll- 
ing thought in the preparation for the coming cen- 

— Among the more delicate virtues that graced 
the character of Romanes was one which again and 
again lends fragrance to the commonest actions. 
He had that spiritual refinement and courtesy— as 
distinct from mere politeness and conventional re- 
finement as heaven from earth — that evinced itself 
in his unfailing considerateness. He could be un- 
bending in the firmness of his own convictions with- 
out allowing a grain of discourtesy to enter in. There 
is a Christian way of differing from our opponents ; 
Romanes had acquired the gift. — St. Andrew's Q-oss. 


Concert of Prayer 
For Church Work at Home. 

JANUARY The New West. 

FEBRUARY The Indians. 

MARCH The Older States. 

APRIL The Cities. 

MAY The Mormons. 

JUNE Our Missionaries. 

JULY Results of the Year. 

AUGUST The Foreigners. 

SEPTEMBER The Outlook. 

OCTOBER The Treasury. 

NOVEMBER Romanists and Mexicans. 

DECEMBER ... The South. 


Every thoughtful man must have some 
conception of the perils that arise from the 
presence in our country of multitudes of 
people who were reared under institutions 
radically different from our own. Even if 
all our citizens of foreign birth were free 
from any feeling of hostility to American 
principles it would be impossible for them 
to enter into our national life without at 
least unconsciously engrafting upon it for- 
eign ideas, foreign social customs, a foreign 
Sabbath. The Christian people of America 
have mourned over the demoralizing ten- 
dency in communities where foreigners of 
any nationality are largely dominant. We 
shall continue to see the evils and fear the 
perils until our immigrant population be- 
comes Americanized and Christianized. 

This does not necessarily imply that for- 
eigners are more addicted to crime and 
ungodliness than our own people of like 
grades and classes, but it must be admitted 
that there is a tendency among foreigners 
to decline in morals and religion after they 
have come to America. This may be fairly 
attributed to several causes, not implying an 
unusual degree of depravity. One of these 
causes is their tendency to the cities, where 
crime is more rife than in the rural districts. 
One-half of our ten million foreign-born 
population lives in 125 of our principal 

cities and a very large per cent, of the other 
half is found in cities of the second class. 
The pauper and mendicant classes of them 
invariably seek the cities, the centres of 
wealth, as most suitable to their conditions 
and occupations. The lawless and vicious 
among them can ply their vocations only 
under conditions which the cities furnish. 
Their tendency is to congregate by nation- 
alities and so to perpetuate the language and 
customs of their fatherland. Their lan- 
guage, literature and social life isolate them 
from American society, so that if they feel 
the influence of American ideas and Ameri- 
can customs it is only incidentally. Thus 
all over our land there are growing up sep- 
arate and alien communities, possibly not 
intentionally hostile, but certainly not in 
harmony with American ideas and not help- 
ful in the great battle for truth and right. 
There are always great perils in massed 
populations. Where there is human or 
physical power there is peril. Anarchism, 
riots, lawlessness, in all their varied mani- 
festations, are almost peculiar to the cities, 
where the foreign population is dominant, 
for the liquor power and the boss must have 
masses to work upon and with. 

Another cause, perhaps a more fruitful 
one, is found in the fact that the foreign 
populations in our country are not as well 
provided with gospel privileges as our own 
people are, neither are they as intelligent. 
The percentage of illiteracy among the for- 
eign-born population is nearly or quite three 
times as great as that among the native 

Church work among foreigners is necessa- 
rily missionary in its method and character, 
for the reason that the classes of foreigners 
who gather into separate communities are 
seldom possessed of sufficient means, above 
what is required to establish homes and busi- 
ness, to support churches. Another reason 
is that they seldom find in this country 
churches and a ministry of their denomina- 
tional choice. Whatever church-going 
habits therefore they may have acquired in 
their native land are sine to degenerate 





under these new conditions into Sabbath- 
breaking conviviality. Another reason 
still, and a very potent one, is that most of 
them were reared in established churches 
where the maintenance of a ministry was 
provided by endowments or at public ex- 
pense, and they are not accustomed to 
support the ministry by voluntary contribu- 
tions. It is not strange, therefore, that the 
churches among our foreign populations do 
not advance toward self-support as rapidly 
as those among our American people. 

While it is desirable that our immigrant 
population should receive the gospel in the 
language of our country and not in their 
own, it is nevertheless found by exjierience 
that an acquired language has not the 
sacred ness of the mother-tongue ; and besides 
the only knowledge of the language which 
most of them ever acquire is such as is needed 
for business or ordinary colloquial purposes 
and does not qualify them to follow a discourse 
intelligently, however simple the style and 
the diction of the preacher. English-speak- 
ing ministers do not, therefore, succeed as 
well with foreigners as those who use their 
own language. On the other hand, where 
ministers speak the language of the immi- 
grants in our country, they not only preserve 
whatever of ancestral faith these immigrants 
may hold, but they promote family religion, 
arrest the tendency to moral degeneracy and 
save the children to the Church. In addi- 
tion to this, these ministers invariably hold 
a second service, or at least a partial service, 
in English, and thus in course of time, in a 
community of foreigners, the church be- 
comes an out-and-out English-speaking 
church. Many instances of this kind might 
be cited on the home mission field. 

We have churches among about thirty dif- 
ferent nationalities in our country. Those 
among the Germans are the most numerous. 
But we have churches among the Bohemians 
and Poles in eleven States. The Italians in 
this country offer most promising opportun- 
ities for mission work. They respond very 
readily to the efforts of our missionaries. 
Our Italian churches are in five different 
States, and every one is in a healthy, grow- 
ing condition. Many very attractive fields 
are open to us among the Scandinavians, a 
religious and frugal people whose ancestral 
faith is very nearly akin to our own. 
But instead of enlarging our usefulness 
anions' them, we have been compelled to 

deny many of their requests for the minis- 
try of the word. 

If the perils which have been referred to 
are real, we owe it to our country to evan- 
gelize more promptly and thoroughly the 
multitudes of foreigners who have come to 
our shores. If it be true that the gospel is 
the only means of salvation, the eternal 
destiny of these millions of our fellow- 
citizens rests with the Church to-day. 

Adopted by General Assembly. 

The past year has been one of depression 
and trial in the financial conditions of the 
country. The strong business corporations 
of the States have found it necessary to cur- 
tail expenses and move cautiously in the 
direction of any advances. The men of 
wealth have felt the depression arising from 
a lack of confidence along all lines of busi- 
ness. The middle classes that compose a 
large share of our membership, and those 
in less prosperous conditions, have been 
sorely pressed. 

Under these conditions our Board of 
Home Missions entered upon the work of 
the year, burdened with a debt that had 
been accumulating for several years. The 
debt had been the result of the demands of 
our growing home missionary work, and the 
cry of the destitute regions on the frontier. 
Added to these embarrassments, under which 
the year's work was undertaken, was the 
severe drought which had recently visited 
Nebraska and Kansas, not only cutting off 
the supjuies of the people, but rendering 
large districts an actual charge on the coun- 
try at large. 

It will be readily seen that the work of 
the year, under these conditions, would im- 
pose large responsibilities upon our churches, 
and the Boards which were called to admin- 
ister the gifts of our people. 

Your committee desire to commend the 
courage with which the work has been taken 
up and carried forward. The conditions 
have been enough to engage the best thought 
and activity of the Board, and almost to 
stagger the faith that has so signally marked 
our home mission work in the past. 

The churches, upon whose liberality all 
this work must finally rest, have felt the 
embarrassment of all business enterprises; 
and, to say the least, have responded very 




cautiousty to the large and imperative 
claims of this work. 

Yet the work has been steadily prosecuted. 
All the means that have been put into the 
hands of the Board have been employed in 
the advancement of the evangelization of 
the people. 

The Board has employed 1544 mission- 
aries during the year. This is 287 less 
than last year, owing in part to the transfer- 
ence of some of the missionaries to the Syn- 
ods that have undertaken their support, and 
the advance to self-support on the part of 
some other churches, and the non-employ- 
ment of theological students. 

These missionaries have toiled with a 
fidelity and heroism worthy of the Church 
which they represent. Through heat and 
cold, storm and calm, they have carried the 
gospel message to the homes of the people 
among whom they have labored. Under 
their supervision ninety church buildings 
have been erected, almost two churches 
every week. This has been accomplished at 
a time when it was most difficult to tax the 
liberality of the people, yet at a cost of 
8165,900. They have received 9179 mem- 
bers on profession of their faith and 4308 
by letter, making an aggregate of 13,487. 

There was an earnest hope, at the begin- 
ning of the year, that the burden of last 
year's debt would be lifted by the gathering 
of a large thank-offering, in recognition of 
the divine favor which has rested upon the 
reunion of our beloved Church. While 
recognizing the heroic efforts and real 
self-sacrifice of many of our churches in 
their loyal response in the hour of need, we 
are yet convinced that the Church, as a 
whole, has by no means reached its full 
measure of consecration and must emphasize 
the conviction that the responsibility of se- 
curing the proposed relief, and of keeping 
our treasury supplied with resources for all 
our needed work, does rest, and must rest, 
with the men who stand in our pulpits and 
lead the noble hosts of our Church. 

For the measure of relief which has come 
to our Board, through the effort to secure 
the Million Dollar Fund, we desire to ex- 
press grateful thanks to Almighty God. 

Our report would not be complete with- 
out hearty recognition of the noble auxiliary 
work of the Woman's Executive Committee 
of Home Missions. The systematic organ- 
ization of women's work, and the energy 

with which it has been prosecuted, have 
added largely to the results of our Church 
work for the year. 

Their financial, educational and evangel- 
istic helpfulness in this great work of the 
Church has not only buttressed the work of 
the Home Board, but greatly broadened 
and enlarged it. 

They have gathered during the year 
$314,941, and have employed among the 
exceptional populations 318 teachers, con- 
secrated, capable and courageous women, 
with skill and will to do the Master's work. 
These teachers have had under their care 
9326 pupils. The Woman's Committee has 
also aided in the support of twenty-one ad- 
ditional schools, and thirty-seven teachers 
in connection with the Freedmen's Board. 
Through their helpfulness our home mission- 
aries have been provided with boxes to the 
reported valuation of §36,780. Also your 
committee would recognize the value to the 
cause of home missions of the several con- 
gresses of missions, which have been held in 
the various synods. These gatherings of 
many of the missionaries and pastors have 
largely aroused and stimulated the mission- 
ary spirit, and have enlarged the contribu- 
tions to the cause in the synods in which 
they have been held. 


1. We recommend that the Board of Home Mis- 
sions revise its methods of appropriation so as to 
embody the following : 

(1) To require of all churches applying for aid, 
that they send to the Presbyterial Committee with 
their applications for aid two copies of their sub- 
scription for pastor's salary, one copy for the Board 
of Home Missions, and one copy for the Presby- 
terial Committee, accompanying these with a full 
list of the membership of the church. 

(2) That the Board, at the beginning of the 
fiscal year, require of each presbytery, through its 
Home Missions Committee, a careful, conscientious 
and conservative estimate of the least total amount 
necessary to aid the home mission churches within 
its bounds. This estimate shall give in detail the 
amount required for each church, answering all 
other questions required by the Board. The Board 
shall then communicate to the Presbyterial Com- 
mittee the maximum total amount it is able to 
grant the churches of the presbytery, and the 
Presbyterial Committee shall then make final 
apportionment among the churches, not exceeding 
in aggregate the amount designated by the Board, 
and this distribution shall be recognized as final by 
the Board. 

(3) The Board is instructed in all its estimates 
of total amounts to be granted to the churches of a 
presbytery to inquire diligently into the record of 
each church as to its gifts to this cause, and to use 




every endeavor to stimulate the churches to greater 

(4) Each presbytery is instructed to use every 
endeavor to enlarge its gifts to Home Missions, 
and, if the way be clear, to attempt self-support 
either by raising for the Board an amount equal to 
that received from the Board, or by adopting some 
form of self-sustentation. 

2. In view of the present financial stringency 
and the difficulty of raising sufficient funds for the 
prosecution of the mission enterprises of our 
Church, we recommend that a committee of three 
ministers and six laymen be appointed by the 
Moderator with full authority : 

(1) To confer with the Home Missions Board 
regarding its method of general administration 
and suggest what changes, if any, are advisable 

(2) To carefully examine the expenditures for 
officers, salaries and clerk hire, and to indicate what 
reductions, if any, may be made consistently with 
economy and efficiency of service. 

(3) To examine the books and accounts of the 
Board, with the aid of an expert accountant, if 
such aid be deemed desirable, and to recommend 
any changes they may regard as essential. 

(4) To ascertain the cause of the present accu- 
mulated indebtedness and to recommend such 
measures as in their judgment will most efficiently 
remove the indebtedness and prevent the recurrence 
of deficits. 

(5) To publish in the church papers, at the 
earliest possible moment, such information as in 
their judgment will be of value to the whole 
Church, and make full report of their work with 
recommendations to the next General Assembly. 

3. That the Moderator of this Assembly be 
authorized to issue a pastoral letter to the churches, 
to be sent out over the signatures of the officers of 
the Assembly, urging, in view of the immediate 
and imperative needs of the Board, a prompt and 
substantial manifestation of loyalty to the great 
work of Home Missions, and he shall also set forth 
in this letter the practical measures inaugurated by 
this Assembly, looking toward the promotion of 
efficiency and economy in the administration of the 
work. . . 

4. We urge upon presbyteries and synods the im- 
portance of holding during the year assemblies or 
congresses, in the interests of the mission work of 
our Church, enlisting the aid of the best available 
talent, for extending information and arousing in- 
terest and enthusiasm for the cause. 

5. We recommend that the Sunday-schools 
throughout the Church be asked to take their 
usual annual offering for the educational work 
under the Women's Executive Committee on the 
Sunday immediately preceding Thanksgiving. 

6. Since the excessive burden of the Board s 
debt has been somewhat lightened, and the con- 
fusion incident to the removal of the offices is a 
thin°- of the past, we further recommend that the 
action of the General Assembly of last year, re- 
quiring the monthly payment of our missionaries, 
be faithfully and promptly carried out by the 

7. We recommend that the minutes of the 
Board, placed in our hands, be approved. 

8. We recommend the reelection of the following 
members of the Board whose terms of office have 

expired : Ministers— Rev. Thomas A. Nelson, 
D.D., Rev. James M. Ludlow, D.D., Rev. George 
L. Spining, D.D. ; Elders— Mr. John S. Ken- 
nedy, Mr. John E. Parsons, Mr. Henry E. Row- 
land and Mr. Charles E. Green. 



The Church is essentially a missionary en- 
terprise. The sole warrant for its existence 
is the great commission to go into all the 
world and preach the gospel. Its program 
is from Jerusalem to the ends of the_ earth, 
and never in its entire history has it been 
confronted with grander opportunities and 
more fearful responsibilities than at the pres- 
ent time. The responsibilities of the Prot- 
estant Church in the United States _ of 
America have been greatly enlarged during 
the present generation. The inflow of 
populations has made us kin to all the world ; 
the development of industries has attracted 
surplus wealth and active energy from all 
the nations of the earth. Our diplomatic 
relations have brought us prominently before 
the world. In all the elements of power 
and influence we stand conspicuous, feared 
by all, and rivaled by none, and it does not 
appear what we shall be. _ There are forty- 
nine million unsaved souls in bur land. The 
highest estimate of the number who make 
any sort of profession of religion of what- 
ever name, is 21,000,000, which include 
14,000,000 Protestants and 7,000,000 Cath- 
olics. This means that the mighty multi- 
tude which are outside of the pale of cove- 
nant mercy are equal to the entire uncon- 
verted population of Persia, Siam, Korea 
and Japan. When we remember they are 
more than two-thirds of our entire popula- 
tion we are startled with the fact that 
instead of being a Christian nation, we are 
two-thirds Pagan. 

While our country has been increasing in 
population, and developing its resources 
along the lines of all our industries, we have 
been steadily receding. Since the Board was 
compelled by its debt to place an embargo 
against all new work the increase of our 
population equals the population of Persia, 
or of Ireland and Scotland combined, while 
the Church has been standing still and its 
missionary forces reduced. This means a 
positive retreat. The religious destitution of 
our country has been caused, not by the 
failure of gospel truth to accomplish what is 




claimed for it; not by the impotence of the 
Holy Spirit, for revivals are reported every- 
where; not by any inability on the part of 
our missionaries to attract and influence 
men, for congregations gather wherever they 
preach, and not by reason of any revulsion 
of the popular mind from the treaty of 
Christianity, for men hear them gladly, but 
simply and solely by reason of the failure of 
the Church to do its part. We can solve 
the problem ; we can conquer in this fight, 
for with Christ on our side " those that be 
for us are more and mightier than those that 
be against us." 

It would have been most gratifying if our 
sister denominations could have taken up 
the work which we have neglected in addi- 
tion to their own, but, unfortunately, they 
have suffered from the same disabilities 
which have restrained us and have not 
been able to do that portion of the work 
which prbperly fell to them. 

Now let us look at the Board's finances. 
In spite of special and persistent efforts the 
receipts from the ordinary sources were be- 
low those of the previous year. But there 
are hopeful and encouraging features of the 
situation. It will be remembered that the 
year opened with a debt of 8364,850.05. 
Besides this large sum and in addition to it, 
there were missionaries' salaries and other 
outstanding obligations amounting to $41,- 
000 which had to be paid out of the receipts 
of last year. That sum and the expenses of 
the year Avere all paid up to April 1, 1896, 
so that there is not one dollar of outstand- 
ing obligations except the debt of $299,- 
062.42. Now don't go home and say that 
we are in debt $300,000. We are not. The 
debt is only $299,062.42. It is something 
to be proud of and thankful for that in a 
year of such financial stringency and with 
smaller receipts we have reduced the debts 
and obligations aggregating $405,850.05 to 
$299,062.42— a reduction of $106,787.63. 

Now, if you turn to p. 149 of the report 
you will see that the receipts of the past 
year, not counting the Memorial Fund, Avere 
the smallest in ten years. 

During that ten years the Board received 
over $800,000 six different years. In one 
year, 1892-93, the sum reached $942,- 
565.27, a sum greater by $21,000 than the 
combined receipts last year from all the 
usual sources and the Memorial Fund. One 
such year, with the careful retrenchment 

which the Board has planned, Avill lift the 
Board entirely out of debt before next < len- 
eral Assembly. Why can we not have it ? 
The gifts of the poor and the rich combined 
Avill do it. 

Jesus saw the rich giving of their abun- 
dance, but he did not think it worthy of 
special notice; he did not call attention to 
any particular man who cast in a great sum 
iuto the treasury, but when he saAV the widow 
give her two mites he sent that fact ringing 
down the centuries preaching the most pow- 
erful sermon on Christian giving. She 
gaA^e those tAvo mites, not because they Avere 
going to help anybody ,A r ery much, but 
because she wanted to glorify God AA-ith what 
she had, and so through these centuries she 
has put more money, more actual cash, into 
the treasuries of the Lord's house than even 
David did who gave $104,000,000 out of 
his inexhaustible treasures. It was not the 
small amount she gaA r e, but the fact that she 
gave- A\ r ith all her might that made it 

Now a Avord about our expenses. 

On p. 55 of the report the financial state- 
ment appears. Please don't jump at the 
conclusion, as some haA r e done, that it costs 
$81,000 to administer the affairs of the 
Board, because it don't. There are seA r eral 
large items that ought not to be chargeable 
to the Board, ' ' Interest on borrowed money 
aggregating $13,604.57." Then there are 
the Assembly Herald and The Church at 
Home and Abroad, which are wise and 
right, but which are not under the Board's 

It must be remembered that debt always 
increases expenses of many kinds. Taking 
out all such items, the expenses are but seven 
and one-half per cent, on the basis of the 
low expenditures of the past year, but on 
the basis of the larger sums of other years 
(and the expenses would be about the same 
if the amount administered Avere $1,000,- 
000, as it ought to be) the per cent, would 
be certainly moderate enough to surprise any 
business man. 

As an offset to this debt it is cheering to 
know that we have $29,970.81 from the 
estate of DaA r id S. Ingalls, deceased, Avhich 
will be applied to that debt as soon as they 
can be disposed of to adA'antage. In addi- 
tion to this we also possess real estate in Ashe- 
ville, N. C, which cost us $44,024.04, 
upon which Ave hope to realize a much 




greater sum, which will also be applied to 
the debt. 

I need not farther analyze our financial 
condition ; it is set forth in detail very fully 
and clearly in the financial statement which 
forms a part of our report. "We realize 
most gratefully the generous assistance ex- 
tended to us by the Memorial Fund Com- 
mittee, whose gift of 6191,230.84 reduced 
our debt and helped so far to clear our 
financial sky. Let us rejoice at the improv- 
ing condition of the country, and, taking 
courage, lay hold of our task in earnest. 

I have spoken freely of the debt because 
we have no right _ to conceal any fact con- 
nected with it, even if we so desired, for we 
are your servants and this is your debt. It 
was incurred in obedience to your com- 
mands, and until it is paid the right arm 
of our mighty Church is paralyzed. 

It has been said that too much money has 
been spent on the educational work of the 
Board, which is under the special manage- 
ment of the Women's Executive Committee. 
It is exceptional work, supported by excep- 
tional funds, which have been raised by 
exceptional methods, and is not therefore a 
drain on the contributions of the churches. 

Respecting the expenses of the Women's 
Executive Committee it is but just to say : 

1. Originally the officers gave their ser- 
vices without compensation, but now those 
whose entire time is devoted to the work 
must have salaries, and no salaries are better 
earned than theirs. 

2. Increased work demands increased 
office force. 

3. Greater efficiency requires expensive 

4. Debt, which has come to be a chronic 
state, means interest, field agents, appeals, 
printing, postage, traveling expenses and 
added expenses of all kinds. 

But their work is an essential part of 
home mission work among the untrained, 
neglected populations among whom the 
schools are maintained. It is the simplest 
and most effective way of preaching the 
gospel to them. Religion appeals to the 
heart through the intellect. Without intel- 
lect there can be no moral accountability. 
Religion and education are therefore so re- 
lated that in an important sense the one con- 
ditions the other. Every form of religion 
associates with itself a method of edu- 

cation intended to promote its distinctive 

That cowardly word, " retrenchment," 
restrains us from entering hundreds of in- 
viting fields already white to the harvest, 
the foreign work in such cities as Milwau- 
kee, Minneapolis, St. Paul, New York, and 
the cities of New England. It compels us 
to contemplate the sad picture of Indian 
tribes in this fair land of ours without a 
Christian missionary of any sort. It com- 
pels us to turn a deaf ear to the despairing 
cry of multitudes of Mexicans in our coun- 
try languishing in the darkness and despair 
of superstition, welcoming even the early 
streakings of the dawn that seems to prom- 
ise the rising day. It compels us to sit in 
silence and hear the sad tales of moral de- 
pravity and wretchedness in isolated Mor- 
mon towns without the ability of giving 
them the truth as it is in Jesus. It compels 
us to sit with folded hands while the Alas- 
kan tribes are begging for relief from the 
imprisoning ignorance and the destructive 
vices of degraded whites. It forces upon us 
the consciousness that we are powerless to 
respond to the plaintive appeal that comes 
up from that interesting but unfortunate 
people who dwell among the mountains of 
the South, in whose traditions there are 
lingering echoes of the faith of their fathers. 
In all this the Board is compelled to retreat 
from its appointed mission and leave the 
waste places of our land to abide under the 
shadow of death. While the tides of emi- 
gration are rolling westward; while there 
are railroads for them to travel over, and 
cities for them to dwell in, the great 
Presbyterian Church sits in silence and 
watches the world go by. Those vast ex- 
panses of plain and valley, and mineral 
mountains, the future homes of the oncom- 
ing millions, with all their vast and varied 
resources of soils, and clays, and minerals, 
and forests, are but faint suggestions of the 
elements that will gather and grow and 
multiply on that vast theatre of human 
action. It were better that the railroads 
which are carrying them thither should be 
torn up, the mills and furnaces be cooled 
down, and the mines abandoned, than that 
the gospel should be neglected among their 
communities, for the destroyer would spread 
his hands over these beautiful valleys, and 
desolation and death would reign supreme. 

■ k*> 

1 896.] 



The annual report of the Board of Home 
Missions but partially represents the contribu- 
tions of our Church for the evangelization of 
our country. Our churches in all the synods 
contribute more or less to local, general 
and miscellaneous home mission work. 
Any just comparative statement must there- 
fore be gathered from the home mission 
column of the " Minutes" of the General 
Assembly, which shows the aggregate 
amount given by each church for the Board 
and for local and other home mission opera- 
tions. According to the " Minutes," the 
average contribution of the Presbyterian 
Church per member (leaving out the for- 
eign and the freedmen synods) is $1.11. 
The following table, prepared from the 
" Minutes," is instructive as showing that 
the synods making the largest average con- 
tributions per member are not all in the 
East, and that the largest average does not 
depend upon the largest aggregate wealth, 
but probably upon effective means of bring- 
ing the cause to bear upon all the people. 



New York $1 74 

Baltimore 1 Co 

New Jersey 1 60 

Oregon 1 36 

Minnesota 1 34 

Missouri 1 14 

Pennvlvania 1 10 

Illinois 99 

Washington 93 

Ohio -. 85 

Kentucky 79 

California 78 

Indiana 69 

Michigan 68 

Colorado 64 

Wisconsin 63 

Montana 62 

Iowa 54 

Utah 52 

Texas 48 

South Dakota 45 

Nebraska 39 

New Mexico 37 

Kansas 36 

Tennessee 33 

Indian Territory 31 

North Dakota 26 



Let us see what has been accomplished in 
fifty years from 1840 to 1890. In 1840, 
Fort Suelling was the extreme northwestern 
point of the United States occupied by 
white men and women. The country on 
the west side of a north and south line 
drawn through that post was to the white 
race a terra incognita. The hills, valleys 
and prairies were roamed over by the In- 
dians, the buffalo and other wild animals. 
The census of 1890 places ten millions of 
men, women and children west of that line. 
What would be the character of that popu- 
lation had not the earnest self-sacrificing 
home missionary kept pace with the advanc- 
ing columns ? Where two or three families 
assembled together the man of God erected 
the banner of the cross and preached of 
Jesus and the life to come. Villages were 
built up, churches, schools and colleges 
were established, and from these centres 
went forth the purest and best influences of 
the gospel of our Lord. That territory 
would have been a ' ' dark belt ' ' had it not 
been for those devoted Christian men. The 

people are moral, industrious and enterpris- 
ing and the traffic between them and the 
people of the East is many thousand times 
greater every year than the amount ex- 
pended by the Board of Home Missions. 
So as a pure matter of business, home mis- 
sions have paid, but who can form an esti- 
mate of the good done in the bringing 
in of thousands of souls into the kingdom 
of God ? 

What a debt of gratitude do we all owe 
to the devoted missionaries who, almost 
without the necessaries of life, to say noth- 
ing of the luxuries, engaged in this work ? 
Then, too, we must not forget their wives 
who endured so many trials and hardships 
without complaints or murmurings and 'ren- 
dered such efficient aid to their husbands in 
their ministerial duties; and lastly, to the 
liberal generosity of our people who have 
given freely to the cause. Yes, home mis- 
sions have paid, and will continue to pay 
until that time shall come when " they shall 
teach no more every man his neighbor, and 
every man his brother, saying, Know the 
Lord : for they shall all know me, from 
the least of them unto the greatest of them, 
saith the Lord." 

475 Riverside Drlvi. New York ?7. N. V. 






Rev. John P. Williamson, D.D., Green- 
wood : — Dakota Presbytery is now composed of 
twenty-two churches and twenty ministers. All 
the churches and fifteen of the ministers are 
Indian. The work is located in remote country 
districts, not one of the churches being in what 
could be called a town, and the majority of them 
several miles from a post-office. The population 
is sparse, and their condition one that often calls 
for a struggle to provide the humblest necessaries 
of life. Badly enough do they need to he taught 
how to live this life ; still more do their souls need 
to be taught how to live the eternal life. This 
last is the business of the missionary, and we re- 
joice that God is helping us do this work for the 
Dakota Indians. Although the missionary does 
not use any forcible means to prevent crime, in- 
directly the gospel is the strongest bulwark ever 
erected to stay the flood of immorality. Rev. 
Henry Selwyn, a Yankton ludian, in a sermon on 
the blessings of Christianity, made this among 
other statements : " Thirty years ago, before we 
ever heard of the Lord Jesus, although nature 
taught us it was wrong to kill, there was an 
average of five murders every year among the 
Yauktons, who numbered about "2000 people. 
Yauktons were all the time killing Yanktous. 
Now there has not been a single murder among 
us for several years. And what is it that has put 
a stop to this terrible evil? It is Christianity. " 


Miss M. E. Dissette, Zuni : — We now have 
forty-eight children. Every inch of space is taken, 
every worker is taxed far heyond her strength, 
and I have daily offers of children whom I cannot 
do anything for. Our success began when we gave 
the children something to do. It will increase 
just in proportion as facilities for work and more 
workers are sent us. I ought to have my whole 
time to advise with the Indians, give them med- 
icine, soap and counsel, keep things smooth in the 
different departments, be able to relieve an over- 
worked teacher or matron, attend to a case of dis- 
cipline, see to the chores, which for a family like 
this are legion ; do the buying of wood, meat, etc., 
for the school ; order groceries for home and school 
and see them unpacked and properly stored, keep 
up an interest in the school hy carrying on the 
correspondence with interested individuals and 
societies ; cultivate the friendship of my girls 
and boys, instead of being merely a directing 
machine with the speed of a mile a minute. 

I have been obliged a few times to sit up all 
night in order to get the writing done, and every 
night finds me up for later than I ought to be in 
justice to myself and the work. The school is in 
good condition every way ; the growth in morals 
is as evident as that of numbers. We have prayed 
for increase, and, now that it has come, we know 
not where to put it. We Avill now pray steadily 
and work steadily 'upon the other side of the ques- 
tion, the side that lies nearest you. This side has 
moved up as far as it tan go. 

Miss Lev.v Thomas Granger, Las Cruces : — 
Christmas has come and gone, but it has left behind 
it, in this town at least, as happy a set of children 
as you can find anywhere. Children who have 
only this one yearly pleasure and who will talk 
for months to come of the Christmas that has just 
passed and will then begin to look forward to the 
next Christmas night. We had one tree on Friday 
night, December 22. At dusk the people began 
coming and continued to come until all the seats 
were taken and the aisles were crowded. The tree 
was a large one and was crowded with presents 
both useful and beautiful. At the foot of the tree 
were baskets piled high with sacks of candy. 
After a short programme, which consisted of re- 
citations, Psalm, questions of the birth, life and 
death of Christ, and songs, we had a visit from 
Santa Claus. The children had never seen him 
before ; so you can imagine their surprise and de- 
light. Some of the little ones were frightened at 
first, but as he began to distribute the gifts they 
soon overcame their fright and all decided that he 
was a very nice man indeed. This has been a 
very successful school year. The number of 
scholars has been large. There has been much 
effort made this year to break down the work, but 
it has not succeeded. Surely the Lord will take 
care of his own and prosper that which he loves. 
The progress in church work has also been very 
great. The Sunday-school is large. The C. E. 
Society has prospered greatly since it was organ- 
ized last February, and now there is also a 
Woman's Prayer Meeting. 

Rev. J. J. Gilchrist, 3Iora: — I feel that I 
have accomplished very little, as my work has been 
so interfered with by sickness and matters beyond 
my control. Personally, I have had two sick Sab- 
bath-days, and have had sickness in my family 
for five consecutive weeks ; my little boy being 
to-day bedfast for eighteen days with a typhoid 
form of fever. I mention these facts as bearing 
on my regular work. There is one thing con- 
nected with them that is one of the hardships of 
mission work, viz., we are thirty-two miles from 
a good physician, a very trying matter in such a 
case as my little hoy. 

I had a very strange experience hy which I lost 
one Sabbath this quarter, viz., my nearest neigh- 
bor was brutally murdered in his own house Sat- 
urday. P.M. I was chosen on coroner's jury, and 
missed all church services hy having to be ready 
for a postmortem examination whenever the phy- 
sician could come. It so happened that it occu- 
pied the whole day. 

The church at Agua Negra received increase of 
five members, enabling us to elect two elders and 
one deacon. The prospect is much brighter there. 
Also in Mora we are reaching several persons regu- 
larly who have never attended our services before, 
while constantly new faces are present for a service 
or two, coming and going. The school is very help- 
ful in Mora. About forty enrolled. 

In addition to services recorded above, and the 
regular weekly prayer meeting, I have taken part 
in six other services, two being all-day Bible con- 
ferences. These stirred up quite a spiritual in- 
terest in our people, and gave to outsiders new 
proofs that we Proste3tants take the Bible as the 
word of life. 

>! i 




Our Mexican churches are suffering greatly 
owing to a failure of crops in all parts of New 
Mexico. The people arc not in shape to do any- 
thing toward sell-support, and personally I was 
urging on them to do all possible in that direc- 
tion, so as to relieve the Board as much as possible 
of the support of the native preachers. I believe 
we have made some gain in that direction, but very 
little for reason above. The forced reduction of 
our native workers has materially prevented any 
spreading out to new regions. 


Rev. Thomas M. Gunn, D.D. Synodical Mission- 
ary: — The recent meeting of the Presbytery of 
Walla Walla, which was held in the church at 
Lewiston, Idaho, was one of the deepest inter- 
est for many reasons. First, it was fully atteuded 
by both the white and the Indian brethren. 
There were just thirteen of each race present. 
This gives our presbytery a very peculiar ap- 
pearance, and throws the burden of the work of 
the session on the white members, as the Indian 
brethren are very reticent and diffident of their 

The reports of the Indian churches showed a 
very remarkable advance in the spirit of their 
benevolence. Their gifts exceed those of the 
white churches. They have maintained a very 
good growth in members. Their presence and 
good character have made it comparatively easy 
for us to enter upon our work among the new 
white people who have taken up laud among 
them. The Indians have been watchful of our 
interests and opportunities, and often have been 
the first to suggest uew work, both in organizing 
Sabbath-schools and securing lots for permanent 
church buildings. 

The labors of our .Sabbath-school missionary, 
Rev. M. G. Mann, have been productive of grand 
results. He reported seven new Sabbath-schools, 
organized since the last fall meeting of presbytery, 
and several of the churches which had been previ- 
ously organized had organized Sabbath-schools 
with the aid of Brother Maun. He had secured for 
us the opportunity for church organizations at 
several points, and the Sabbath-school work has so 
enlarged our field as to necessitate the call for 
several more ministers for this presbytery. The 
Home Mission Committee was instructed to ask 
for four men. I wish I could express to you how 
sorely they are needed. 

There is Nez Perce City, the centre of the new 
settlement on the Reservation. It has now a 
population of three hundred, with a large transient 
population, tarrying foratime while theirfamilies 
are building tenements on their claims adjacent. 
We are the first on the field, and have the Sab- 
bath-school organized, with plans devised for the 
full organization of the church and arrangements 
for the erection of a house of worship. Good lots 
are secured, and the field is recognized by the 
people as ours. 

At Stuart, which is the new name for our old 
Indian outstation of Lahkas, we hare a lot given 
for a church. They have a good Sabbath-school 
which is now held in a tent. It is composed of 
both Indians and whites, and is under the care of 

the First Kamiah Indian church, Robert Wil- 
liams pastor. This place is situated just across 
the river from Kamiah. which is on the east bor- 
der of the Reservation, Kamiah is the % 
resort of the Indians, being their ideal of an 
earthly paradise, shut in as it is from the contact 
of the whites, lint the opening of the Reserve has 
changed even that. They are now surrounded 
with a tide of whites w ho are opening their mines 
and settling in their towns as traders. As I was 
writing the above, news arrived of the death of 
Rev. Robert Williams. His aged father died on 
April 4, and be has followed in ten days thereafter, 
after a long series of carbuncles. 

Gracious revivals have been enjoyed at Walla 
Walla, Moscow, Kendrick. Palonse. and a very 
hopeful state of affairs prevails in almost all the 
churches. If three of these ministers could lie 
granted us we could hope in some adequate degree 
to overtake and conserve our work as now devel- 
oped. It is very difficult to convey to you the 
true character of this pioneer work which has to 
light its way throught prejudices the most pecu- 
liar and often through opposition of the most un- 
expected character. 

Rev. Robert Liddell. Everett .-—We com- 
menced the year with every industrial institution 
" in full blast," and with a- better prospect than 
I ever found in any young city for a Large develop- 
ment, aud with business in every line as prosper- 
ous, comparatively speaking, as in any city on the 
Sound or Coast. With these conditions the city 
grew amazingly, and our population increased 
until we could well nigh number 5000, and are 
hopeful and enthusiastic, but for six months 
everything lias changed complexion. All our 
large institutions have been closed up. The Steel 
Barge Plant, the Paper Mill (this reopened about 
three weeks ago), the Nail Works, throwing sev- 
eral hundreds of men out of employment, many 
of whom waited lor a reopening, but that, with 
the exception of the Paper Mill, has not yet come, 
and as a consequence hundreds have been com- 
pelled to seek employment elsewhere, and among 
them many of our adherents and members. We 
have lost between twenty and thirty members, 
and probably as many adherents. Thus, while 
during the year we have been encouraged in re- 
ception of fifty-six members, we have been sadly 
depressed by the removal of a large number of our 
best helpers and financial supporters. This has 
thrown a heavy burden upon a comparatively 
small number. Of those remaining, about two- 
thirds are living amid difficulties and hardships, 
a kind of '"hand-to-mouth" existence, hence the 
remaining one-third, with a little outside assist- 
ance, have had to bear the burdcu, and I am thank- 
ful to say that they havedone so right manfully, al- 
though it has been a sacrifice. I have been 
further encouraged by the fact that our congrega- 
tions have not been very materially lessened. The 
Sabbath-school has increased in numbers and in 
interest, which I look upon as a hopeful sign. 

The church has met its obligations toward my 
salary, and I am now having a thorough canvass 
of the congregation made. If it is possible to re- 
duce the amount from the Board we will do it. 




Rev. Alfred M. Penland, Beech, Buncombe 
County :— In every neighborhood in these mountains 
there is a considerable element that is ready and 
even anxious to hear the preacher and is specially 
susceptible of serious impressions. The patriotism 
and Presbyterianism of the fathers are not forgot- 
ten ; it is a tradition with them as sacred as Bible 
truth. They love to hear about these things, and 
while hearing about it one can see in countenance 
and manner self-respect and self-importance rise up 
a hundred per cent. A spirit of inquiry leads them 
to look back for something in which confidence can 
be reposed, and this suggests the church of the 
fathers and the spirit of '76. 


Rev. S. G. Fishee, Purcell: — More has been 
given to the boards and other causes than ever be- 
fore, notwithstanding a fire which swept away the 
larger part of our business houses. I think we are 
about to accept some plan which will enable me to 
secure sufficient funds on Scriptural grounds to do 
away with festivals, etc., etc. — abominable substi- 
tutes to replenish God's treasury. 

A poor devout woman of my church said she 
made this vow to God : that over and above the milk 
which she used in her family she would give the pro- 
ceeds from the sales to the Lord for missions. Her 
cow, which before this vow brought her from the 
sale of milk only four dollars, now in less than six 
months has netted her in milk nine dollars and 
seventy-five cents. At once customers, all colors, 
came for milk. Missionary cow ! These little 
consecrations will stimulate the soul. 

Besides the forty-six dollars which we have 
given to the Memorial Fund we have given about 
seventeen dollars more this year than last for home 

Rev. H. A. Tucker, Talihina: — The fields in 
the Presbytery of Choctaw are already white to 
harvest, while the laborers are few, since we have 
not the money for their support. Red, white and 
black people are pleading earnestly for help. In 
our efforts to provide for the needy, rescue the 
perishing, care for the dying, we are depending 
upon the Board of Home Missions for aid. This, 
we know, you cannot give until you receive money 
for this purpose. While I am writing this report 
my heart is earnestly pleading with God to give 
you the money to send missionaries to destitute 
fields in the Indian Territory. 

The past quarter has been a busy but prosperous 
one. I have delivered more than one hundred ser- 
mons and addresses, averaging more than one for 
each day during the quarter. Sixty-six Indians were 
added to the church by examination ; fifty-six of 
these were young people ; one of this number, at 
the late meeting of our presbytery, was received as 
a candidate for the ministry. I have just received 
a letter telling me that two of the fifty-six have 
fallen asleep in Jesus. As time is uncertain we 
should go forth with pity to save them from sin and 
death. Thousands of white people are settling in 
this nation and are here to stay, making farms and 
building towns and cities. We are not able to 
supply them with preaching until you have the 
money to send more missionaries into the field. 


Rev. Charles Campbell, Grand Rapids :— At 
no time in the history of this church has there been 
so much cause for rejoicing. The congregation has 
increased from a mere handful until it now fills the 
church. The Sabbath-school attendance has in- 
creased thirty per cent, during the quarter. The 
Junior Endeavor Society, which was lately or- 
ganized, is in a flourishing condition with a mem- 
bership of over thirty. During the quarter a Junior 
Endeavor Society has been started, the only one in 
this county. Its members are full of zeal for the 
kingdom. The attendance at this society's meet- 
ings averages forty ; the membership numbering 
fifteen. It has only been in existence one month. 

The weekly prayer meeting attendance averages 
fifteen. A few months ago it was almost impossible 
to hold a prayer meeting. Six months ago it was 
almost impossible to get a man to come to church, 
and last night we had upwards of thirty there, in- 
cluding most of the business men of the town. Sin 
abounds on every hand, but our faith is in God and 
in his name we shall conquer. Several are ready 
to unite with the church at our communion in a 
week or two. 


Rev. John Logan Marquis, Pony : — After two 
and a half years of faithful seed-sowing, with but 
few additions to the church, I praise God that he 
has permitted me to see some of the fruitage. The 
mmediate occasion was the presence with us of 
evangelist H. W. Brown and his singer, W. H. 
Wilcome. Coming on April 14, Dr. Brown held 
daily services through to April 19. The weather 
was very unfavorable, the mercury for two days 
standing at two degrees below zero while eighteen 
inches of snow covered the ground. Still the audi- 
ences were good, ranging from 90 to 150 each 
night. The devil also was active organizing an 
opposition dance one evening which was a total 
failure. Many confessed Christ by word of mouth 
for the first time. About forty came forward to 
give the right hand of fellowship signifying their 
intention to give themselves to Christ. Of these 
many were children. Since the meetings thirteen 
persons have united with the Presbyterian church 
and twelve with the Episcopalian, while at least 
five others have pledged themselves to join the 
Presbyterian church at the next communion. 

Another event of joy was the session of 
Helena Presbytery at Pony, April 23 to 27, and 
the dedication of the new church building on April 
26. President Reid preached the dedicatory ser- 
mon, and Rev. T. V. Moore, of Helena, offered 
the dedicatory prayer. The peculiar feature of the 
the dedication was the fact that no appeal was made 
for funds to pay off a debt. The new building re- 
presents an expenditure of $3047. 

Another item of special interest during the quar- 
ter has been the spiritual growth of the Junior En- 
deavor Society known as " Little Lights. " Their 
prayer meetings each Saturday are full of power, 
and twelve of the children have openly confessed 
Christ, though but one of them has as yet been re- 
ceived into the church. May God greatly bless the 
work in this little mountain field. 





Rev. Geo. Runciman, Versailles : — We are 
going to dedicate our new church at Pine Woods in 
June. It is now almost completed. We have been 
working at it for over three years, and it is a very 
nice little building. The Indians have done this 
work themselves, with my aid. No white man has 
laid a hand on this building except myself, and it 
is astonishing how well they have finished it. 

We need very much an industrial school, as 
Carlisle and Hampton are closed to us. I had the 
privilege of sending eighteen to Carlisle last fall, 
but it seems we can send no more. We have now, 
from this reservation alone, seventy at Carlisle and 
Hampton, and I have over forty more applications. 
So you see there is room for more school work, es- 
pecially industrial sciiool work. 

I see a great change here in the last few years. 
These people are anxious to learn ; anxious to go 
to school. One young girl has taken a teacher's 
examination, and has passed and has taken her cer- 
tificate. She is the first from a reservation school 
whom I ever knew to get a certificate. She is now 
teaching and is very successful in her work. 

H. R. Schermerhorn, Knoxville and Ply- 


K. McKay, Houlton, Littleton and Monti 

D. B. McMurdy, Lynn, 1st, 
A. R. Pennell, Cato, 1st, 
W. W. Ketchum, Ludlowville, 

C. T. White, Hebron, 
R. B. Perine, Centreville, 
R. J. Diven, Otisville, 
R. A. Ward, Huron, 
G. W. Newman, Ontario, Centre, 
F, E. Hoyt, Sodus Centre and Joy, 
S. C. Garlick, Junius, 
0. C. Barnes, Evans Mills, 1st, 

F. H. Watkins, Parish and Hastings, 
J. L. Harrington, Middle Granville, 

0. S. Hoffman, So. Pittsburg and Bridge 

J. C. Lord, Sherman Heights, 

D. Creighton, Brookfield, Elkton and 

N D. Gridden, Oneida, 1st, 
J. G. Grabiel, West Bay City, Covenant, 
L. F. Brickels, Colby, Sherry and station, 
A. Hilkemann, Platteville and Rockville, 
N. H. Bell, Pastor-at- Large, 

G. E. Keithley, West Duluth, Westminster, 
J. D. Gibb, Jasper, 1st, 
T. D. Marsh, D.D., Virginia, Cleveland 

Ave. , 
T. E. Douglas, Willow City, Omemee and 

C. W. Berg, Milnor, 
A. R. Mcintosh, Canton and Crystal, 
R. Johnston, Pembina, and stations, 
C. D. McDonald, Grafton, 1st, 
J. S. Butt, Groton and Huffton, 
G. B. Reid, Raymond and station, 

1. S. Simpson, Gary, Lake Cochrane and 

Lone Tree, 
A. Coe, Cedar and Heyata, 
J. Loughran, White Lake, 

E. Heilert, Arcadia, 


















is now 











N. Y. 














































N. D. 








S. D. 













mouth, Iowa. 

M. Landis, Anderson, 

S. Crousaz, Mount Hope, 
D. Malcom, Atalissa, 

, N. Steele, Hansen, Neb. 

L. Dodder, Pastor-at- Large, 

A. Elliott, Lincoln, 3d, 

R. Lum, Craig and station, 

Losa,Clarkson, Zion, Bohemian, 

H. Byers, Bethel and Enterprise, Mo. 

Keeler, New Cambria, " 

D. Seelig, Gaynor City and Hopkins, 

McNair, Gallatin, " 

R. Shull, Ft. Scott, Glendale, Mapleton 
and Pleasant Hill, Kans* 

K. Miller, Belle Plaine and Silver Creek, " 

W. Funk, Elmendaro, Madison and Neo- 
sho Rapids, 

A. Zimmerman, Derby, Mulvane and 
Waco, ' ' 

S. Lake, D.D., New Salem, Walnut Val- 
ley and stations, " 

Williams, Burrton and Valley, 

M. Keith, Emerson, Macksville and sta- 
tions, " 

I. Hughes, McCune, 1st, " 
S. Wallen, Russell and Belmont, " 

W. Kratz, Hoxie and Grainfield, 
W. Hays, Western Highlands, 

D. Davis, Pastor-at-Large, 
J. Woods, Lenox, Spring Hill and vie. I. TV. 
. M. Hamilton, Tahlequah and Park Hill, " 
G. Battiest, Oka Achukma, Philadelphia 

and station, " 

Broyles, Tulsa, " 

E. Smallwood, Catechist and Interpreter, " 
Leerskov, Sapulpa, Red Fork and Lime- 
stone, ' ' 

Man us, Catechist and Interpreter, " 

D. Noel, Lampasas and stations, Tex.. 

S. Carver, Glen Rose, 1st, " 

H. Cook, Sacaton, Ariz. 

Matthieson, Socorro and stations (Span- 
ish), N. M. 
S. Graham, Socorro, 1st, 
S. Killen, Highland Park, Colo. 
McKay, Laird, Vernon and Wray, " 

F. Berry, Walsenburg and stations, ' ' 
S. Barrett, Colorado Springs, 2d and sta- 
tions, " 

G. Monfort, Antonito and Bowen, 
W. Bell, Las Animas and Fredonia, 
L. Moore, Otto, Schell, Warren and sta- 
tions, Wyo. 

K. Baird, D. D., Sy nodical Missionary, Mont. 

C. Todd, Springvifle, 1st, Utah. 

Thompson, Smithfield, Richmond and sta- 
tions, ' ' 

P. Howard, Boise, 2d, Bethany and sta- 
tions, Idaho. 

Arkley, Tacoma, Westminster, Wash. 

Ross, Seattle, Calvary, " 

Dunlop, Mount Tabor and stations, Oreg. 

II. McCullagh, Mehama and station, " 

A. Townsend, Yaquina Bay and Yaquina 

B. D. Stewart, San Francisco, Franklin St., CaL 
G. Eldredge, Fulton, " 

. H. Wieman, Traver, Dinuba and Orosi, " 


Young People's 
Christian Endeavor. 



1 ! Last week witnessed the first Christian Endeavor 
convention ever held within the bounds of the 
kingdom of Siam. This important event occurred 
in the city of Cheung Mai and was a convention of 
the Laos Christian Endeavor Societies. 

The first Endeavor Society among the Laos peo- 
ple was organized January 10, 1895. At this con- 
vention, held fourteen months later, fourteen socie- 
ties were represented, while the whole number of 
societies reported was twenty, with a total member- 
ship of 613. We count this good growth when we 
consider that the whole Christian population among 
the Laos people does not exceed 3000 persons. 

Like all conventions this one was beneficial par- 
ticularly to delegates who felt the stimulation of 
meeting with large numbers of those engaged in 
the same work. But this first convention was par- 
ticularly valuable in the correction of erroneous 
ideas that are so liable to be present in the begin- 
ning of any new work. The Endeavor idea in 
many of its features is entirely new to even the 
Christians of this land and some errors would of 
course arise. For instance, in some societies the 
president felt that the whole burden of the society 
rested upon him even to doing the work of the sev- 
eral committees. This, of course, was very harm- 
ful to growth. 

A less harmful notion prevailed in several socie- 
ties, namely, that each member was pledged to take 
part at every meeting, both by reading Scripture 
and by prayer. Again some societies understood 
that each member was required to read and explain 
a passage of Scripture at each meeting and if un- 
able to explain the passage must secure some one 
else to do so. 

These and other mistaken ideas and methods 
were corrected by the different speakers and also 
very largely through the medium of the question 
box. It was very gratifying indeed to note the 
excellent use made of this important agency. Some 
of the questions evinced considerable lack of infor- 
mation, others a more or less deep study of the 
Endeavor idea. One question, ' ' Will one who is 
not an Endeavorer get to heaven ? ' ' was repeated 
on successive days and betokened the probability 
that the importance of Endeavor work had taken 
deep hold on some hearts. 

Prayer was a marked feature of this convention. 
To secret prayer for days and weeks beforehand 
and to large prayer meetings in the Cheung Mai 
Church for four nights previous to the convention 
is no doubt attributable the manifest power and 
success of the meetings. Very wisely also during 
the progress of the convention prayer was given a 
prominent place. In the midst of interesting re- 
ports and discussions the business was stopped for a 
few minutes of waiting upon God and was then 

The Entertainment Committee did their work 
well, although both to them and to the resident 
Endeavorers this was a new feature of Endeavor 

work. Numbers of the delegates came long dis- 
tances. Some were two and some three days on 
the road. The most distant society represented is 
eight days' journey from Cheung Mai. This dele- 
gate walked all the way, over mountain and plain, 
through forest and jungle, Carrying his own food 
and bedding and sleeping where night overtook 

It was a heart-warming sight to see these bright- 
faced, earnest Christians, sitting in God's house, 
clothed and in their right mind, anxious to learn 
more fully the way of service to the Master. It 
was a beautiful sight also, the people sitting on the 
immense plain floor of the Cheung Mai Church, 
the men on one side and the women on the other, 
all clothed in white coats and jackets and with the 
bright red badges indicating their membership. 

The spirited singing added in no small degree to 
the pleasure of the occasion. "There Shall be 
Showers of Blessing," "God be with You till We 
Meet Again," and the Endeavor hymn were espe- 
cial favorites. We hope and believe that this con- 
vention means much for the future of Endeavor 
work among this people. We thank God and take 


What a man he was ! How wonderfully free 
from selfish personal aims ! If he had not been, at 
such a time as that in which he lived, among such 
a people, with such opportunities, how different a 
course would he have pursued ! It is not possible 
to doubt that he had sagacity enough to perceive 
his own power to influence and lead the people. 
He must have known the political situation — his 
country in degrading subjection to the Roman 
power and tyranny. He cannot have been igno- 
rant of the temper of the people toward their 
oppressors, nor of the views prevailing among them 
concerning the prophecies of the coming Messiah 
and the hopes of speedy deliverance which they 
based upon those prophecies. John found at the Jor- 
dan how he could draw and sway the people. Behold 
him there. See the multitudes thronging toward 
him. See all the area over which his voice can be 
heard compactly covered with eager listeners. 
Beyond, see the white tents or green booths that 
shelter by night those who by day attend his 
preaching. Still farther off see the many groups 
coming and going — there a company going away 
whom home duties and business permit to remain 
no longer, and there, emerging from a ravine, or 
appearing over a hill or around the edge of an olive 
grove, a band of new-comers, approaching with eager 
steps. Among these crowds are people from various 
localities, representing all Judea, including Jeru- 
salem, the sacred and glorious capital. 

Finding himself able thus to attract the people 
and doubtless to sway them as he will, why does he 
not turn that power to his own aggrandizement ? 

Leaders of the people, men high in position and 
influence, come and ask him if he is the Messiah 
foretold by their prophets. Does not John see his 
opportunity? Why does he not seize it ; allow the 
wave of popular enthusiasm to lift Mm to its 
summit ; assume the direction of a political revolu- 
tion, and wear, so long as his fortune will allow, 
the title and the crown of King of the Jews ? 

Surely many such enterprises have been attempted 




by ambitious men with less inducement and no 
more promising opportunity. No one will allege 
a want of courage or of energy in John, who con- 
siders how he dealt with Herod and Herodias. 


The explanation is obvious. John was honest. 
He would not claim to be the Messiah because he 
knew that he was not. He had a single eye to the 
fulfillment of his real mission, the doing of the 
work which God had sent him to do. That filled 
his mind, that engrossed his thoughts and energies. 
Projects of ambition could not enter a mind thus 
preoccupied. When others asked him who he was, 
ready to take for true whatever he should claim, 
"he confessed and denied not, but confessed, I am 
not the Christ." 


There is such a thing as disinterestedness. By 
the grace of God this quality does enter into human 
character. John's was not the last example of it. It 
is not true of every man — not of every public man 
— that his conduct must be considered inexplicable 
unless it can be accounted for bv referring it to 
some motive of self-interest. There have been 
unselfish men ; there will be again ; there are now. 
The grace of God can raise a man above selfishness. 
There are disinterested men and women in obscure 
and in conspicuous positions. There have been 
many in our land in homes of poverty and in homes 
of affluence. There have been more than one or 
two or three in our nation's presidential White 

Can there be a more truly Christian endeavor 
than to be such a man or woman ? Trusting in 
Christ, let every Christian Endeavorer resolve to be 
such an one. 


Closely related to disinterestedness is modesty — a 
moderate and reasonable estimate of one's own 
claims to consideration or distinction. John 
refused to accept distinctions which did not belong 
to him. His modesty also appears in his reluctance 
to administer baptism to Jesus. The genuineness 
of that modesty was evinced by his ready yielding 
to the Master's decision that it was the right and 
proper thing to do. 


It need not surprise us that a man so disinterested 
and so modest should be a man of singular courage. 
No more beautiful compliment was ever given to 
Washington than this: " Your modesty is equal to 
your valor." None was ever more just. Courage 
and modesty belong together. The soul that no 
danger can deter from duty is not apt to have any 
disposition for self-vaunting. We read ( Mark 6 : 
20) that "Herod feared John," but we nowhere 
read that John feared Herod. Herod had power 
over John's life, but John had power over Herod's 
conscience. By simply telling him plain truth, 
John could make guilty Herod tremble. It is a 
far more fearful thing to know that you are guilty 
before God than it is to face death. 


This could not be wanting in such a man. A 
disinterested, modest, courageous man cannot be 

unfaithful. On what side is such a man accessible 
to any temptation to betray bus trust? He must be 
reliable. What nobler character is there ? What 
else would you rather have true of you than that all 
who know you implicitly trust you ? 

We earnestly commend to all Christian Kndeav- 
orers the diligent and thorough study of the life 
and character of John the Baptist, the Elijah of 
the New Testament. 

Kev. W. S. NEXSON, of Tripoli, gives the follow- 
ing illustration of Syrian industries, and of the 
" hard times " which that oppressed people have 
in picking up a scanty living. Did ever any of our 
young readers dream of such uses for eggs ? ( an 
you figure out how much that man probably made 
of clear profit on his bartering of soap and eggs, 
traveling, for the purpose, with his donkey over 
so large a space, and peddling his soap, taking eggs 
for pay, in so many villages ? 


A vacant room next to our church in Minyara 
has been made a store. One evening I saw a man 
come up with two donkeys, each carrying two 
boxes tied across his back. The owner asked some 
one to help him, and they very carefully lifted the 
boxes to the ground. Then came the owner of the 
store, and seating himself on an empty box removed 
the grass and straw from the top of one of the boxes 
and it proved to be full of eggs. Then began the 
counting and storing of all the sound eggs in other 
boxes ready for the city. In the four boxes there 
were two thousand one hundred and sixty-one good 
eggs, besides about a dozen broken ones. The price 
of these eggs is thirty-two cents a hundred — less 
than four cents a dozen ! The owner of the don- 
keys told me that he had been away three or four 
days collecting the eggs, and often he travels as 
much as fifty miles from home, going to each village 
and trading for eggs in exchange for which he gives 
soap. But these eggs are not to be eaten. They 
are sent on camels or donkeys to Tripoli, a camel 
load being three thousand four hundred and forty 
eggs. There they go to an egg factory. The shells 
are broken, the white put in large tin trays and set 
on shelves to dry. The yolks are put into large 
casks with salt. These casks are then shipped 
away across the Mediterranean to France, where 
the yolks are used in preparing dressing for leather. 
When the white is dry it is packed up and sent 
away to Europe, where it is used in photography. 
So the chickens of Syria are useful to the people of 
Europe.— W. S.N. 


In the Evening Post, of New York, we find a 
singularly interesting letter, said to be one from a 
large package embracing correspondence between 
two sisters of a well-known family, one at home in 
New York, and the other in Washington, where 




her husband had official business during some years 
of President Madison's administration, including 
the period of the war with Britain. The letter 
gives vivid illustration of the vicissitudes of the 
time, of church life at that early day, and, quite 
amusingly, of the evolution of ministerial educa- 
tion in the Presbyterian Church. We have abbre- 
viated the letter by omitting some paragraphs. 

New York City, \ 
Oct. 25, 1813. / 
Mrs. Jas. A. B.: 

My Dear Sister : — As the Reverend Mr. 

leaves soon for Washington he shall be the bearer 
of dispatches for you. On account of this dreadful 
war it is hardly worth our while to attempt to post 
letters, so small is the chance of their reaching 
their destination 

The Brick meeting house [the Brick Presbyte- 
rian Church in Park Row, and now and for many 
years corner of Fifth avenue and Thirty-seventh 
street] has been newly painted, with the addition 
of a mahogany pulpit and balustrade. They have 
placed in the church two of those new-fashioned 
Russian stoves. There are enough bricks in them 
for a new front to the meeting-house. The first 
Sunday they were used the church was so full of 
steam they were obliged to open the windows. Mr. 
Spring [Rev. Gardner Spring] called to see us last 
week. He constantly grows in favor. He has re- 
moved his family here. Mrs. Spring is a lovely 
and beautiful woman. They have been unable to 
obtain a house, and therefore he boarded. He has 
now hired one way down town among the mer- 
chants. The house Higginson and Dodge lived in 
by the Fly Market. This is the best that they can 
do at present. 

Last week the Presbyterian synod met in our 
city. Considerable business was done of import- 
ance. The Reverend Archibald Alexander, late of 
Philadelphia, but now of Princetown, New Jersey, 
preached in behalf of the new and wonderful 
school for young divines which they have started 
in the Jerseys, as Rev. Mr. Smith called it. Dr. 
Alexander is a most delightful man and preached 
the best sermon I ever had the privilege of listen- 
ing to ; Dr. Romeyn excepted. He has come to a 
poor place, the Wall Street Church. [The First 
Presbyterian Church of New York City was in 
Wall street, near Broadway ; it is now at the cor- 
ner of Fifth avenue and Eleventh street. ] He is 
a very learned man and is Colleague Professor in 
this aforesaid Jersey town, Princetown, with our 
former dearly-beloved pastor, Rev. Dr. Samuel 

Oh my dear sister, you have no idea how sorrow- 
ful the parting was between our church and Dr. 
Miller ; he is such a loss. Poor Mrs. Miller, she 
could only sob, and cry, as the ladies came up to 
bid her Good-bye, and he was also greatly over- 
come. To leave this delightful city, with its culti- 
vated society and all its privileges, for a red-mud 
Jersey village ! Could we only believe that it was 
of the Lord ; we would be willing to give up our 
minister. But it is not ; some of the rich men of 
Gotham have got hold of a wild-goose scheme of 
establishing a school to teach young men how to 

preach, how to become clergymen. Why cannot 
they go on in the old manner? The goose-like 

scheme will never succeed 

Mr. McLeod or McCloud, I really do not know 
how he spells his name, will preach once a day in 
Cedar street. He is the son of the pastor of the 
Scotch Church in the city, and is said to be a very 
brilliant young man. But Dr. McLeod, the father, 
has two objections to the arrangement, both of 
them sound rather strangely. One is the salary : 
they offer him eight hundred, §800, for the season. 
He thinks it too much, or rather his father does ; 
looks too worldly minded for a clergyman to receive 
so much money. But the greatest trouble is the 
Psalmody. True to his principles as a minister of 
the Scotch Presbyterian, our young clergyman can 
only give out the versifications of David's Psalms. 
Watts' hymns are against his conscience. This 
matter was arranged as follows : Mr. Divie Bethune 
and Mr. John E. Caldwell were to stand in front 
of the pulpit and read two of Watts' hymns for 
the congregation to sing, at each service. Now 
another difficulty arises. He could not officiate at 
the sacramental table of any church that does so 
wicked a thing as to use Watts' s hymns ; but he 
even cannot partake of the sacrament of those un- 
godly and profane altars. This was a poser. Here 
Dr. John M. Mason came to the rescue ; on sacra- 
mental occasions ( only twice a year in the Scotch 
Church) he will exchange with Mr. McLeod, dis- 
pense the sacrament, and sing the Psalms of David. 


[We fiud the following in the Congregationalist , which justly 
calls it a " lovely prose idyl," written by the wife of the late 
C. H. Spurgeon, of London. Our readers will surely eDJoy 


I must tell you what happened the other day and 
how beautifully a sweet singer's confidence was re- 
warded when fearlessly leaving her earthly treasures 
in our Father's keeping [Matt. 6 : 26] she mounted 
upward to pay her full debt of daily orisons at 
heaven's gate. We were making a tour of the 
garden and pastures, admiring the beauty of the 
young year's fresh life, noting with tender interest 
all the charming details of newly awakened respon- 
sibility in every living thing, marking the sweet, 
impatient growth of leaves still rumpled and 
creased from their recent unfoldings and rejoicing 
in the whispered promise of golden days to come, 
which trembled in every scented breath of the per- 
fumed air. 

Down in the Dale field we came across a sky- 
lark's nest built in the long grass, a lovely little 
soft-lined cup of coziness, with three pretty brown 
eggs in it. The sweet songstress had flown up at 
the approach of human footsteps and thus revealed 
the secret place of her wee home to inquisitive but 
kindly eyes. We looked with profound admiration 
on her happy work and then quietly retraced our 
steps, having loving sympathy for the poor little 
fluttering heart which might, perchance, fear the 
despoiling of its treasures. A day or two after- 
wards the visit was repeated, but imagine our con- 
sternation when, on opening the gate of the field, 
we saw that the cows had been led into that pasture ! 
How would the great clumsy, sweet-breathed crea- 
tures treat the little home in the grass? Would it 




not be crushed and trampled by their unheeding 
feet ? 

When we reached the spot our surprise and de- 
light were great to find the home intact and the wee 
birds safely hatched, for though the cows had 
munched the grass close down to the ground all 
round the nest not a hoof had touched the little in- 
mates. So there they were, three cunning mites 
with stubby bodies and big, downy heads, cowering 
close together in instinctive fear of the human 
presence which overshadowed them. The cows 
grazed quietly by, and overhead the pretty mother 
trilled fortli her delicious carol in the morning sun- 
shine, pouring out her heart's gratitude and glad- 
ness in libations of song. And there, till the little 
birds were feathered and flown, the cows were every 
day pastured, yet never a hurt came to the wee nest 
in the grass. 

Who watched over the mother in her peril as she 
sat and guarded the nestlings in their hourly dan- 
ger, when the slight protection of her tender body 
was removed ? Who shielded the tiny birds from 
the tread of the great beasts' feet? Did Daphne 
know that the nursery on the ground floor must 
be cared for and respected ? Or did Strawberry's 
mother instinct tell her that little living hearts beat 
as truly in that wool-lined cup as in the sweet hay 
crib where her own darling was lying ? I cannot 
tell, the matter is too deep for me ; but the lark knew 
all about it, and it may be that, could our ears have 
been opened to understand the language of her 
hymn of praise as she rose higher and higher in the 
calm, blue sky, we might have caught here and 
there among the joyous notes some such words as 
these : 

Not one, 
Not one of them 

Is forgotten 
In the sight of God. 
Not one, 
Not one of them 
Shall fall to the ground 
Without your Father. 
Fear ye not, therefore ; 

Are not ye 
Of much more value 
Than they? 

Did she not do well thus to sing and trust ? O, 
sighing and doubting one, cast away your fears and 
follow her fair example ! You shall not only joy- 
fully leave your earthly cares with your heavenly 
Father, but you shall get nearer to God's throne 
than you have ever been before. 


A thoughtful mechanic once said: "I do not 
think we should only consider whether God forbids 
us to do things, I think we should ask : Does God 
think this the best way?' 

The affectionate child does not simply consider 
whether the thing he is inclined to do has been for- 
bidden by his parents, but whether his father or 
his mother would be pleased or pained by having 
him do it. 

Should we treat our heavenly Father less con- 
siderately ? Some pleasures and indulgences are 
not clearly forbidden, about which, if we ask 
ourselves, " Does God think that the best way P' we 
shall not indulge in them. 

There are some things not commanded in the 
Bible which, if we only think, we cannot doubt 
that God ivould like to have us do. Is not that 
enough ? Is not that a sufficient call from God? 

Is it not a blessed thing to live so that we may 
not merely hope to escape God's condemnation, but 
so that we can believe that God thinks it the best 

Little Trials. — The little trials of an ordi- 
nary career — trials which involve nothing loft- 
ier or more sublime than the rubs and collisions 
of every-day life ; the trials, in short, which range 
themselves under the heads of tongue and temper — 
make a larger demand upon our patience and, per- 
haps, a greater drain on our fortitude than even 
those in which God makes our flesh quiver with 
the tearing of the pincers of affliction. So wrote 
E. M. Goulburn on James i. 3. — Bible Readers? 

"In former days," said a young rustic, at one of 
our early conventions, who was reporting for his 
home society, in homely phrase, "you could not 
get a corporal's guard out to our young people's so- 
ciety unless you gave them a great feed ! But now, 
since the Christian Endeavor was started, when we 
have only a pie-and-cake affair," and his lip curled 
scornfully as he spoke of the pie and cake, "we 
hardly get out a hundred of our young folks. But 
when we have a good rousing prayer meeting, as 
we do every week, the vestry is filled with two or 
three hundred of us." 

The fundamental aim of the society, also, was 
not only to develop the religious nature of the 
young disciple, but to make each one supremely 
loyal to his own church. Emphasis has always 
been laid upon this point, and supreme importance 
is given to this thought to-day, as it was in the first 
year of the society. The first society was formed to 
help one pastor and one church. So was the second 
and so was the third, and every one since has had 
this strain of utter and absolute loyalty running 
through it. A society which is not thus truly 
faithful to the interests of its own church has no 
claim to call itself a Christian Endeavor Society. 
Its very constitution declares that it is "part of the 
church," provides for the approval or veto of its 
elections and all its actions by the church authori- 
ties, and, according to the polity of the church with 
which it is connected, puts itself in absolute sub- 
jection to the wishes of the pastor and the church. 
F. E. Clark, D.D. 

As far back as I can remember, I had the habit 
of thanking God for everything I received, and of 
asking him for everything I wanted. If I lost a 
book or any one of my playthings, I prayed that I 
might find it. I prayed walking along the streets, 
in school or out of school, whether playing or 
studying. I did not do this in obedience to any 
prescribed rule; it seemed natural. I thought of 
God as an everywhere-present being, full of kind- 
ness and love, who would not be offended if children 
talked to him. 

CrrARLEs Hodge. 






The Church has a mission. She is charged with 
the defense of the truth, the advancement of the 
kingdom, the regeneration and sanctification of 
men. No organization has so world-wide, difficult 
and glorious a task. She needs divine help, and 
has the promise of her risen and adorable Lord that 
his Holy Spirit shall remain as her guide and 
helper until her mission is accomplished. She 
needs human help, and she invokes the aid of every 
one to the full extent of their several abilities. She 
to-day especially challenges the cooperation of the 
young people in the discharge of this task. 

Many children and youth have responded, and 
are in full communion in the Church. To them 
she may appeal to protect her good name ; to 
supply her with active workers and funds for her 
undertakings ; to accord enthusiastic sympathy to 
other workers and loyal obedience to properly con- 
stituted authorities, and to pray always and with 
faith for the furtherance of her mission. By their 
own vows as communicants they have given her the 
right to make this appeal. To refuse to heed it 
when made means a distinct and culpable violation 
of a solemn covenant. No member of the Church 
ought to be guilty of such a breach of faith. No 
young member ought so early in life to stultify his 
moral sincerity, discount his sacred vows, cast sus- 
picion upon his willingness to discharge solemn 
obligations, voluntarily assumed, and write him- 
self down as unworthy of confidence. 

But the Church in her challenge to the youth 
does not confine herself, in this day, to these com- 
prehensive and brilliant generalities. She has 
learned how to specialize. 

She sees that to-day new methods must be de- 
vised to meet new needs. 

Nothing is newer than her special challenge to 
the young Nothing has in it more promise and 
potency of life. She knows the power latent in her 
young people, and she calls them to help her solve 
her present problems. She is not content with 
committing to them the general obligations of 
church membership, but finds duties and devises 
appliances especially adapted to them. With these 
in her hand she approaches the young people, and 
calls them to great endeavors. 

1. The Church Challenges the Youth to Religious 

This is the significance of the Sunday-school, the 
Bible normal classes, the workers' training class, 
the mission band, the vast volume of helps to Bible 
study adapted to the young, the admirable courses 
of study in doctrine, missionary, denominational 
and general Church history. 

The Church craves for her young people the larg- 
est, most accurate, most usable knowledge in all 
parts of religious learning. She has made it pos- 
sible for every young member of the Church to ob- 
tain this at no cost, save that of effort. She chal- 
lenges every young man and woman to make the 
eflbrt. They no longer have valid excuse for ignor- 
ance of the doctrines, of the history, of the great 
missionary enterprises of the Church. 

She puts into their hands the Bible and well-pre- 

pared helps, and says : study. She multiplies mis- 
sionary literature of the most entertaining sort, and 
says : read. She arranges training courses of the 
most approved type, and says : use. 

Never did the young have better facilities for 
wide, accurate, invaluable knowledge of truth and 
fact in the religious world. Never did the Church 
press more insistently upon the young the duty of 
using these magnificent facilities. How many 
young people are in good faith accepting this chal- 
lenge, and seeking to win the golden prize of knowl- 

2. The Church Challenges the Youth to Religious 

If the time ever was when all that the young 
people in the household of faith had to do was to 
''be seen and not heard," that time is passed. 
They are expected to be more than sponges ; to give 
out as well as take in. They are to be doers as well 
as hearers. The responsibility for the work of the 
Church no longer rests solely upon the adult mem- 
bers. Each member, young or old, has his parti- 
cular duty, and the Church appeals to each to do his 
duty. The young member ought to expect no ex- 
emption, and the Church now grants none. She 
makes special provision for this class in the Young 
Men's Christian Association, the Young Woman's 
Christian Association, the Brotherhood of Andrew 
and Philip, the Boys' Brigade, the Christian En- 
deavor Society, Junior and Senior, and various 
other organizations. These are appliances devised 
by the Church, through which she makes it possible 
for the young people to be most effective. Every 
one of these organizations is a standing challenge to 
the young people to enter upon aggressive work for 
Christ and the Church. Through them the Church 
calls to personal work, to committee work, to public 
speaking and praying, to missionary endeavor and 
to almost every imaginable kind of useful activity. 
Every variety of gifts, temperaments, acquirements 
has room now for exercise. No one can say, "There 
is no place I can fill in the Church," for the Church 
has made a place for every one. She aims at nothing 
less than a work for each one, and each one at work. 
The youth who is idle in the church to-day is with- 
out excuse. He ought to be making his life count 
for all that it is worth, and the Church opens the 
way for him to do so. 

3. The Church Challenges the Youth to Religious As- 

The ideal is the parent of the real. A high aim 
is necessary to high achievement. If one would 
get up he must look up. A Christian young man 
without ideals is a ship upon the sea making for no 
port and making none. He is adrift, the sport of 
his own variable desires, a menace to others, a re- 
proacli to himself. 

The Church seeks to give purpose to purposeless 
lives. She presents ideals to her young people — 
ideals for the present time of youth as well as for 
mature years. She would have every young man 
say with Paul : " This one thing I do." She calls 
every young man to have a purpose, a definite pur- 
pose, a high purpose. She evokes a holy ambition 
to be a significant figure in the kingdom and not a 
cipher, to count for something rather than amount 
to nothing. She appeals to every bit of manhood 




or womanhood in her youth, and calls it to the larg- 
est endeavor, the highest aspiration, the most bril- 
liant achievement. She claims the best her youth 
can give her. She oflers them the best she has to 
give. She not only bids them look up, but supplies 
the means by which each can get up. All her 
multiplied agencies and varied equipment in build- 
ings, literature, organization, opportunity for the 
young, are a challenge, bold, unmistakable, to 
them to go to work to-day in the vineyard, to en- 
deavor, aspire, attain, accomplish, and to make 
their lives sublime. 

Nor has the ( 'hurch forgotten that after all has 
been said in favor of institutions, societies, organi- 
zations, the most potent agency for calling young 
people out into the largest life of attainment and 
result is the crucified Christ. 

It remains forever true that if he he lifted up, all 
nun are drawn unto him. And the Church is true 
to him in presenting him to her youth as the model 
for their lives and the Savjpur of them. "No 
emotion in human experience lias been so master- 
ful, none so fruitful as the passion for Jesus." 

She challenges her young people to this passion. 
She asks her youth to follow him in service, in obe-- 
dience, in character, in ideals. Church loyalty is in 
accepting the challenge. Our young people cannot 
be too eager nor too unanimous in such accep- 

Jean Ingelow says that no man is worthy to fol- 
low in a good cause unless he is willing to throw into 
it his possessions, his talents, his time, and, as if 
all these together were not enough, himself. The 
Church of Christ calls her youth to this sort of fol- 
lowing. She has chosen for the symbol of her 
glory not a crown but a cross. She would have 
every young person wear this badge of allegiance. 
Thus do we become partakers with Christ, have fel- 
lowship in his sufferings, and enter with him into 
his triumphs. 


Two young men, students in Park College, are 
canvassing Platte Presbytery during the summer in 
the interests of Presbyterian literature. 

people for the quarterly social and business meeting 
of the Christian Endeavor Society. — Presbyterian 

* * 

The student volunteers of Wooster University 

are carrying out a plan by which they hope to bring 

missionary information to every church in the Synod 

of ( )liio. They believe that lack of interest is due 

to lack of information. 

* * 

The members of the First Presbyterian Society, 
Richmond, Ind., have agreed to devote the time 
immediately following dinner on Sunday to the 
study of the Christian Endeavor topic for the even- 
ing, and to prayer for this service. — /. M. II. in 
Golden Rule. 

* * 

To create and foster an interest in the subject of 
missions is the purpose of the Missionary Reading 
Club in the First Church, Oakland, which complet- 
ed in May a successful year of work. It has seven- 
ty members, including the two pastors and their 
wives. — The Occident. 

* * 

A member of the Endeavor Society in Pot 1st own, 

Pa., leads a weekly meeting for men who labor in 

the mills, and which they may attend in their 

working garments. Many thus enjoy the benefits 

of prayer and praise and Christian fellowship who 

would not attend the regular week-night service. 

The Narrative of Religion presented at the spring 
meeting of Lackawanna Presbytery testified to the 
high order of the church life fostered by the Bro- 
therhood of Andrew and Philip. The Young 
People's Societies, chiefly Christian Endeavor, have 
been very helpful to the churches by developing the 
talent and spirituality of the young. The results 
are in some cases eminently practical, as in the case 
of one church where the Christian Endeavor Soci- 
ety rents a pew for strangers, supports a reading- 
room, visits and aids the poor, and performs kindly 
ministries in the jail. 

Serviceable fans, bearing printed notices of 
church and society services, were distributed in 
public places in the town by the Presbyterian En- 
deavorers of Union, S. C. 

One successful method in the Junior Mission band 
is to let each child represent a missionary for a 
month, and bring all the information possible about 
that missionary's life and work. 

* * 

Immanucl Endeavor Society, Chicago, changed 
the time of its meeting during July and August 
from Sunday evening to Wednesday evening, join- 
ing the mid-week prayer meeting. 

* * 

A hint for the Good Literature Committee : Se- 
cure the name of some Presbyterian Christian En- 
deavor Society on the home mission field, and sup- 
ply it with The Church at Home and Abroad. 

* * 

The elders and other members of the church in 
Greensburg, Pa., open their homes to the young 

The Rev. J. R. Dickson, in the Presbyterian Rec- 
ord, counsels Christian Endeavorers to secure a 
better knowledge of church standards, of church 
history, of Presbyterianism, and a more thorough 
acquaintance with the word of God. ' ' The Church 
standards are," he says, " a worthy part of a noble 
equipment. Let not our Young People's Societies 
of Christian Endeavor go without a full and inti- 
mate knowledge of them. They formed brave, 
heroic, well-balanced characters in the past, and 
they will do so still." 

* * 


The Presbyterian rally of the Ogdensburg 
(N.Y.) C. E. convention, June 25, was devoted to 
missions. Cards of inquiry, previously mailed, 
elicited the information that of the thirty-three soci- 
eties in the St. Lawrence Presbytery, six had, dur- 
ing the past year, contributed to home missions 
only ; four to foreign only ; seven to both home 
and foreign, and six to neither. $325 had been 
raised during the year for home work, $230 of 
which was retained for private use, and $95 sent to 


the Board. $115 was contributed to the foreign 
work. This was a total of $440, or an average of 
fifty-two cents for the reported members. But six 
societies, aggregating 250 members, gave $300 of 
this, leaving the other 600 hundred members an 
average of twenty-three cents each. It was the 
sense of the societies represented that the young 
people of the presbytery ought to unite in support- 
ing both home and foreign missions, having a rep- 
resentative on botli fields. Delegates from the soci- 
eties represented volunteered to enlist their respec- 
tive societies in the effort. At the rate of giving 
shown by the six societies it would be an easy mat- 
ter for the young people of the presbytery to raise 
$1200 a year. They have set their mark, however, 
at $900 for the next year, more than double that of 
last.— G. H. F. 


At the Presbyterian rally of the district Christian 
Endeavor convention, held in Ogdensburg, N. Y., 
June 25, the Rev. George H. Feltus, of Water- 
town, made an address in which he spoke as fol- 
lows : ' ' The confidence reposed in us by our Gen- 
eral Assembly through the adoption of 'The State- 
ment of Relations' of the Young People's Societies 
to the Church, ought to stimulate us to loyalty, not 
only to the principles, but also to the work of our 
denomination. There never was a greater need of 
a generous support of the beneficent work than at 
present. The debts are largely provided for ; but 
the work has been seriously decimated to accom- 
plish that end. The cause of Christian Endeavor 
demands that we lay hold upon our denominational 
work and prove the loyalty we profess." 


In the address mentioned above Mr. Feltus also 
said: "The only method to develop and perpetu- 
ate the spirit of liberality is systematic giving. To 
raise money by the old methods, while it may not 
be wrong (for the money is earned three times over 
by the work done), defeats its own end. Instead of 
cultivating the spirit of giving, you cultivate the 
spirit of bargaining. If you want a showy flower 
bed, the quickest way is to stick the ground with 
blossoms, but if you want a pretty, enduring gar- 
den, the best way is to raise living flowers. The 
process is slow , but the blossoms live longer and 
come again. Giving, pure and simple, may be 
slow at first, but once started it continues always. 
Once a giver, more than ever a giver. A penny 
given is better than a dime earned, for the income 
ceases with the dime but not with the penny. 

Systematic giving w 

( 1 ) Bestows a blessing upon the giver. 

(2) Impels prayers from the giver. 
I 31 Awakens interest in the giver. 
(4) Kindles the friendship of the giver. 

church rolls in their northern homes are found at 
the bull-fight that always takes place on Sunday 
afternoon, rather than at church, when they come 
to Mexico. Here, if anywhere, there is needed the 
tonic of Christian Endeavor with its strenuous 
pledge, its constant service, which allows the active 
member no time to grow cold, and its frequent con- 
secration meeting to call one back to his duty and 
high obligation. 


The editor of the Ladies' Homo, Jowrna/ believes 
that the influence of "progressive card parlies" is 
baneful. He says : "The thoughts of those addict- 
ed to the habit rarely rise above the card table. 
Talk to them about books, art, music, the topics <>f 
the day, and their answers are as monosyllabic as 
their intereft is languid, but mention "cards," and 
in a moment a sparkle of interest comes to their 
eyes and they are ready for business. What a sub- 
ject, after all, to arouse interest when one thinks of 
it ! The woman who finds her chief interest in this 
amusement, instead of filling up her life with some- 
thing worthy of her womanhood, drags it out 
through a succession of such enjoyments as these 
'progressive card parties.' " 

"The well-bred woman, the woman of intelli- 
gence who can see the relative fitness of things, the 
woman who believes that God gave her something 
to do in this world, the woman with nice percep- 
tions, the woman who is wholesome in every sense, 
the woman whom it is good for another woman to 
know, who says something of value when she 
speaks, who lifts herself mentally and spiritually 
above others, whom mothers like their daughters 
to know and their sons to tallcwith — believe me, 
my friend, when I say all this, and I say it in 
kindness — such women do not play cards during 
the day time ; they leave that sort of thing to others. 
They find something else to do — something worthier 
of them, something better, more elevating, more 
enlightening, and better fitted to qualify them for 
their positions in their homes, and their duties to- 
ward their husbands and children. 

" It is an expensive pastime. Each woman in the 
club seeks to outdo the other in the costliness of the 
prizes, to say nothing of the souvenirs and the re- 
freshments. Moreover, the moral influence is bad, 
for it engenders a spirit that is fatal to woman's 
happiest way of living." 


Dr. Francis E. Clark writes in the Golden Rule : 
There is a large colony of more than two thousand 
Americans in the City of Mexico, but scarcely two 
hundred church-goers among them all, and I am 
told that some people whose names appear on the 


The Christian Endeavor movement has taken 
firm root in Madagascar, says The, Chronide. At a 
convention held April 20, more than 1300 persons 
were present. The singing of hymns was inter- 
spersed by short prayers, in which one member of 
each of the great divisions of the societies present 
led the devotions of the Assembly, and also by 
short passages of Scripture, which had been pre- 
viously learned by heart by each division, all the 
members of that section standing up and repeating 
the passage together. Among the passages chosen 
were : 1 Cor. 15 : 58 ; Rom. 12 : 1, 2 ; Eccl. 11 : 9, 
10 ; Matt. 5 : 13, 14. Addresses by two gentlemen 




from France were translated by one of the mission- 
aries. The interest in this meeting was so great that 
an annual convention is proposed. The Malagasy 
Christian Endeavor Societies are known as Fikum- 
banan' ny Krisliana Tanora, or "Union of Young 


" The endeavor that is not born of consecration 
is no child of Christian Endeavor." 

Warm socials and cold prayer meetings indicate 
lukewarm spirituality. — Golden Ride. 
* * 

"Your Presence Solicited. Come Everybody," 
was the acrostic invitation to the Texas State Con- 

The foundation of agreeable manners is thought- 
ful consideration of Others, or true politeness. — 

Baltimore Sun. 

:i « 

The best way for a man to serve the Church at 
large is to serve the church that belongs to him. — 
7)/-. F. L. Patton. 


The Young People's Society, some one lias well 
said, is not the pastor's field to work in, but his 
force to work with. 


Pour thousand dollars to establish a cholera in- 
fantum hospital for poor children was raised by the 
Endeavorers of Buffalo, N. Y. 

Surrender, complete and absolute, to the indwel- 
ling Christ, and to joy in his service, was the keynote 
of the Michigan State Convention, held in April. 

The Students' Volunteer Movement, which has 
been- in existence for ten years, lias resulted in 
the sending of Ton missionaries to the foreign field. 

The Christian Endeavor Society in the Reformed 
Church at Bagard, France, has adopted this motto : 
"A work for every member, and every member at 

in other parts of the world. "They felt the thrill 
of the world movement , and touched bands with 
comrades in many lands.'' 

Mrs. Browning once asked Charles Kingsley (lie 
secret of his life. He replied, simply : "I bad a 
friend." That answer sums up the Christian's 
power. Only he can put his answer in the present 
tense: "I have a Friend." — J)r. Charles L. Thompson. 

The mother of Dr. Eliza Leonard, a missionary 

in Peking, gives this warning to mothers: "Mis- 
sionary literature is dangerous in the home unless 
your children arc consecrated to missions, lor mis- 
sionary literature makes missionaries." — Woman's 

* ... -S 

It is better, says the Epworth Herald, for young 
Christians not to use the bicycle at all on Sunday 
even for religious purposes. Their motives are sure 
to be misunderstood, and their example will be 
freely quoted by those who wish to defend riding 
for pleasure. 

The Rev. D. W. Lyon, Secretary of the Young 
Men's Christian Association of China, has enlisted 
several intelligent native young men in the city of 
Tientsin. Land has been given, and upon it, with 
the aid of a gift of $13,000 from Mrs. Livingstone 
Taylor, a suitable building is to be erected. 

* s . * 

The Christian Cycle Club is a suggestion made by 
The Defender, organ of the New England Protective 
League. The pledge for members is as follows: 
" I promise that I will not use the bicycle on Sun- 
days to attend meets, runs or races; nor for mere 
pleasure riding ; nor in such a way as to interfere 
with public quiet, personal rest, and divine wor- 

" Give, give, be always giving ; 

Who gives not is not living. 

The more you give, 

The more you live. 

"Give strength, give thought, give deeds, give pelf, 
Give love, give tears, and give thyself. 
Who gives not is not living. 
The more we give, 
The more we live." 

The Christian Endeavorer's mental training, char- 
acter building, and aggressive work, were the topics 
discussed at the denominational rallies during the 
British National Convention. 

A discussion of the question, How can this club 
promote the circulation of our denominational 
literature.' is one of the items on a recent pro- 
gramme for the Golden Rule Mission Clubs. 

The Reformed Church in America has seven 
" ( Ihristian Endeavor < Shurches," which have paid 
for their bouses of worship with the aid of money 
contributed by the ( Ihristian Endeavor societies. 

" * 
A little volume in the possession of Dr. Francis 
F. Clark, containing specimens of Christian En- 
deavor literature in seventeen different languages, 
illustrates the world-wide scope of Christian En- 

A convention in India was thrilled with the 
privilege of receiving greetings from Endeavorers 

Don't touch a newspaper unless you know how 
to read one, writes Amos R. Wells in the Gulden 
Rule. If you have moral stamina enough to skip 
the gossip — political or otherwise — and pass over, 
with a glance at the bead-lines, the robberies, mur- 
ders, divorce suits, suicides, and prize-fights, and 
read the real news, the events and discussions that 
are of genuine moment to you as a citizen of the 
nation and of the world, then you may safely and 
profitably read the newspaper, and not till then. 

Chaplain W. C. Gunn, of Fort Madison, Iowa, re- 
quests the Christian Endeavorers of that State to 
send a letter at least once a year to each inmate of 
the penitentiaries. Of the letters sent to the prison- 
ers at Fort Madison last Easter he says : " Without 
an exception they breathed the trucspirit of Christ. 
They were free from gush and sentiment, but full of 
good Christian experience and good advice, with 
many Scripture quotations. The influence on the 
boys was excellent, and several new ones confessed 
Christ — though that is the rule and not the excep- 
tion with all our prayer meetings. 

1 ir> 





i /'"/■ Young People's Societies and other Church Organizations.) 


^ 1. THE PUEPOSE of the Christian Training 
Course is to meet the needs of church societies of 
young people and adults, and also of individuals, 
who have a limited amount of time for study, and 
yet desire to know the leading subjects of Biblical 
and Christian knowledge. 

2. THE APPROVAL of the General Assembly 
of the Presbyterian Church in the U. S. A. was 
cordially given to the Course in May, 1890, when 
it was formally presented to the Assembly by the 
committee in charge of The Church at Home 
and Abroad, and was authorized to be circulated 
in the churches and printed in that magazine. 

3. THE COURSE is simple and easily followed, 
and is concluded in three years of about nine 
months each, from October to June, being arranged 
in three Outlines, A, B, and C, one for each year. 
Each subject is treated in an elementary manner, 
and is connected with a small but standard text- 

4. THE OUTLINES are complete, each in 
itself, and are related to one another, and are 
divided into three departments — Biblical, Histor- 
ical, and Missionary. 

5. OUTLINE A, the First Year, has been 
already followed to the end, and covers the follow- 
ing subjects: BIBLICAL, Doctrine and Life, The 
Shorter Catechism; HISTORICAL, Church His- 
tory, Rev. Dr. Henry Cowan's Landmarks; MIS- 
SIONARY, General Survey of Mission Fields, 
Selected Tracts. 

6. OUTLINE B, the Second Year, covers these 
subjects : BIBLICAL, the Character of Christ, 
based upon Robert E. Speer's The Man Christ 
Jesus; HISTORICAL, The Development of the 
Missionary Idea, based upon Dr. George Smith's 
Short History of 3Iissions ; MISSIONARY, Mod- 
ern Missionary Heroes, a series prepared by Rev. 
Albert B. Robinson, Associate Editor of The 
Church at Home and Abroad (1334 Chestnut 
street, Philadelphia, Pa. ) and printed monthly in 
that magazine. 

7. THE STUDIES are arranged for eighteen 
meetings, extending through nine months, from 
October to June. At each meeting there will be 
one study from each department in the Course, 
Biblical, Historical and Missionary, that is, three 
studies every meeting, the time given to each study 
being thirty minutes. If desired, this time may 
be shortened. 

8. THE MEETINGS may be provided for in 
different ways : ( 1 ) On a stated week-day evening 
twice a month, with three departments each time ; 
(2) By having the Biblical and Historical in this 
way and using the Missionary at the Church 
Monthly Concert ; (3) By using the Biblical Study 
at the society prayer meeting on Sunday evening. 
In any event two studies in the Biblical and one 
each in the Historical and the Missionary ought to 
be accomplished every month. Individuals will 
follow the same course, and can easily do all the 
required work. 

should consist of three leaders, one in charge of 
each department, the best ones obtainable in the 
parish, to be under the direction and assistance of 
the pastor. 

10. HELPFUL HINTS and Model Programmes 
will be furnished by the author of the Course, the 
Rev. Hugh B. MacCauley, the conductor of the 
Biblical and Historical Departments, and interest- 
ing material by the Rev. Albert B. Robinson, con- 
ductor of the Missionary Department, all of which 
will be printed monthly in The Church at Home 
and Abroad, and will be a necessary part of the 

11. THE LITERATURE required for the 
readings is in small book form, cheap but standard. 
The headquarters for the literature is the Foreign 
Missions Library, 156 Fifth avenue, New York. 
Prices are as follows, postage paid : Outlines of 
Christian Training Course, 2 cents each, or 25 cents 
in lots of twenty-five ; The Man Christ Jesus, 
Robert E. Speer, CO cents ; Short History of Mis- 
sions, George Smith, 80 cents ; TnE Church at 
Home and Abroad, one year, $1.00 ; by cash, 
money order or check. Enclose two-cent stamp 
for circular. WRITE TO THE LIBRARY. 


The topics follow the sections of the book, The 
Man Christ Jesus, by Mr. Robert E. Speer. They 
are intended to be set forth in Class by the proof- 
texts, paragraphs, etc., read aloud like a Bible 
Reading. The "Questions" under every Study, 
also prepared by Mr. Speer, will excite interest 
and furnish themes. Each one should bring to 
the meeting his own copy of the book for reading 
and reference. See Hints. 
Study I. October (1). Pp. 17-24. 

The Early Life of Jesus. Ques. 1, 2, p. 246. 
Study II. October {2). Pp. 27-40. 

1. His Plans and Methods of Work. Ques. 3- 
11, p. 246. 

Study III. November {1). Pp. 40-53. 

2. His Plans and Methods, of Work. Ques. 
12-16, p. 247. 

Study IV. November (2). Pp. 53-67. 

3. His Plans and Methods of Work. Ques. 
17-22, p. 247. 

Study V. December (1). Pp. 67-72. 

4. His Plans and Methods of Work. Ques. 
23-26, p. 247. Review His Plans and Meth- 

Study VI. December (2). Pp. 75-87. 

1. Some Active and Passive Traits of His 
Character. Ques. 27-31, p. 247. 

Study VIL January {1). Pp. 87-105. 

2. Some Active and Passive Traits. Ques. 32- 
37, pp. 247, 248. 

Study VIII. Jammry (2). Pp. 105-119. 

3. Some Active and Passive Traits. Ques. 38- 
40, p. 248. 

Study IX. February {I). Pp. 119-128. 

4. Some Active and Passive Traits. Ques. 38, 
p. 248. Review Some Active and Passive 

Study X. ' February (2). Pp. 131-142. 

1. The Testimony Borne to Him by the Dif- 
ferent Relations into which He Came. Ques. 
41-52, p. 248. 




Study Xf. March {I). Pp. 142-150. 

2. The Testimony Borne to Him. Ques. 53- 
5(3, pp. 248, 249. 

Study XII. March (2). Pp. 150-158. 

3. The Testimony Borne to Him. Ques. 57- 
59, p. 249. Review The Testimony. 

Study XIII. April (1). Pp. 161-181. 

1. Other Extraordinary Characteristics of 
Christ, most easily explicable by the Belief in 
His Divinity. Ques. 60-65, p. 24'.). 

Study XIV. April (2). Pp. 181-198. 

2. Other Extraordinary Characteristics, Ques. 
60-68, p. 249. 

Study XV. May (1). Pp. 198-213. _ 

3. Other Extraordinary Characteristics, Ques. 
09-71, p. 249. 

Study XVI. May (2). Pp. 213-219. 

4. Other Extraordinary Characteristics. Ques. 
72, 73, p. 249. Review Other Extraordinary 

Study XVII. June(l). Pp. 223-232. 

flis Bearing at His Trial and Death. Ques. 

74, p. 249. 
Study XVIII. June (2). Pp. 235-245 (end). 

The Significance of the Man Christ Jesus. 

Ques. 75, 76, p. 249. 


The topics show The Historiecd Development of 
The Missionary Idea, and follow The Short History 
of Missions, by Dr. George Smith. The text should 
be read aloud in paragraphs by all in turn under 
the direction and questions of the Leader, and 
some of the topics should be treated in three minute 
essays. Topics marked with pointer are most im- 
portant. See " Model Programmes " every month 
in The Church at Home and Abroad. 

Study I October {1). Pp. 7-14. 

The Missionary Idea — Its First Revelation to 

Study IL October (2). Pp. 15-22. 

Its Progressive Expression in the ( )ld Testament. 
Study III. November (1). Pp. 23-31. 

Its Full Revelation in the Gospels. 
Study IV. November (2). Pp. 32-46. 

I ' Its Successful Operation in the Acts and 

later New Testament. 
Study V. December {I). Pp. 47-58. 

Its Struggles in the Anti-Nicene Period. 
Study VI. December (2). Pp. 77-84. 

llljila and the Goths. Missions in the Fourth 

Si ad y VII. January (1). Pp. 59-04. 

8®* Patrick and Ireland. Missions in the 

Fifth Century. 
Study VIII. January (2). Pp. 05-76. 

Oolumba and Scotland. Missions in the 

Sixth Century. 
Study IX. Fcliruary (1). Pp. 85-90. 

Boniface and Germany. Missions in the Sev- 
enth and Eighth Centuries. 
Study X. February (2). Pp. 91-95. 

Anskar and Norway. Missions in the Ninth 

Body XL March {I). Pp. 90-100. 

Methodius and the Slavs. Missions in the 

Tenth and Eleventh Centuries. 

Study XII. March (2). Pp. 101-109. 

Raymund Lull and the Mohammedans. Mis- 
sions in the Twelfth and Thirteenth Centuries. 

Study XIII. April (1). Pages 110-120. 

Erasmus and the Reformation. Missions in 
the Fourteenth, Fifteenth and Sixteenth Cen- 

Study XIV. April (2). Pp. 146-156. 

l * Xavier and The Propaganda. Roman 
Catholic Missions in the Sixteenth and later 

Study XV. May (I). Pp. 121-131. 

Ukjf Zinzendorf and the Moravians. The 
Dawn of Modern Missions in the Seventeenth 
Century I 

Study XVI. May (2). Pp. 132-1 45. 

6@™ Eliot and the English in North America 
and India. Missions in the Seventeenth and 
Eighteenth ( enturies. 

Study XVII. June {I). Pp. 157-168. 

{ligs)" Carey and the Sunrise of Modern Mis- 
sions in the Eighteenth Century! See also 
Modern Missionary Heroes in the Missionary 

Study XV III. June (2). Pp. 169-199 (end). 

The Great Missionary Societies. The Presbyte- 
rian Home and Foreign Boards. Missions in 
the Nineteenth Century. 


The topics follow a series of short lives of Mud- 
cm Missionary Heroes, prepared by the Rev. Albert 
B. Robinson, and printed one each month in The 
Church at Home and Abroad, with other in- 
teresting missionary matter, and forming a vital 
part of the Course. See Hints. 
Study I. October (1). 

Joseph Hardy Neesima and Japan. 
Study II. October (2). 

Henry Martyn and Persia. 
Study III. November (1). 

Allen Gardiner and South America. 
Study IV. November (2). 

Marcus Whitman, M.D., and Home Missions. 
Study V. December. 

C. V. A. Van Dyck and Syria. 
Study VI. January. 

Robert Morrison and China. 
Study VII. February. 

Thos. S. Williamson, Stephen K. RiggS, David 
C. Lyon and Home Missions. 
Study VIII. March. 

Melinda Rankin and Mexico. 
Study IX. April (I). 

Adoniram Judson and India. 
Study X. April (2). 

Alexander Duff and India. 
Study XI. May. 

David Livingstone and Africa. 
Study XII. June. 

Titus Coan and the Pacific. 

To those who desire books of reference to supple- 
ment the brief sketches which will appear in this 
magazine, we recommend Cheat Missionaries <>/' the 
Church, by Dr. Creegan, and Heroes of the Mission 
Field, by Bishop Walsh. 




Gleanings At Home and Abroad. 

— It i.s said that Burma is fast becoming the 
paradise of emigrants from all parts of the Orient, 
and that languages and strange peoples multiply 

— "The missionary spirit will be manifested just 
in proportion to the spiritual life of the Church," 
said a speaker at the anniversary of the Wesleyan 
Missionary Society. 

— An "honorary missionary" is one who sup- 
ports himself from his own means. There are 
seventy such missionaries connected with the Church 
Missionary Society. 

— Of the whole foreign trade of Japan in 1895 — 
si 4 0,000, 000— Great Britain's share was $53,000,- 
000 ; the United States had S34,000,000 ; Germany, 
ss,imi0,00O.— Tlie Nation. 

— Devotion to duty, simplicity of life, and un- 
selfish love for the souls of men, characterize the 
missionaries in the East, says Sir Charles Elliott, 
former Governor of Bengal. 

— Says a writer in The Christian : The popula- 
tion of France is now 38,343,000, of whom about 
680,000 are Protestants, or less than one in sixty ; 
and more than half of the so-called Protestants 
are either indifferent or rationalistic. 

— Many persons have resorted to me for con- 
fession, said Francis Xavier. The confession of 
every sin I have ever known or heard of has been 
poured into my ear, but no one person has ever 
confessed to me the sin of covetousness. 

— Dr. W. J. Wanless, in his missionary addresses, 
contrasts the medical advantages of the United 
States and non-Christian lands. The 118 medical 
institutions of this country graduate 5000 phy- 
sicians annually ; yet there are only 400 medical 
missionaries in the whole world. 

— "Die, but don't deny the Lord," said a mother 
in Oorfa to her two sons. During the massacre in 
that city the two young men were caught by the 
mob, while men with drawn swords, ready to cut 
them down, demanded that they should accept the 
Moslem faith. They were firm, and were im- 
mediately slain. 

— The last General Assembly of the Southern 
Presbyterian Church said : " We look with hopeful 
concern to the foundation of the missionary lecture- 
ships and other methods of education in our 
seminaries on the principles and history of Chris- 
tian missions, and the needs of the world perishing 
in ignorance and sin." 

— When Mrs. Isabella Bird Bishop at the Ping 
Yang Mission looked into the lighted faces of the 
converts, so different from the ordinary apathy of 
the Korean expression, and on those now washed 
and sanctified, who were among the vilest of men, 
she felt that the gospel had lost none of its trans- 
forming grace and power. 

— Giving money to the Lord is just as much an 
art ol' sacrea service as offering a prayer, or singing 
a hymn of praise, or teaching in a mission school, 

or coming to a sacramental table. In the Bible 
the consecration of our substance is not made a 
mere incidental, it is put in the forefront of our re- 
ligious duties. — Dr. T. L. Cuyler. 

— "Can you spare so much ? " asked the pastor 
of a small Protestant congregation in Lyons, when 
an old soldier brought his three months' earnings to 
help build a chapel. "My Saviour spared not 
himself," was the reply, "but freely gave his life 
for me : surely I can spare one-quarter of a year's 
earnings to extend his kingdom on earth." 

— Numeral-type is the name of the system of 
teaching the blind in China to read, invented by 
the Rev. W. H. Murray, since the 408 sounds of 
Mandarin Chinese are represented by numerals. 
The system is equally suited to the blind and those 
who can see. It is so simple the ignorant and dull 
can learn to read and write in from one to three 
months. — The Chronicle. 

— A church without a church debt has no reason 
for existence. We do not refer to its unpaid bills 
for the meeting-house, but to its obligations to 
Greeks, barbarians, and Americans as well. The 
debt is never paid ; it seems to grow larger at each 
installment discharged, and its ratio of apparent 
increase is an index of true church prosperity. 
The only church that is injured by this debt is the 
church that repudiates it. — The Standard. 

— The daughter of a Siamese pastor was married 
recently to Dr. Toy's medical assistant, says 
Woman's Work for Woman. The event took place 
by moonlight, on the lawn in front of the girl's 
school at Bangkok, under a beautiful canopy erected 
by the bride's father. Prince Nara, the king's 
brother, was a guest. In a speech during the 
supper he congratulated the missionaries on the 
good they are doing in training his people for the 
higher and important relations of life. 

— Evangelization does not stop with either proc- 
lamation or witness-bearing. As Bishop Haygood 
has said: "We have enlisted for a long war." 
Ours is not a system of propagandism, but of 
Christianization. The peril of some heathen 
nations to-day is that of grasping the fruits of 
Christian civilization and rejecting the processes of 
development so necessary to permanent character, 
whether individual or national. — W. R. Lambirth, 
D.I)., in Review of Missions. 

— The Rev. Thomas Craven, writing in the 
Christian Advocate on Methodist education in India, 
says : " In an article upon the work of the Young 
Men's Christian Association of India, the general 
secretary puts the number of young men attending 
colleges at fourteen thousand ; of these, he says, 
' eight hundred are Christians.' When we there- 
fore consider that the population of India is as two 
hundred and eighty non-Christian to one Christian, 
this proportion of eighteen non-Christian students 
to one Christian student we contend is not a gloomy 
forecast of the influence Christianity is going to 
exert iu the future." 



1 19 

— The missionary, John Williams, tells how one 
day when at work with a native servant, at .some 
distance from his house, he needed a certain tool 
and sent the servant to get it. He wrote a few words 
on a thin piece of wood, which he hade the man 
give to Mrs. Williams, saying that it would speak 
to her and tell her what he wanted. The servant 
was greatly excited hy what his master had said 
about the wood speaking. When he gave the wood 
to Mrs. Williams, she read the message and at 
once gave him the tool. The man hastened hack 
with it, full of astonishment, crying out, "The 
wood spoke 1 The wood spoke!" — Dr. J. R. 

— The Hon. I. Garland Penn writes in The 
Christian Educator of the good that lias come to the 
Negro through the exhibit at the Atlanta Expo- 
sition. It has strengthened his friends and made 
them firmer in the belief and hopes they cherish 
with reference to his possibilities ; it has made for 
the Negro new friends both in the North and 
the South ; it has encouraged the Negro in that he 
feels that he is recognized as a part of the South, 
and that what is business for the Southern white 
man is business for him ; it has demonstrated the 
skill and tact in the Negro th?t were never known 
before to the outside manufacturing world ; through 
this exhibit the Negro has made a favorable im- 
pression upon friend and foe. 

— A missionary of the China Inland Mission 
replies to the question, "What kind of Christians 
do these people make?" as follows: Their love 
and devotion to Christ, their self-sacrifice and in- 
tense earnestness in seeking the welfare of their 
fellow-men, quite equals and in many ways sur- 
passes anything I have seen amongst our Christians 
at home. The nearest convert lives at a distance 
of thirteen English miles, while all have been 
coming from thirteen to twenty-seven miles regu- 
larly for about three years in every kind of weather, 
with danger to life at times in crossing the swollen 
rivers during the rainy season. They contribute 
to the Lord's house on an average 2d. per head 
weekly, and an artisan's wage is only 3£d. per day ; 
many of these farm laborers only receive 1V1. and 
their food. 

— A writer in Woman's Work for Woman quotes 
this from Mr. Holcomb : "If you lived in Peking 
you would be surprised never to see a child's 
funeral pass, but if you go into the street very 
early in the morning you will find the explanation. 
You would meet a large covered vehicle drawn by 
two oxen, having a sign across the front stating its 
horrible office, and piled to the brim with the 
bodies of children. Sometimes there are a hun- 
dred in the cart at once, thrown in as garbage, 
nearly all of them naked, a few of them tied up in 
old reed baskets, and few r er, never more than one 
or two, in cheap board Collins. These carts go 
about the streets each night, pick up these pitiable 
remains, some of them mutilated by dogs ; they are 
thrown in like so much wood and taken to a pit 
outside the city wall, into which they are dumped, 
then covered with quick lime. Does it make you 
sick to hear of such a thing? I have lived seven 
years in the city where that is a daily occurrence." 

— George H. Wells, D.D., writes in The Advanct 

of what he saw of worship in Japan : On cither 

side the doorway of a temple often stands an image 
which is little less than miraculously ugly, enclosed 
within a screen of wire netting and thickly spat- 
tered with blotches, which at first we cannot wel." 
make out. We watch the worshipers, however, 
and see them buy from the priests small bits of 
paper upon which are printed prayers. These they 
chew into what the Yankee boy would call spit 
balls, and throw them at the gods. If they pass 
through the screen and stay upon the image the 
supplicant is happy, thinking that his prayer has 
been accepted and the desired answer will be 
granted, but if they become entangled in the wire 
or fail to stick upon the idol he is sad and thinks 
that his petition has fallen to the ground. Between 
a conception of God, which permits men to repre- 
sent him in such forms, and to do him honor by 
such means, and the Christian system which points 
to a holy and eternal Being who must be reverenced 
in spirit and in truth, there is a great gulf fixed 
which cannot be passed over. 

—The Eev. E. P. Pice, in "A Primer of 
Modern Missions," summarizes as follows the fruits 
of missionary labor in India: 1. A Protestant 
native Church has been gathered, numbering half 
a million, and increasing at a rapid rate. 2. Dp- 
lifting has been brought to the women of India. 
3. The fifty millions of low castes of India are 
rapidly being emancipated from serfdom ; they are 
receiving education, and their social disabilities 
are being removed. 4. Missionaries have taken 
the lead in every branch of the education of the 
people of India. 5. The language of aboriginal 
tribes has been reduced to writing. 0. The Bible 
has been translated wholly into fifteen India 
languages, and partly into forty-six more (includ- 
ing Ceylon and Burma). 7. The message of 
Christianity has been widely advertised by exten- 
sive preaching in town and village. In this way 
much Christian truth has been half unconsciously 
accepted by the people. 8. Missions have had 
a large share in weakening the bonds of caste, and 
in preparing the way for religious and civil liberty, 
for equal justice, and for brotherly love. 9. Mo- 
hammedanism has been profoundly affected. Its 
traditional arguments against Christianity, which 
were thought to be unanswerable, have been widely 


Periodicals are a great intellectual convenience. They 
abbreviate labor and place the results of a few at the service 
of the many. — President Noah Porter. 

Knowledge is of two kinds. We know a subject ourselves, 
or we know where we can find information upon it. — Samuel 

The Children of Chinatown in San Francisco, by 
Theodore Wores. St. Nicholas, May, 18%. 

Mexico in Midwinter, by Justice Walter Clark. 
The Arena, June, 1890. 

The City and its Church, by Rev. W. R. 
Richards, D.D. Hartford Seminary Record, June, 


The Prospective Influence of Japan upon the In- 
dustries of America, by W. II. Mills. Overland 
Monthly, June, 1890, 




Life in the Western Pacific, by Arthur Inkers- 
Icy. The Chuulauquan, July, 1890. 

The Jewish Question in its Recent Aspects, by 
Morris Jastrow, Jr. International Journal uf 
Ethics July, 1896. 

Reasons for an Immediate Arbitration Treaty 
with England, by President Charles W. Eliot. 
The Forum, July, 1896. 

Arbitration and our Relations with England, by 
E. J. Phelps. Atlantic Monthly, July, 1896. 

Child Life in North Africa, by Ella A. Baldwin. 
Sunday-school Times, July 4, 1896. 

The South American Poets, by Ilezekiah Butter- 
worth. Review of Reviews, July, 1896. 

On Things Persian, by C. J. Wills in Cornhill 
Magazine. Lilkil's Living Age, July 4, 1896. 

[Answers may be found in the preceding pages. J 


1. Where are our ten million foreign-born 
population chielly found? Page 127. 

2. To what is the tendency among foreigners in 
this country to decline in morals and religion at- 
tributed ? Page 127. 

3. Why is church work among foreigners mis- 
sionary rather than self-supporting? Pages 127, 

4. Among how many different nationalities have 
our home missionaries established churches? Page 

5. State the number of missionaries employed by 
the Home Board ; the number of church buildiugs 
erected under their supervision ; the number of 
members received to the churches. Page 129. 

('). What work has been accomplished by the 
Woman's Executive Committee of Home Missions ? 
Pages 129, 132. 

7. What is the eflect of retrenchment upon the 
work of home missions? Page 132. 

8. What is the average contribution per member 
in our Church for home missionary work? Page 

9. Have home missions paid ? Page 133. 

10. How has Christianity been a blessing to the 
Yankton Indians? Page 134. 

11. What encouraging report comes from the 
school in Zuni, New Mexico? Page 134. 

12. Tell the story of the missionary cow. Page 

13. What are some of the advantages of system- 
atic giving? Page 144. 

1 4. What excellent plan is adopted by one session 
to get the people interested in the work of the 
different Boards? Page 93. 

15. What illustration is used to describe the re- 
lation of the various Boards to the progress of the 
Church ? Page 100. 

16. What is the colored man's cry? Page 102. 

17. How was the Negro helped by the Atlanta 
Exposition? Page 149. 

18. What aid is rendered to the Church by the 
business department of the Board of Publication 
and Sabbath-school Work ? Page 106. 

19. How do the expenditures of the Board of 
Education compare with the offerings from the 
churches? Page 99. 

20. What illustration is found in an old letter of 
the evolution of ministerial education? Page 140. 

21. What place does the Bible occupy in the 
curriculum of Coates' College for Young Women? 
Page 95. 

22. Upon what is the claim of the disabled min- 
ister based ? Page 105. 

23. What is the fundamental aim of the Chris- 
tian Endeavor Society ? Page 141. 

24. To what three great endeavors does the 
Church challenge her young people? Page 142. 

25. Repeat the pledge of the Christian Cycle 
Club. Page 145. 

26. Give some points from the recent Christian 
Endeavor Convention. Page 82. 

27. What are the Florence Crittenton Missions ? 
Page 82. 


28. Describe the first Laos Christian Endeavor 
Convention. Page 138. 

29. How does Dr. Clark speak of the need in 
Mexico of the tonic of Christian Endeavor? Page 

30. Describe the Endeavor Convention in Mada- 
gascar. Page 144. 

31. What proportion of the offerings of our 
Church for foreign missions last year came through 
the Women's Boards ? Page 109. 

32. What sum did the Assembly ask the < Ihurch 
to place at the disposal of the Board of Foreign 
Missions this year? Page 109. 

33. What Secretary of the Board of Foreign 
Missions has just completed twenty-five years of 
service? Page 112. 

34. In what respects does the Korean mind 
differ from the American ? Pages 116-118. 

35. What is the Korean idea of education? 
Page 117. 

36. What is the position of the Korean woman 
in the home? Page 117. 

37. Describe the evening devotions in a Korean 
Buddhist temple. Page 121. 

38. What does Mr. Adams say of the service he 
witnessed in the Buddhist monastery near Fusan ? 
Page 120. 

39. Repeat some of the incidents of an evange- 
listic tour in Korea. Pages 121, 122. 

40. What service did our missionaries render to 
the Koreans during an epidemic of cholera ? Page 

41. How were they able to serve the king? 
Page 123. 

42. Give examples of true prayer to God, and 
paper prayers to helpless gods. Page 123. 

43. Relate the incident of Korean converts who 
were arrested and brought before an official. Page 




44. What evidence of the grace and power of 
the gospel did Mrs. Bishop see at Ping Yang? 
Page 148. 

45. Who were the first Koreans to receive Chris- 
tian baptism ? Page 1 1 4. 

4(5. How is the variety and abundance of Korean 
missionary literature explained? Page 114. 

47. Repeat the story of the conversion of a 
Korean butcher. Page 116. 

48. Why is a child's funeral never seen in the 
city of Peking? Page 149. 

49. What kind of Christians do Chinese con- 
verts make? Page 149. 

50. What hopeful element is there in the ellbrt 
to secure reform in China? Page 82. 

51. How does a traveler describe the worship he 
saw in a Japanese temple? Page 149. 

52. What recent encouragement has Mr. Loomis 
received in the distribution of the Scriptures? 
Page 81. 

53. How did the missionary, John Williams, 

astonish a native by making a piece of wood 
speak ? Page 149. 

54. What examples are given of the [tower of 
the gospel in Mexico? Page 110. 

55. What proportion of the young men attend- 
ing college in India are Christians? Page 1 18. 

56. The fruits of missionary labor in India arc 
how summarized in a recent volume? Page 149. 

57. What mark of confidence and honor has our 
Dr. Holmes, of Persia, recently received ? Page 111. 

58. Should medical missionary work be made 
self-supporting. Pape 109. 

69. How do the medical advantages of the 
United States compare with those of non-Chris- 
tian lands? Page lbs. 

60. How did an Armenian mother encourage 
her sons to martyrdom? Page 1 18. 

61. What is an " honorary " missionary ? Page 

62. How does a Montana pastor answer one <>l 
the objections to missions? Page 110. 


[From the N. Y. Observer. ] 

France has determined to change her relations to 
Madagascar from a protectorate to a kind of modi- 
fied annexation, and to declare the great island a 
French colony. The modification of complete an- 
nexation promised is the retention of the present 
method of government and of internal administra- 
tion, but the difficulties in the way of such a 
scheme are so many that its opponents are doubt- 
less right in declaring that the principle of annexa- 
tion will be fully carried out. One department of 
administration after another will be brought under 
the French system, the offices will be Idled with 
Frenchmen for whom convenient shelves must be 
found, and the French colonial policy under which 
trade must be carried on as exclusively as possible 
with the parent country, will be rigorously en- 
forced. In fact, the chief reason for the change from 
a protectorate to annexation is to close the markets of 
the island to foreign trade, one of the first results 
of French occupation being the attempt of the 
Paris government to abrogate the commercial 
treaties made by the Hovas. But Great Britain 
objected on the ground that under a protectorate 
France acquired no right to abrogate treaties, 
but only the duty of enforcing them, and it is 
mainly to remove her disability that France 
has decided to change her relations toward the is- 
land. As the trade of the United States with 
Madagascar is next in volume to that of Great 
Britain and France, and is quite as jealously safe- 
guarded by treaties with the Hovas government, 
our interest in the matter is plainly the same as 
that of England, and the effect of any change likely 
to be as carefully considered. Although Great 

Britain may be expected to meet the wishes of 
France so far as she can reasonably be asked to do 
so, the French have shown so little sympathy with 
British embarrassments in Egypt that they cannot 
justly complain should their request for consent 
to the abrogation of commercial treaties be deemed 
unreasonable. It is possible, therefore, that the 
annexation of the island may not solve the problem 
of the existing treaties as certainly as its advocates 
suppose, and in the interest both of France and 
Madagascar it will be hoped that it may not. 
For while politically it is no doubt best that France 
should take complete possession of the island, her 
success in making it a regular colony in the 
French meaning of the term will almost inevitably 
be disastrous to herself and to Madagascar. French 
colonial policy is that of the seventeenth century, a 
policy which compels the colonists to purchase all 
their supplies in France, one of the dearest of 
markets for the goods needed in new countries, and 
is thus certain to check all development. Worse 
still, by making living dear in the island, colonists, 
one of the chief needs of France, will be kept out, 
for the Italians, Germans and others seeking new 
homes are certain to go where they can get com- 
forts and necessaries the cheapest. The result will 
be that the new colony, forced to buy in a dear 
market, will not be self-supporting, and will only 
further increase the already heavy drain from this 
cause upon French resources. How much France's 
colonies cost her is not, of course, made public, but 
it is known that Algeria costs $15,000,000 a year, 
and the other colonies at least as much more, and 
there is no present prospect that the expenditure will 
diminish, Algeria having been a colony for more than 
half a century. Tunis alone of all the French col- 
onies pays its way, and that is rather a protectorate 

1 52 



than a colony, and is open to foreign trade under 
the old commercial treaties of the Bey. 


[From, the Outlook.] 

As recently as at the Parliament of Religions in 
( Ihicago, it was common to hear many good things 
said of Mohammedanism as a religion. It might 
be classified as a heretical offshoot of Christianity. 
It had exercised a plainly ameliorating influence on 
vast populations, especially in Africa. A Moham- 
medan missionary actually came to America. But 
all that has been changed since the devastation of 
Armenia by the now reigning successor of Mo- 

Yet the facts on which these now silenced eulogies 
were based remain the same. Look at Mohamme- 
dans in India, orderly under British rule. What 
the recent horrors reveal is equally a fact, terribly 
emphasized through many centuries while Moham- 
medanism was a conquering military power, but 
forgotten during its subsequent repression by Euro- 
pean preponderance till now, when the temporary 
paralysis of Europe by international jealousies has 
loosed the check upon it. The fact is that Moham- 
medanism (is a political power is the same to-day as 
when at the point of the scimitar it carried the 
dread alternative, "the Koran or death," through 
half of southern Europe. Say what good one may 
of Islam as an order of religion, of Islam as a civil 
order, girt with military power, nothing cau be said 
but evil. The only peace for the world is in anni- 
hilating it as such, as a foe to civilization, an enemy 
of mankind. 

Under a Mohammedan sovereign an unbeliever 
cannot be granted by the faithful even the right to 
live. Necessity and expediency have till lately re- 
laxed this rule. Hence treaty concessions, "the 
capitulations," so called, and the rights guaranteed 
to Americans in the Sultan's dominions. Hence 
whatever immunities his Christian subjects have 
till recently enjoyed, so long as the fear of Euro- 
pean interference restrained him. 

Under this enforced relaxation of the rigor of 
Mohammedan sovereignty, American schools, col- 
leges and churches were planted among those 
Christian subjects. Education, enterprise, aspira- 
tion gave them the lead over their Moslem neigh- 
bors, and thus inflamed suspicion and jealousy. 
Hence repressive severities increasing for the last 
dozen years. Hence two or three mere sparks of 
revolutionary indignation — fostered, it must be 

said, by Russian intrigue and Russian gold, but 
made a pretext for devouring many thousands of 
innocents with beastly outrage or the more merciful 
sword, and terrifying the survivors into a nominal 
conversion to Islam, to apostatize from which is 

The lesson of these events should be writ large 
and pondered well. There can be no peace with 
Mohammedanism as a civil power, simply because 
it is of its very essence to slay the unbeliever, or 
enslave him if allowed to live. It is the religion 
of at least 100,000,000 human beings — tolerable as 
a religion, but when clad with sovereignty as in- 
tolerable as a fiend. 

On the basis of these facts we consider that it is 
simply foolish to expect to maintain our rights in 
Turkey by mere pacific diplomacy. The Turk is 
bound by his creed tojield nothing to the Chris- 
tian, except as enforced. The Turkish proverb is 
in point here: "To his superior the Turk is a 
cringing dog, to his inferior he is a lion." 

Next, and in view of the fact that our country- 
men in Turkey are there as missionaries to the two 
million down-trodden Christian subjects of the 
Turk, we ask, Can any course be more thoroughly 
un-American than for our government to show 
hesitation in standing by them to the uttermost of 
their treaty rights, both in securing prompt indem- 
nity for the past and immunity for the future? 


' [Since the earlier pages, in which we have spoken of Mr 
Randolph, were made up, we find an affectionate tribute to 
bin] in The Evangelist, written 1 >y Rev. S. B. Rossiter, D.D., 
which we would fain give entire i<> our readers, but there is 
remaining only space for the concluding paragraphs.] 

He loved the Church of Christ. He was too 
near akin to Christ himself to circumscribe his 
devotion by any denominational lines. He saw the 
Christ in all the creeds and outside their affirma- 
tions he found the larger Christ standing. He 
adhered to the received tenets, and yet felt his 
obligation to obey new truth. Simple as a child in 
his faith, living so near the unseen world, he used 
to think he could almost hear the voices through 
the separating veil. He walked with God in the 
raptures of faith as well as in the ordinary experi- 
ences. Death was to him a slipping away to be 
with Jesus. "I will come again and receive you 
unto myself." And to those of us who remain, 
these words of the Master make death to be a blood- 
red, beautiful thing. 

He loved his friends. Very few men in New 
York City had such wide acquaintance as did Mr. 
Randolph. The little corner of his book store, with 




the curtain drawn across, and within the desk or a 
chair or two, the floor covered with hooks and the 
desk with letters and manuscript, was a friendly 
place where ministers used to gather for a little 
chat on Monday mornings or off days of the week. 
Those who knew the man and knew his habits, 
when they observed a certain opaqueness in his eye 
and a preoccupied air, knew enough not to disturb 
his dreams or his business. But in the pauses of 
affairs, when the man let down the veil from over 
the eye and drew aside the curtain of his corner 
and came limping out to greet you, you were sure 
to meet a cordial welcome, and then you could talk 
of the latest book, the heresy trial, the coming 
General Assembly, or whatever else you happened 
to be interested in. 

The younger men of the ministry will long 
remember him as an elder brother, a wise counselor 
and a genuine friend. I think in later years he 
turned somewhat appealingly towards the younger 
men, for the comrades of his early years had gone 
on before, and he longed for the freshness of young 
life and thought. And he was not disappointed. 
The young men loved him and are grateful to him 
for the pure and noble things he put into their 
lives. A beautiful picture of him is on my mind : 
A courtly, smiling gentleman, limping a little on 
his stiffened limb ; that one refractory lock of hair 
that would persist in falling over his fine forehead ; 
his old-fashioned ways and habits ; a certain delight- 
ful antiqueness about him ; his readiness in repar- 
tee and his ever-living interest in passing things. 
Many of us have received a loss in the departure of 
this genial, helpful spirit which we shall never 
make up this side of the great veil. 

Book Notices. 

Stepping Heavenward, by Mrs. Elizabeth 
Payson Prentiss. 

The aim of all her writings, we are told in the 
Introductory Note, is to incite to patience, fidelity, 
hope and all goodness by showing how trust in God 
and loving obedience to his will brighten the dark- 
est path and make a heaven upon earth. She 
loved to be of service to her friends, but was 
anxious that each should reach the highest possi- 
bilities of attainment. In trouble or sorrow she 
was one of God's ministering spirits — an angel of 
strength and consolation, but always more eager 
that souls should grow than that pain should cease. 
The keynote of Mrs. Prentiss' religious character 
is struck in her own hymn, "More love to Thee, 
O Christ.'' 

"Stepping Heavenward," since its first publica- 
tion in 18(59, has passed through many editions, 

and has been translated into French and German. 
It has helped many Christians to live the higher 
life, and in this new, attractive edition its influence 
and helpfulness should be still further extended. 
[A. I). F. Randolph Company, fifty cents.] 

Studies of the Man Christ Jesis. By Robert 
E. Speer, Secretary of the Presbyterian Board of 
Foreign Missions, author of "Studies in the Gospel 
of Luke" and "Studies in the Hook of Acts." 
Fleming II. Revell Co., Publishers, New York, 
Chicago and Toronto. 

The purpose of " Studies of the Man Christ 
Jesus" is to examine the character of Christ with 
twofold reference, first to its testimony to his 
divinity, and second to its revelation of what God 
means each disciple of Christ to be. It is not a life 
of Christ : it is a study of Christ himself. It is 
designed for u^e in college and school courses and 
in general Bible classes, as well as for general 
reading, and has been adopted as the text-book for 
use in the "Christian Training Course for Young 
Peoples Societies" of the Presbyterian Church. 
The "Studies" have been presented to groups of 
students and Bible classes at Northfield, Rutgers, 
Bryn Mawr and elsewhere, and have always found 
a ready acceptance. 

Children of God and Union with Christ is 
a little book containing 250 pages, 3x5 inches. 

Its writer is Samuel B. Schietielin, writer of 
"The Foundations of History: A Series of First 
Things," "Milk for Babes," " Children's Bread," 
"A Message to Ruling Elders," " Words to Chris- 
tian Teachers," "People's Hymn-book," etc. 

In a prefatory note Rev. John Hall, D.D., says 
of the author : "He has been a life-long student 
of Scripture, as all who have looked into his many 
books well know, and in this volume he brings the 
divine light, in a reverent spirit, to the reader's 
mind on two of the gravest questions that can be 
raised : Am I a child of God ? Is Christ a Saviour 
whom I can trust, sinner as I am?" 

Of the book Dr. Hall says: "I can vouch for 
its harmony with Scripture, not simply from my 
knowledge of the writer, but from having read it, 
and been so impressed by its truthfulness and its 
timeliness as to ask the privilege of writing these 
prefatory paragraphs. 

Published by the Board of Publication of the 
Reformed Church in America, 25 East Twenty- 
second street, New York. Price, single copy, 25 
cents ; by dozen, 20 cents each ; postage, 7 cents 
extra per copy. 

A Primer of Modern British Missions, edit- 
ed by Richard Loveth, M. A., who wrote the Life of 
James Gilmour of Mangolia, is an attempt to give 
in brief space a comprehensive account of modern 
missions. This rapid survey of past achievement 
and present opportunity takes up fields of work 
rather than missionary agencies. The aim is to 
strengthen the faith, stimulate the zeal, and en- 
courage the liberality of those who believe in the 
final triumph of the glorious gospel of the blessed 
God. It should be added that only brief references 
are made to American missions. [Fleming H. 
Revell Company, 160 pages. Forty cents net.] 




American Conference on International 
Arbitration is a volume of 250 pages, [The 
Baker and Taylor Co., New York, $1.50"], giving 
an account of the conference held in Washington, 
I). ('., April 22 and 23, 1896. It contains a docu- 
mentary history of the movement, a full report of 
the proceedings, including the addresses by many 
eminent men present and the resolutions adopted. 
All this is followed by an exceedingly valuable 
chapter of Historical Notes on Arbitration, pre- 
pared by Professor John Bassett Moore, of Colum- 
bia University. This conference, held for the 
specific purpose of promoting the establishment of a 
permanent system of arbitration between the 
United States and Great Britain, will doubtless 
prove to have been an important factor in produc- 
ing that result which the most thoughtful citizens 
of both countries desire. In the study of the whole 
subject this book will be of great value. 

God's Box, A Home Missionary Episode, by 
Mabel Nelson Thurston. This is a touching tale 
of privation bravely borne by a home missionary 
and his family, in a northwestern winter. How 
they were relieved and cheered by a generously 
tilled box, which the lisping little one of the family 
fitly named " Dod's Box," is charmingly told and 
beautifully printed. Fleming H. Kevell Co., New 
York, Chicago and Toronto. Price, 10 cents ; $1 a 
dozen ; $7 per 100. 

N. W. Ayer and Son's American Newspaper 
Annual, for 1890, is an acknowledged standard 
authority on American newspapers. It enumerates 
21,000 newspapers and periodicals, giving charac- 
ter, size, circulation, names of editors, publishers, 
etc. In addition to this it is a Gazetteer, giving a 
vast amount of information concerning the location, 
population, products and industries of every state 
and country in the United States and Canada ; also 
the location, population, railroad connections, ex- 
press, telegraph and banking facilities of every 
place in which a newspaper is published. The vol- 
ume is sent, carriage paid, on receipt of the price, 
$5, by N. W. Ayer and Son, Philadelphia, 

Ministerial Necrology. 

4Tg»We earnestly request the families of deceased min- 
isters and the stated clerks of their presbyteries to forward 
to us promptly the facts given in these notices, and as nearly 
as possible in the form exemplified below. These notices are 
highly valued by writers of Presbyterian history, compilers 
of statistics and the intelligent readers of both. 

Forbes, Hugh W.— Born at Dalton, O., 1821; 
graduated from Washington and Jefferson 

College, and Allegheny Theological Seminary ; 
ordained by the Presbytery of Waterloo, 1852 ; 
preached at Dixon, 111.; Cambridge, 111.; Han- 
over, III.; West Irving, 1860-62 ; Millersburg, 
two'years ; Deep River, six years ; St. Charles, 
two years ; Rock Creek, 2 years ; Iowa Centre, 
two years. Died, at Fonda, Iowa, June 4, 

Married, July 25, 1819, Mary Broadwell, 
who died December 11, 1883, at Carroll, Iowa. 
Six children survive. 

Spilman, Jonathan E., D. D. — Born in Muhlen- 
burg county, Ky., April 15, 1812. In his 
childhood his father moved to White county, 
near Carmi, 111. He graduated at Illinois Col- 
lege, Jacksonville, 1835, and at the Transylva- 
nia Law School, Lexington, Ky. ; practiced law 
at Nicholasville and Covington, Ky. ; studied 
theology privately ; licensed to preach by the 
Presbytery of West Lexington, April, 1858 ; 
ordained by the Presbytery of Ebenezer, June, 
1858 ; pastor of the Second Presbyterian 
Church, Covington, Ky. ; S. S. of the church 
at Nicholasville, Ky. ; called to Maysville in 
1864; S. S., Canton, Miss., 1878-81, and 
Carmi, 1882-92 ; preached for the church 
at Flora after he became II. R., 1892-95. 
Died at Flora, May 23, 1896. 

Married, February 13, 1840, Miss Mary B. 
J., daughter of Major Menefer, of Jesssamine 
county, Ky., who died October 18, 1843; 
married, April 10, 1845, Miss Eliza S., 
daughter of Hancock Taylor, and niece of 
Gen. Zachary Taylor, who died August 10, 
1866 ; six children survive. 

Wallace, Robert Mack. — Born at Mt. Bethel, 
Pa., April 17, 1825 ; graduated from Wash- 
ington and Lee University, 1849, and from 
the Western Theological Seminary, 1852 ; 
ordained by the Presbytery of Redstone, 1853 ; 
pastor of Brownsville, Pa. , and Little Redstone 
churches, 1853-64 ; pastor of First Church, 
Altoona, Pa., 1864-75; pastor of the church 
at Stroudsburg, Pa., 1876-84 ; church of 
Milroy, 1884-94 ; Little Valley, 1888 96, 
ministering to both churches, 1888-94. Died, 
June 15, 1896. 

Married, June 15, 1854, Miss Mary Rodgers, 
of Brownsville, Pa., who, with four children, 
survives him. 

Willson, Robert Edmund. — Born in Amenia, 
now Northeast, Dutchess county, N. Y., March 
28, 1807 ; graduated from Hamilton College, 
1835, and from Auburn Theological Seminary, 
1838; ordained at Hammondsport, N. Y., 
December, 1838 ; pastor at Hamruondsport 
fourteen years ; at Corning, four years ; at 
Clyde, fourteen years ; at Havana, five and 
one-half years; resided in Hudson, 1875-78; 
since then resided in Philadelphia, Pa.; Bev- 
erly, N. J., and Pittston, Pa. Died, January 
2, 1896, at the home of his son-in-law, William 
C. Lobenstine, 9 W. Eighty-sixth street, New 

Married, February 20, 1838, Miss Mary 
Strong, daughter of Rev. William L, Strong, 
and a sister of the late Justice William Strong, 
of the U. S. Supreme Court, who survives him, 
with his three children, Judge Robert N. 
Willson, of Philadelphia ; Mrs. Martha E. 
Fenn, of Pittston, Pa., and Mrs. Belle \Y. 
Lobenstine, of New York City. Mr. Will- 
son's pastorates were fruitful in the best spirit- 
ual results. He was the author of many pub- 
lished sermons and reviews. His intellectual 
activity and cheerfulness were unbroken by the 
failure of his eyesight, which resulted in total 
blindness three years ago. 


HOME MISSIONS, June, 1895 and 1896. 




Individuals, Et< . 


88,853 79 
6,654 10 

814,571 11 
10,373 83 

821,593 28 
8,087 50 

$2,828 11 
17,387 75 

847,8 in 32 
12,503 ix 

$2,199 69 

84,197 31 

$13,505 78 

$14,559 64 

843 11 

Three Months Ending June 30. 




Individuals, Etc. 



$29,793 OS 
29,478 29 

$25,348 44 
31,523 64 

$30,387 oo 
12,546 39 

$7,752 12 
23,656 54 

'IT 204 86 


8815 39 

86,175 20 

$17,840 07 

$15,904 12 

$3,92:: 56 

*This column represents contributions specially designated for Educational Work. 

FOREIGN MISSIONS, May 1 to June 30. 









$23,925 43 

13,537 70 

$5,010 53 
2,710 90 

$2,255 50 
1,841 48 

83,537 84 
2,626 75 

$15,297 94 
9,272 15 

$1,058 39 
23,080 01 

852,285 63 

53,07.1 05 


$10,387 07 

$2,899 G3 

$414 02 

$911 09 

$0,025 79 

$22,027 02 

!9 12 

Received, June, 1896, from Anniversary Reunion Fund, not included above, $10,186.23. 


Churches and Sabbath-schools, includ- 
ing §118.07 from Reunion Fund. . $2315 19 

Individuals 303 00 

Interest from Investments 4204 20 

Interest on Bank Deposits 542 15 


April, 1896. 

Receipts from churches $2,289 1 8 

For the Current Fund $736 I 5 1 

For the Permanent Fund 250i I 00 

Total Receipts for June, 1S96. . . $98 64 54 

Total for Current Fund to date $21,848 74 

" " last year to date 27,192J6 

EDUCATION, June, 1896. 
Churches and Sabbath- schools $1,101 62 

Miscellaneous sources. . . . 

Income from investments. 

516 36 
200 00 
972 83 

Sabbath -schools. 

Total, April 

743 42 

45 (12 

$3,077 62 

May, 1896. 

Receipts from churches §2,606 83 

Sabbath-schools 356 27 

Individuals 1,161 50 

Total $2,790 81 

Total from April 15 to June 30, 1896. 5,769 71 

Total, May $4,124 60 

Total receipts since April 1 7,202 22 


For Quarter Ending June 30, 1896. 

Churches and Sabbath-schools $5,831 23 

Women's Sustentation Committee 5(10 00 

Total $6,331 2:; 





General Fund. Loan Fund. 

Churches and Salibath-schools $2,008 43 Interest and payments on mortgages $669 82 

Individuals 8 00 

Legacy 500 00 Manse Fund. 

Miscellaneous 764 19 Church SI 00 

Special donations » 192 03 Miscellaneous! .... '. '. ...... '. '. '. .'.'..'.'.'.. 1,162 95 

$3,473 25 

$1,163 95 

FREEDMEN, April, 1895 and 1896. 



Woman's Ex Com. 



T< ital. 



12,342 71 
2,11 111 79 

8108 10 

210 88 

if 1,000 77 
7:!2 96 

$915 02 
1,560 87 

$4,450 CO 
5,424 50 


1677 08 

SI 2 78 

$2G7 81 

$64.5 85 

$967 00 

May, 1895 and 1896. 


Sabbath- Schools. 

Woman's Ex. Com. 


Lf.oai ies. 




$4,147 83 
2,093 45 

$82 12 
312 07 

$667 02 
508 02 

$2,318 84 
1,058 15 

$4X0 00 
5,525 00 

$7, GOG 41 
10,487 20 



$2,054 38 

$229 05 

$69 00 

$300 GO 

$5,045 00 

$2,7011 88 

June, 1895 and 1896. 



Woman's Ex. Com. 





$1,560 15 • 
1,588 30 

$239 17 
71 00 

$2,486 17 
1,424 47 

$G22 20 
155 00 

$500 00 

$4,907 69 
3,733 83 


$23 21 

$1G8 17 

$1,061 70 

$467 20 

$500 00 

$l,17:i 86 

Total Receipts to July 1, 1895 and 1896. 



Woman's Ex. Com. 





$8,050 69 
6,596 60 

$519 39 
503 05 

$4,154 56 
2,75G 05 

$3,856 06 
3,674 02 

$480 00 

6,1125 00 

$17,060 70 
19,645 62 


$1,454 09 

$74 56 

$1,398 51 

$182 04 

$5,545 00 

$2,584 02 

The Church at Home and Abroad 



Current Events and the Kingdom, 161 

The Great Debate, ™ : ' 

Harriet Beecher Stowe, 164 

The Church and Heathenism, Rev. Henry T. Beatly, 166 

Presbyterianism in Louisville, Thomas E. Converse, D.D., 108 

Rev. 11. S. Drown, D.D., Rev. Thomas G. Winn, A.M., in Japan Evangelist, .... 170 


Notes.— God's Purpose in Armenia— Christian Charities in Japan— New Mission Station at 

Chieng Hai — Great Britain and France in Siam — Missionary Calendar, .... 175-177 

Concert of Prayer.— Missions in Japan— Problems before the Church in Japan, Rev. T. T. 
Alexander, D.B. — A Special Evangelistic Effort, Rev. G. W. Fulton— Quiet Progress in 
Japan, Rev. B. G. Eawort/i— The Situation in Japan— A Frank Statement from Japan, 

A Missionary, 175-192 


Notes 205, 206 

Concert, of Prayer.— The Outlook, 206 

Correspondence with Chairmen of Standing Committees, 206-211 

For God and Native Land, Rev. R. F. Maclaren, D.D., 211 

The Assembly's Committee of Conference, 212 

Rev. Enoch Kingsbury, Rev. A. W. Freeman 213-215 

Letters.— Montana, Rev. John W. Millar— Texas, Rev. II. F. Olrnstead — Alaska, Miss Fannie 
Willard — Arizona, Rev. I T. Whittimo re— Kansas, Rev. John H. Fozel— Indian Terri- 
tory, Rev. B. J. Woods— Missouri, -Rev. E. E. Sttringfield— Washington, Rev. T. J. Weeks, 215-217 
Appointments, 217 

EDUCATION.— Helping Meiointo the Ministry— The Ministry a Learned Profession, . . 193-196 

COLLEGES AND ACADEMIES.— How the College Board Does Its Work 196-198 

FREEDMEN.— Dr. Cowan's Afiliction— Death of Rev. I. M. Muldrow, 198, 199 

Day— Accidents to Two Sabbath- school Missionaries— Notes of Missionary Work- 
Home Class Work in Montana 199-201 

MINISTERIAL BELIEF— Practical Needs 202, 203 

CHURCH ERECTION.— Embarrassing Confidence— Appreciative Words— The Pastor is the 

Man 203, 201 

Notes.— Christian Endeavor Thank Offering— The Missionary Committee— Christian Endeavor 
Platform— Christian Endeavor Fruit— The Missionary Problem— Christian Endeavor 
Extension— Samuel Wells Williams, LL.D., Dr. F. J. Stanley— Presbyterian Endeavorers 
—Joseph Hardy Neesima, Mrs. Albert B. Robinson, — At the Convention — Christian 
Training Course, 219-227 


Worth Reading 229 

Questions, 229 

Ministerial Necrology, 230 

Necrology, 1895-1896 231 

Summary of Receipts, 233 


By permission, from The Congregationalist. 



September, i896. 


A Wise Ruler. — One year ago scarcity 

of food in the city of Tabriz led to a 
bread riot, in which several persons were 
killed. Now it is reported that the new 
Sliah has proved that he cares for his 
subjects, and is especially thoughtful for 
the poor, by removing the taxes upon 
bread and other articles of food. 

Temperance in Canada The Hon. 

A. S. Hard)', the new Premier of Canada, 
replying to a deputation of influential cit- 
izens who desired to learn what would be 
the policy of the government on the tem- 
perance reform, said : u This is a temper- 
ance government in sympathy with the 
temperance reform. It will take no step 
backward, and will go as far forward and 
as rapidly forward as public sentiment 
will warrant and our jurisdiction allow.'' 

Education for Citizenship.^At the 

recent meeting of the National Education 
Association a timely address was delivered 
by Professor Butler, who said : If edu- 
cation and training unfit men for political 
life then there is something- wrong; either 
with our political life or with our educa- 
tion. The real question involved is an 
ethical one. It reaches deep down to 
the very foundation of morality. The 
public education of a great democratic 
people has other aims to fulfill than the 
extension of scientific knowledge or the 
development of literary culture. It must 
prepare for intelligent citizenship. 

A Large Offering.— As a worthy cul- 
mination of the .Christian Alliance Con- 
vention at Old Orchard, Maine, an offering- 
was made for foreign missions amounting 
to more than $100,000. It was estimated 
that about 10,000 persons were in the au- 
dience. After an effective sermon by Dr. 
A. B. Simpson, and an address by a mis- 
sionary on the text, " What have ye in the 
house ?" the baskets were passed. They 
were returned filled with bills; coins, 
watches, jewelry of various kinds, and 
even titles to property. Boys gave their 
bicycles, and a man promised his piano. 
Only one-third of this large offering was 
in cash. 

Cuba and Spain — After sending 120.- 
000 of her soldiers to Cuba and spending- 
$100,000,000 in the attempt to subdue the 
island, Spain finds herself engaged in a 
hopeless task. The treasury is exhaust- 
ed, and it is becoming quite impossible 
longer to convince the people that the Cu- 
ban revolution is merely the " unorganized 
uprising of a few discontented outlaws." 
The spirit of some of the Cuban patriots is 
illustrated by the case of the man who, 
before setting out with his sons to join 
the insurgent army, set fire to his house 
lest the thought of home should tempt 
him to turn back. 

Opium in Formosa.— Of the anti-opium 
agitation now going on in Japan an ex- 
change says : The Japanese are seriously 





alarmed lest the habit of opium smoking 
should reach their own shores from the 
newly acquired island of Formosa, where 
it has long been widely practised. The 
Japanese Governor of Formosa has issued 
a proclamation bringing into force the 
Japanese law, which strictly prohibits the 
sale of opium, except for medicinal use, 
but making an exemption in favor of For- 
mosans, who, having already acquired 
the habit, must secure certificates ena- 
bling them to obtain their accustomed 

Our Sunday-schools. — More than one- 
sixth of the population of the United 
States is numbered in the ranks of the 
Sunday-school. \n the United States and 
Canada there are upwards of 13,000,000 
members of Protestant Sunday-schools, 
1,500,000 of whom are oflicers and teachers. 
The work of the International Convention, 
held in Boston during the last week in 
June, is thus summed up by the Rev. A. 
S. Burrows, in the Sunday-school Times: 
The Convention emphasized the spiritual 
needs of the youth of our times, the higher 
development of the teacher, the spiritual 
understanding and application of the Bible, 
another step toward Christian union 
through Christian courtesies, with mutual 
helpfulness in the common cause of 

The Volunteers. — A prominent leader 
of this new organization has recently 
stated that the Volunteers will be in close 
sympathy with the churches, and will put 
no hindrances in the way of their con- 
verts joining the different churches. They 
will observe the sacraments, although as 
yet the form and method of baptism have 
not been decided. They will make careful 
provision for the instruction of their 
workers. Property will be held by trus- 
tees chosen for the purpose, instead of 
being deeded over to one man. So far as 
they can, without neglecting slum work, 
they will strive to reach a middle class of 
workingmen for whom no Christian body 
is specially working. A thorough know- 
ledge of the Scriptures on the part of those 
Who lead religious meetings will increase 
their efficiency and make this movement 
a greafc power. 

" Chinese" Gordon remembered 

At Trafalgar Square, in London, Viceroy 

Li placed upon the pedestal of the statue 
of Charles George Gordon a wreath bear- 
ing the inscription : "To the soldier and 
friend of China — a tribute of respect from 
Li Hung Chang." A similar wreath was 
placed upon Gordon's cenotaph in St. 
Paul's. This is a tardy tribute of respect 
to the memory of one who, having quelled 
the Tai-ping rebellion, left China as poor 
as when he entered it. In a thoroughly 
disinterested spirit he spent his pay in 
promoting the efficiency of his force, and 
twice declined a present of money. And 
he did not hesitate to express his right- 
eous indignation at the murder of the Tai- 
ping leaders after he had received a prom- 
ise that their lives should be spared. Is 
not this act of the great viceroy an in- 
dication that the noble traits of character 
possessed by General Gordon are held in 
higher estimation now in China than ever 
before ? 

The Stundists of Russia At the re- 
cent meeting of the Presbyterian Council 
in Glasgow, the following action was taken : 
" The Sixth Council of the Alliance of the 
Reformed Churches holding the Presby- 
terian System desire to remind their 
churches and congregations that the 
Stundists of Russia are brethren of our 
faith, having had their origin in a German 
colony belonging to our Presbyterian 
order ; that theirs forms one of the most 
remarkable religious developments of our 
age, their number having grown within 
half a century to over hundreds of thou- 
sands of adherents. The Council com- 
mend them to the earnest prayers of our 
churches, and express to the Stundists 
their deepest sympathy with them in the 
difficulties of their present position and 
in the sufferings they have had to endure. 
The Council also exhort their brethren to 
remain faithful to their evangelical posi- 
tion, and assure them they will be re- 
membered in the prayers of our congre- 
gations, and may count upon whatever 
help the Council may be in a position to 

The Increase of Crime. — Startling 
facts regarding the rapid increase in the 
United States of the crime of murder 
have received much attention by the 
press. More than 43,000 homicides were 
committed during the last six years, an 
average of over seven thousand per year ; 




but so rapid is the increase that in the 
year 1895 the number was 10,500. Judge 
Parker in the North American Review ex- 
presses the opinion that inefficient admin- 
istration of criminal law is one of the 
causes. An Associate Justice of the Su- 
preme Court of the United States is re- 
ported to have said recently : " The tak- 
ing of life for the highest crime, after due 
process of law, seems to be the only way 
of taking life to which the average Ameri- 
can lias objections." Among the remedies 

suggested by Andrew I). White arc the 
following: More attention to elementary 
instruction as to morals in our schools ; 
the preaching of righteousness from the 
pulpit; constant effort to create a better 
sentiment through the press; repressive 
laws, carefully made and vigorously ex- 
ecuted, regarding the educating the minds 
of youths in obscene books and sensa- 
tional papers ; a sharp and decisive method 
of dealing with all places known* as contri- 
buting to crime. 

" The Great Debate " upon the issues 
presented to the American people, for their 
decision in the next autumn elections, pro- 
ceeds with becoming earnestness and with 
improving courtesy. The seriousness of the 
questions involved, as viewed by the oppos- 
ing disputants, is teaching them to respect 
each other's convictions, and to seek for 
union of action in matters on which they are 
agreed, "agreeing to differ " with mutual 
kindness wherein they cannot sincerely 
agree. This spirit is admirably exemplified 
by an eminent writer in the Independent, 
Rev. H. L. Wayland, D.D., who calls 
himself " an old Republican," and who 
believes that the success of that party this 
year is hardly less important than he be- 
lieves it to have been in 1860 and 18(54. 
Knowing that, now as then, many men in 
the opposite party agree with him and his 
fellows, in what they alike regard as the 
most vital question at issue, he says to his 
political associates: "It is not enough to 
say to Mr. Whitney and to Secretary Oluey, 
' You may vote for our candidates if you 
like;' we must make it easy for them to do 
so; we must make it possible for them to 
vote thus without loss of self-respect." 
He would have all who agree upon what 
they regard as of vital importance respect- 
fully invited to meet and confer together, 
and devise a way of acting together for 
that, without compelling any to disown or 
discredit their convictions on other less im- 
portant issues. 

Even in respect to many of tho;e from 
whom he differs on the supreme issue, he 
says : "It is not possible to doubt that they 
are well-meaning and patriotic men. We 
believe them to be misled and mistaken; it 
is our duty to show them that they are; and 

to guide them into what we believe to be 
the truth, we must remember that men are 
not won by sarcasm, by ridicule, by carica- 
ture, but by honest argument presented in a 
conciliatory way." He also exhorts his 
fellow-partisans to recognize " whatever of 
good there is in the platform " of their op- 
ponents. This able writer is of course wise 
enough to see that such treatment of his 
opponents is the best way to win them to 
such alliance as his party needs. But we 
are sure that he only desires this help foi 
his party in so far as his party is right. 
We rejoice in such wise teaching administered 
to either party by its leaders. We find 
only one word in Dr. Wayland' s article to 
regret. He says: "It is wise to concede 
something to the enemy 8 position, when it is 
possible." Why could not he have written 
opponent instead of enemy ? 

In the same number of the Independent 
(Aug. 6) we find an editorial of the same 
irenic spirit, entitled, " Not Abuse, but Ar- 
gument." Of the party which the Inde- 
pendent sincerely and earnestly opposes, after 
fairly stating their views on " the silver 
question," it says: " Those who thus believe 
are not robbers and traitors ; they are as 
honest in their intentions and as patriotic at 
heart as any of their political opponents." 
It only asks them to concede the same to 
their opponents. This is excellent. It is 
manly. It is Christian. Here as before 
we find only one word to regret. "It is 
early in the campaign. It is sure to be au 
earnest and heated canvass." 

Why keep up the sound and smell of war 
in this contest of peace ? Why not let it 
be and be called only a "canvass" and 
never a " campaign ?" " Words are 
things." There is no more need of warlike 




words than of warlike weapons, in an earn- 
est and houest debate — admitted to be earn- 
est and honest on both sides. 

The use of terms of belligerency and 

enmity will not help to keep it so. The 

' heat" which they engender is the heat 

not of healthy vitality, but of deadly fever. 
The popular heart needs no such " firing;" 
it needs the cooling of mutual charity and 
the tonic of calm, candid, dispassionate rea- 


The recent death of this famous woman 
has given occasion for numerous references, 
in the press, to her most famous book, 
" Uncle Tom's Cabin." Some things have 
been said of that book from which we are 
constrained to dissent. That which seems 
to us the most unjust has charged upon it 
the blame of sacrificing the thousands of 
lives laid down in the Avar unsuccessfully 
waged for the purpose of breaking the bond 
which holds the States of our Union to- 
gether and constitutes them one country — 
E Pluribus Unum. We have no fear of 
such a view gaining any considerable preva- 
lence, or having any large practical effect. 
That that war upon our national govern- 
ment was unsuccessful is matter of devout 
thankfulness now in every part of our land, 
and we believe there are very few if any 
who do not rejoice at its unintended inciden- 
tal effect, the abolishment of slavery. 

We have, however, been surprised that 
some admirers of Mrs. Stowe, defending and 
applauding her great book illustrating 
slavery, have spoken apologetically of it as 
perhaps giving undue prominence to the 
harsher features of that institution. We 
know of no writer, defending slavery, who 
has pictured the loveliest scenes to which 
slavery gave occasion more vividly. In its 
very first chapter she wrote : 

Perhaps the mildest form of the system of slavery 
is to be seen in Kentucky. The general prevalence 
of agricultural pursuits of a quiet and gradual na- 
ture, not requiring those periodic seasons of hurry 
and pressure that are called for in the business of 
more southern districts, makes the task of the Ne- 
gro a more healthful and reasonable one ; while the 
master, content with a more gradual style of ac- 
quisition, has not those temptations to hard-heart- 
edness which always overcome frail human nature 
when the prospect of sudden and rapid gain is 
weighed in the balance, with no heavier counter- 
poise than the interests of the helpless and unpro- 

This mild form of Kentucky slavery is as 
faithfully illustrated in Mrs. Stowe' s pictures 

of the Shelby family and their Kentucky 
home as are its dark and cruel aspects on 
Legree's remote plantation. Our reading 
of the story when it first appeared as a 
newspaper serial, made an impression of 
chivalrous manliness and of womanly love- 
liness in Southern people which subsequent 
personal acquaintance in Kentucky and 
Missouri confirmed, nor have we ever 
doubted that the same qualities character- 
ized thousands of Christian men and women 
and households in all Southern States. No 
truer or purer friendships have existed any- 
where than between many masters and 
mistresses and their domestic servants. 

Mrs. Shelby was a woman of a high class, both in- 
tellectually and morally. To that general mag- 
nanimity and generosity which one often marks as 
a characteristic of the women of Kentucky, she 
added high moral and religious sensibility and 
principles carried out with energy and ability into 
practical results. 

The candor and justice of Mrs. Stowe 
seemed to the present writer in excellent 
contrast to the wholesale harsh denunciation 
of slaveholders which he had sometimes 
heard from speakers who had no such per- 
sonal knowledge of them as she had enjoyed. 
The reading of her book, he distinctly 
remembers, quickened his sympathy for 
slaveholders as well as for slaves, and there- 
by deepened his abhorrence of the legalized 
system to which both slaves and their mas- 
ters were victims. The utmost humanity 
and piety of the owners were powerless to 
protect the slaves whom they honestly loved 
from liability at any time to pass from their 
possession and protection under the absolute 
power of selfish and frivolous or avaricious 
and cruel masters and mistresses. Death or 
pecuniary embarrassment might at any time 
work such cruel changes, and these only 
illustrated the dismal condition of other 
myriads who from birth to death knew only 
absolute subjection to selfish owners. 




Whoever visits some [Kentucky] estates and wit- 
nesses thegood-humored indulgence of some masters 
and mistresses, and the affectionate loyalty of some 
slaves, might be tempted to dream the oft-fabled 
poetic legend of a patriarchal institution and all 
that ; but over and above the scene there broods a 
portentous shadow — the shadow of law. So long as 
the law considers all these human beings, with 
beating hearts and human affections, only as so 
many things belonging to the master ; so long as the 
failure or misfortune or imprudence or death of the 
kindest owner may cause them any day to exchange 
a life of kind protection and indulgence for one of 
hopeless misery and toil — so long it is impossible 
to make anything beautiful or desirable in the best 
regulated administration of slavery. 

The helplessness of Mrs. Shelby and her 
chivalrous son George seemed, in that first 
reading, and ever after, as truly pitiable as 
that of their poor slave, Tom. The edu- 
cating power of that book was not so 
remarkable in its moving readers to pity the 
slaves, as in its teaching that pity to em- 
brace the owners and their families, and 
rearing a generation capable of bearing 
patiently the national agony by means of 
which a system so ruinous to both classes of 
its victims should be utterly abolished, bear- 
ing that agony all the more patiently and 
bravely because convinced that only thus 
could our national unity and " government 
of the people by the people for the people " 
be saved, and " not perish from the earth." 
Not many years after the publication of 
" Uncle Tom's Cabin," an article was ad- 
mitted into the columns of The Christian 
Observer, then published at Richmond, 
Va. , although the editor dissented from its 
sentiments, in which the writer said: 

Under the system of free, hired service much evil 
and much wrong are possible, and do actually exist, 
and the gospel ought, in all practicable ways, to 
be applied for the correction of them. Nothing 
but the gospel can correct them, but it can, without 
overthrowing the system. Probably no man will 
assert that the complete ascendancy of Christian 
principles in any community would do away the 
system of hired service, although it would dispose 
every servant to be faithful and every master to 
" render unto his servants that which is just and 
equal." This system, as a system, does not involve 
any violation of natural rights, nor does it make 
one class dependent for the practical enjoyment of 
natural rights and of the liberty to discharge moral 
obligations upon the mere will of another, but it is 
generally understood that the system of slavery 
does involve all this. A slave-holder, if he be hu- 
mane and conscientious, may refrain from admin- 
istering the system injuriously to the slave, and 
may be his friend and protector and Christian 
brother, "faithful and beloved." That is to be 
set to his credit, or rather to the credit of divine 
grace operating in him, not at all to the credit of 

the system in which he is involved by the force of 
circumstances, or by the laws of his State, and which 
you may be almost sure that such a man heartily 
disapproves. His practice in connection with the 
system may be all right and innocent ; it may < \ en 
be eminently kind and Christian. Still the system 
is wrong ; for it offers him the opportunity and 
protection for grievous wrong if he were disposed 

to perpetrate it 

The Presbyterian Church has always been under- 
stood to disapprove of the xi/slrm of slavery, not 
merely for the actual evils or wrongs which are 
perpetrated in connection with it, but because, as a 
system, it does systematically provide for and sanc- 
tion and legalize wrongs and evils. The Presbyte- 
rian Church has shown herself able to discriminate 
between this system and the practice, under it, of 
men who have not power to get rid of it. 

About the same time on the floor of the 
(N. S. ) Synod of Missouri, a member of 
that body urged that discrimination in such 
words as these: 

I do not affirm that the holding of slaves is 
sinful per se, for I am aware that under the laws of 
slave States, one may be in the legal condition of a 
slaveholder, and those laws may withhold from 
him the power of escaping from that condition 
without harm and wrong to the slaves. He is not 
responsible for that condition, but I do affirm that 
a legalized system which makes one human being 
the property of another human being, exposing both 
to such evil and wrong, is sinful per se. 

We have no doubt that the men of that 
time were greatly aided to insist upon that 
discrimination by the clear manner in which 
Mrs. Stowe had made it, and the vivid 
illustration which she had given of it in the 
pages of her remarkable book. We cannot 
think it a right reading of that book which 
finds its chief power in its exhibition of the 
cruelties and enormities practiced upon the 
persons of slaves. The real " hiding of its 
power" is in its demonstration that even 
when administered by kind, conscientious 
and godly men and women, in spite of their 
utmost modification of it, it was incurably 
a hideously cruel and wicked system. 

It is not just to Mrs. Stowe to charge her 
with sectionalism. She did not love the 
North and hate the South. She loved free- 
dom and humanity and hated slavery for 
its inhumanity. She did not charge its evil 
upon Southern people, but upon " frail 
human nature." She doubtless knew that 
that same frail human nature could no more 
be trusted with the power and opportunities 
of such a system in Ohio or Massachusetts 
than in Kentucky or Louisiana. We trust 
that the nation has outlived the folly and 
injustice of regarding human nature as any 




more frail or depraved in one section of the 
country than in another. Therefore, the 
whole nation consistently rejoices that, even 
at such fearful cost of blood and treasure, 
the whole broad land has been delivered 

from that accursed system. We believe 
that anions the mauy human agents by 
whom (rod wrought this deliverance, no one 
better deserves honoring and loving re- 
membrance than Harriet Beecher Stovve. 




The conflict of the early Church, in some 
respects, was simple and easy, especially 
her conflict with savage tribes whose crude 
faiths, rising from nature-worship to forms 
of polytheism, had not yet become stereo- 
typed in book-religions and strengthened by 
the pride of inveterate custom. Their 
war-gods had so frequently disappointed 
them in battle, and had so little to offer to 
hungry hearts, that when the missionary of 
the cross came to them he found them 
almost ready for a change. Thus, he found 
the Norsemen prepared to stake their relig- 
ion on the issues of battle, and to accept 
Christianity after discussing the merits of 
both religious. Thus he won the Franks 
and tamed the wild migratory bands that 
swept down from the north. Thus also, aided 
indirectly by the Roman arms, he gained 
easy victories over the stronger and more 
elaborate faith of the Druids in the north- 

But the conflict of the early Church was 
not confined to these simpler forms of heath- 
enism. She had to deal with a strong intel- 
lectual ism, coupled with the pride of advanced 
civilizations. To the Greek mind, delight- 
ing in symmetry and beauty, and reaching 
•out into profound speculations and abstruse 
philosophy, the cross of Christ was the 
merest foolishness. To the fatalism and 
the self-righteous indifference of the Stoic 
the gospel meant nothing. Pantheism was 
in the air. The influence of such men as 
Socrates, Plato and Aristotle, while in some 
measure conducive to Christianity, still 
largely preoccupied the popular mind against 
the implanting of Christian truth. While 
to preach the gospel at Rome savored of 
treason against that ancient civilization. 

Then, too, the early Church had the more 
difficult task of combating the subtle forms 
of error which learned speculators evolved 
from a mixture of several different religious 
systems ; as, for example, when the Alex- 
andrian school combined Greek, Jewish 

and Oriental philosophy and religion into 
Gnosticism which, by admitting Christ in a 
new and special way, became the most dan- 
gerous enemy to Christianity ; or when 
Manes combined Persian dualism with the 
gospel, thereby involving the Church in a 
serious doctrinal controversy. 

In addition to these perhaps well-mean- 
ing foes, the early Church had not only 
to overcome the blighting influence of a 
widespread pessimistic philosophy, but also 
to defend herself against the direct attack of 
skeptics who charged that all that is best in 
the gospel was borrowed from heathen 
sources. Thus the early concpiest of heath- 
enism was by no means an easy one. 

If now we glance at the present conflict 
with heathenism we shall find that the divine 
commission resting on the modern Church 
is no less difficult of fulfillment. While 
her conquests in the sea islands and parts of 
the west and south have been easy, she has 
to deal with formidable powers in the east. 
Hinduism with its schools of philosophy, 
rivaling the learning and lofty pride of the 
ancient Greeks, and looking with contempt 
upon the religion and civilization of the 
west; Buddhism, with its ethics and athe- 
ism and self-righteous millions ; Confucian- 
ism, whose social and political institutions 
for more than twenty centuries have been 
fanning the pride and self-sufficiency of its 
vast multitudes, fit rivals of the ancient 
Stoics ; Mohammedanism, the old enemy of 
the Christians, and, if we are to judge from 
the outrages in Armenia, not yet inclined to 
yield to the gospel ; pessimism and subtle 
pantheism ; eager attempts to prove that 
Christianity borrowed its treasures from 
heathenism; the strange mixture of relig- 
ions and philosophies, with theosophy and 
mysticism in the west, and Darwin and 
Huxley in Europe — these are a few of 
the difficulties which the modern Church 
must meet and overcome before .saving the 




Such being the conflict of to-day, there is 
great encouragement in remembering that 
the early Church gained a splendid victory 
in the face of just such opposition. And 
this, too, while lacking many advantages of 
our day. While favored by the Greek 
language everywhere prevalent, by Roman 
organization and by Jewish Scriptures and 
proselyters in all parts of the world, she 
lacked the social prestige, the influence and 
protection of Christian civilizations, the 
printing press, the rapid transit, the vast 
wealth and numbers and the wider learning 
which favor modern missionary effort. 
Although at first the outlook was dark, as 
her little companies began the almost hope- 
less task of converting their proud con- 
querors, who frowned upon the preaching of 
Christ as unlawful, yet she won the day and 
triumphantly fulfilled her commission. And 
herein lies the hope of the modern Church, 
that what was done can be done again, with 
God's help; the more so, if, as we believe, 
the late Church, other things being equal, 
has large advantages over her victorious pre- 

If, then, the early Church, accepting the 
(humanly speaking) absurd commission to 
Christianize the world, and prosecuting the 
work in the face of scorn, ridicule and bitter 
persecution, met with such splendid success, 
it remains for us to consider some of the 
ways and means of that conquest which so 
soon transformed the Pantheon into a Chris- 
tian temple and ruled the world. 

In the first place, we observe that the 
apostles were divinely inspired. They were 
baptized of the Holy Spirit, and accom- 
plished great things because God was with 
them. And the Church of to-day must 
enter largely into such inspiration and fellow- 
ship in order to effective work. However pecu- 
liar the form or manner of apostolic equip- 
ment, the baptism of the Holy Spirit is still 
a fact and a privilege. If Christ's commission 
be yet in force, divine equipment must not 
be wanting. " Greater works thau these 
shall ye do," and, " Lo. I am with you 
alway," are not confined to the first apostles. 
We have entered upon the special dispensa- 
tion of the Holy Spirit, who is among men 
to baptize and inspire to fellowship and 
cooperate with them in saving the world. 
And if the Church of to-day does not 
enjoy her full share of such inspiration 
and fellowship, it is largely, perhaps, be- 

cause she is not as hungry for the Pente- 
costal experience as she ought to be. Nor 
is it enough to gorge herself with worldli- 
ngs before entering the " Upper Room," 
and, after impatiently serving out a brief 
period of prayer and fasting, to plunge 
again into the world ; for such conduct is 
conducive neither to the acquisition nor the 
continuance of pentecostal experiences. 

Christ was very real to the early Church. 
After patient training the skeptical disciples 
had come to believe him divine, and, when 
they set out to Christianize the world, they 
carried with them an unshaken faith in 
the divine personality of a crucified and 
risen Redeemer able to save unto the ut- 

It was this conviction that laid hold of 
the Church and manifested itself in that 
spirit of "moral earnestness" which ap- 
pealed so forcibly to the thinking heathen 
mind, and gave an irresistible impulse to the 
spread of the gospel. Owning all things 
with Christ, their living and reigning Lord, 
and assured that nothing could separate 
them from his love, what wonder that they 
endured all manner of hardships in heroic 
efforts to do his will ! OKI and young, rich 
and poor, wise and ignorant walked calmly 
to torture and death, as though they saw 
the open arms of Christ beyond. What 
mattered the light momentary affliction that 
brought them a far more exceeding and 
eternal weight of glory ? There was no 
shrinking from the cross of self-sacrifice. 
The rich gave themselves poor, the poor 
gave of their poverty, noble women relin- 
quished high social position and lived iu 
seclusion. Frugal, honest, upright living 
took the place of heathen luxury and cor- 
ruption. So real and so dear was Christ to 
every believing heart that no sacrifice was 
deemed to^ great for him, and the Church 
became a moral power which heathenism 
cuuld not long withstand. 

The modern Church, it would seem, has 
something to learn here. Is Christ as real 
to her ? Are her convictions as positive, 
her "moral earnestness" as irresistible? 
It appears not. There is a good deal of 
religious opinion among Christians that 
neither positively believes nor disbelieves, 
that is too weak to take firm hold of a per- 
sonal and helpful Saviour, and that looks 
upon the religion of Christ more as a 
luxury and a convenience than a life and a 




commission. Christ is not real to them. 
Think of the Church's vast wealth and 
membership, sufficient to furnish enough 
missionaries and Bibles to evangelize the 
world in a single century! Think of her 
scholarship, culture and organization, her 
privileges and splendid opportunities! And 
yet her success is small, her missionary 
Boards in debt, her activities crippled, and 
largely because she is deficient in the spir- 
itual power and earnestness which are born 
of faith in a real living Christ and which 
count no sacrifice too great, no duty too 
arduous for his sake. It would be a mistake 
to suppose that the early conquest was gained 
simply by the goodness, humility and 
patient endurance on the part of a few igno- 
rant peasauts and converts. These had their 
place, but when it came to winning over the 
proud and learned heathen, broader and 
abler men were needed. Thus Saul of 
Tarsus became the great apostle to the 
Gentiles, and was admirably adapted to the 
work. Learned, courteous, tactful, sympa- 
thetic and charitable and able to cope 
successfully with the subtlety of Greek 
philosophy, the bigotry of Judaism, the 
haughty Roman and the heathen masses, he 
was a model missionary. Proceeding on the 
broad basis that all men are the children of 
God, he laid bare the awful condition and 
impending fate of heathenism, yet affirmed 
that God is no respecter of persons, but 
gives eternal life to all who call upon him in 

faith. Convinced, too, that men were grop- 
ing after God, he did not indiscriminately 
denounce their religions and philosophies, 
but reasoned with them out of their own 
Scriptures, frankly acknowledging their 
virtues, pointing out their defects, and 
comparing them with the superior merits of 
the gospel. He could quote heathen poets 
and preach to the Athenians from a text on 
one of their own altars. Thus he won a 
hearing, and, gathering his converts into 
numerous churches, built them up in faith 
and holiness, and set them to work as mis- 
sionaries of the cross. 

Large charity and frankness are needed 
in dealing with heathenism to-day. In- 
discriminate denunciation does not pay. 
Tertullian, Hermes, and others tried it with 
poor success; they lost their audience and 
crippled their influence over thinking 
heathen minds. But the great Augustine, 
who was led to seek Christ by the influence 
of heathen writings, and who could appreci- 
ate and frankly acknowledge the virtues of 
Socrates and Plato's almost Christian con- 
ceptions of the holiness and goodness of God, 
won the respect and confidence of the heathen 
and led them to Christ. And this was our 
Lord's own method. While exposing and 
condemning sins of intelligence and hypoc- 
risy he frankly acknowledged merit and 
honesty and had large charity for the errors 
of ignorance. Here was Paul's model, 
from which the Church should never depart. 



Louisville was settled about the year 
1778. The location of the city was deter- 
mined by the character of the Ohio river. 
With smooth and happy current it flows 
from Pittsburg down to this point, but there 
some series of rapids, commonly known as 
the Falls of the Ohio, interrupt navigation. 
In the days prior to the building of the 
Louisville and Portland canal, cargoes had 
to be transferred by wagon from boats com- 
ing down the river to other boats which 
started below the rapids and went to the 
Mississippi. This caused a settlement to 
grow up. Since the construction of the 
canal the city has grown, not around this 
original nucleus, but for miles up stream. 

Not until the year 181(5 was a Presbyte- 
rian church organized. In January of that 
year, Messrs. Cuthbert Bullitt, John Gwath- 
mey, Alexander Pope and others, prosecuted 
a call for Rev. Daniel C. Banks, a mission- 
ary from Connecticut to Kentucky, to be- 
come their pastor. Mr. Banks was to preach 
once every Sabbath, and to receive a salary 
of $900 per annum. He commenced his 
labors August 16, 181(5, and at the follow- 
ing meeting of presbytery was " appointed " 
pastor of the congregation. 

On the first Sabbath of January, 1817, a 
" Confession and Covenant" was formally 
adopted by the members of the congrega- 
tion. In the year 1822 the church dis- 




pensed with that Confession and Covenant 
and subscribed to the Confession of Faith of 
the Presbyterian Church. The church at 
that time had a membership of fifty-six, 
but during that year an epidemic of malig- 
nant fever prevailed in Louisville with such 
seriousness as to cause the closing of the 
sanctuary, and then the death of the pastor, 
Rev. Daniel Smith, on February 22, 1823. 

The renowned Gideon Blackburn, so well 
known as the man who gave shape to Pres- 
byterianism in East Tennessee, took charge 
of this church from 1824 to 1827. After 
his departure (to accept the presidency of 
Danville College) Rev. Eli N. Sawtelle was 
called. But by reason of trouble in the 
church, Mr. Sawtelle and a part of the 
members withdrew and formed the Second 
Presbyterian Church in Louisville. Since 
that time the First Church has had the ser- 
vices of Drs. I. A. Hoyt, S. R. W ilson, 
Lowry, Guerrant, Witherspoon and J. S. 
Lyons. Its membership is in the neighbor- 
hood of six hundred. 

This Second Church was served first by 
Mr. Sawtelle ; subsequently by Drs. Bul- 
lock, Humphrey, Stuart Robinson, Pratt 
and Hemphill, and is now one of our largest 
churches. It has a beautiful building ; it 
has nourished several missions and set off the 
worshipers into separate organizations, and 
still has a membership of more than six 

The members who lived across the Ohio, 
about the year 1829, took their letters of 
dismission and organized a church at Jeffer- 
sonville, Iud. And those who lived down 
the river removed their membership and 
organized the Portland Church. 

A singular and interesting circumstance 
that comes to our notice is a record in a 
minute book of the First Church of a sacra- 
mental meeting held in the spring of 1830, 
on " Corn Island," in the river opposite the 
centre of the city. Four persons were 
received into the communion of the " Corn 
Island Church," which was located in the 
midst of large forest trees. The visitor to 
Louisville at the present day would find on 
that spot neither church nor forest trees nor 
island. Every vestige of them has long 
since been swept away by the waters of the 

About the year 1834 the First Church 
took strong ground in endorsing the "Act 
and Testimony," which represented the Old 

School positions in the controversy, and sub- 
sequent division then commencing. In 
January, 1836, Rev. Dr. W. L. Breckin- 
ridge (brother of Dr. Robert J. Breckin- 
ridge) was installed as pastor. During the 
pastorate of Dr. Breckinridge, the church 
building on Fourth street near Market was 
burned, and a new church was erected at 
Sixth and Green streets. In 1890 a yet 
handsomer sanctuary was built for it on 
Fourth street near Broadway. 

One of the special characteristics of the 
church work at this time was the large 
number of colored people and slaves en- 
rolled among the members, showing much 
activity among the Presbyterians of Louis- 
ville in securing their salvation. 

About the year 1845-47, three other 
churches were formed. The Third Church, 
or the Walnut Street Church, was 
organized in the west end of the city, at 
Eleventh and Walnut streets, and the 
Fourth Church, on ground donated by 
Dr. Breckinridge, in the east end of the 
city, on Hancock street. Also, about this 
time, the Second Church was divided by 
the organization of the Chestnut Street 
Church in what was then the southern end 
of the city. Dr. E. P. Humphrey became 
the first pastor of this new church.. It has 
since been served by Drs. Leroy J. Hal-ey, 
J. L. McKee, Simpson, William Adams, 
Willetts aud Hamilton. The city has 
grown so that this church is now located 
about the centre of the population, having a 
very handsome auditorium, and (carrying 
the name of one of its most liberal donors) 
is known as the Warren Memorial Church. 

The period of the war was an exceedingly 
disastrous one to the churches of Louisville. 
Being located on the border, the members 
of the different churches had variant politi- 
cal sympathies, and these political sympathies 
led to divisions. In the First Church, the 
pastor, Rev. Samuel R. Wilson, D.D., and 
a majority of its members, took vigorous 
action in remonstrating against the act of 
the Assembly of 1865 in excluding from 
membership in the Church those who upheld 
slavery, aud those who had been in the 
Confederate army. The Second Church 
(Southern) was divided by the withdrawal 
of many members who organized themselves 
into the College Street Church (Northern). 
The Third Church, located at Eleventh and 
Walnut, furnished the subject for a long and 


REV. 8. R. BROWN, D.D. 


tedious law suit, over its connection with the 
Northern or Southern Church, which was 
carried through the courts of Kentucky and 
finally to the Supreme Court of the United 
States, and was known under the name of 
the " Walnut Street Church Case." The 
Fourth Church also was divided by the with- 
drawal of the Southern members who organ- 
ized themselves into the Westminster 
Church, at Chestnut and Preston streets 
(now extinct). Thus was the plowshare 
driven through all the Presbyterian organi- 
zations of Louisville. 

How much the growth of Presbyterianism 
in Kentucky was hindered by these conflicts 
perhaps will never be known. Suffice it to 
say that the ratio of Presbyterian church 
members to the entire population of the 
State, which, prior to the year 1837 had 
been a little more than one per cent. 
(.0105), was decreased during the Old and 
New School discussion, so that in 1860 
it was a little less than one per cent, 
(about .00975). In the decade of the late 
war, from 1860 to 1870, there was abso- 
lutely a loss of Presbyterian membership in 
Kentucky, so that in 1870, the Presbyte- 
rians in Kentucky in the State amounted to 
only .00825 per cent, of the population. 
This loss may be attributed to the jars and 
discords which accompanied the war. The 
ratio of Presbyterian growth in the State 
was resumed after 1870, and at the present 
the Presbyterian membership is one and a 
quarter per cent. (.0125) of the population. 

About the year 1880, the spirit of divis- 
ion and of strife in the Presbyterian church 
work in Louisville entirely disappeared, and 
since that time there has been much growth. 
Within about fifteen years, half a dozen 
churches have been organized in this city — 
the Highland Church, the Crescent Hill, 
the Stuart Robinson, the Alliance, the West- 
minster and the Calvary. Four of these 
are in connection with the Southern Church. 
Besides these there are several Presbyterian 
mission chapels. The Knox (colored) 
Church is doing good work. The spirit of 
the whole work at present is that of happy 
concord in the effort to build up the Mas- 
ter's cause. If only we can be saved from 
the growing influence of worldliness in the 
community there will be a bright future 
for Presbyterianism in Louisville. 

About four years ago steps were taken to 
organize at Louisville the Louisville Presby- 
terian Theological Seminary (Southern). It 
opened its doors in a very informal way, 
with but one building for dormitory use, 
and dependent on the kindness of the Sec- 
ond Church for lecture rooms. It grew 
rapidly, and in its third annual session en- 
rolled about sixty students, under the teach- 
ing of Drs. Marquess, Beattie, AVilherspoou, 
Hemphill, Hawes and Midler. 

The whole number of Presbyterians in 
Louisville is about four thousand five hun- 
dred, which is between two and one-fourth 
and two and one half per cent, of the 


[From the Japan Evangelist.] 

All who had the pleasure of an acquaint- 
ance with Dr. Brown were unanimous in 
their high regard for him. Those who 
knew him intimately loved him. The ac- 
counts which appeared in many 'papers on 
both sides of the Pacific when his decease 
was announced bear testimony to the un- 
usual affection which many in both hemis- 
pheres had for him. 

What better eulogy could be desired 
than that which was pronounced by the 
spontaneous lament which arose at the death 
of Dr. Brown ! This good man was born 
June 16, 1810. A few days later (June 
29) the formation of the "American 

Board ' ' took place. The mother of the 
new-born infant was a woman of fervent 
piety and had long prayed* for the lands of 
the earth which were still in ignorance of the 
gospel. Learning that organized efforts 
were to be made to send messengers of God 
to those nations, she rapturously took her 
babe in her arms, and then and there dedi- 
cated him to the work of a foreign mission- 
ary. Dr. Brown, whether as a boy informed 
of that dedication or not I do not know, 
has left on record this statement, which 
agrees with what the writer has frequently 
heard him say: " Somehow I had always, 
from the time I was able to forecast the 


REV. S. B. BROWN, D. T). 


future, felt assured that it was my destiny 
in life to acquire a liberal education, to 
study for the ministry of the gospel, and 
then to become a missionary to the heathen 
in some distant land. I contemplated no 
other course. I desired nothing else." 
This decision on his part may have been the 
result of the influence over him of that 
mother, for of her he writes in unusual 
language : ' ' The memory of my mother has 
always cleaved to me as a power for good, 
stimulating to hiirh endeavor and holding 
me to my work through life. If I have 
accomplished anything for the cause of God 
and man, I attribute it mainly to the mother 
who bore me, so far as human instrumen- 
tality is concerned. She who loved to steal 
awhile away 

" From little ones and care, 

And spend the hours of setting 
In humble, grateful prayer," 


has always seemed to be holding me by the 
hand and bidding me go forward in the 
path of dutj with her own courageous and 
cheerful spirit." 

But as is often the case with boys of 
noble aspiration, it was most difficult for 
young Brown to get a start in his most use- 
ful career. He " must go to college," but 
how to obtain the means necessary thereto 
he knew not. His father, a carpenter and 
house -painter, was too poor to render him 
any assistance. Indeed, the son's labor 
along with the father's seemed needed for 
the humble maintenance of the family. His 
parents, determined to give their children 
the best advantages possible, had moved to 
Monson, Mass., where there was an excel- 
lent academy which fitted young men for 
college. After having finished that school, 
and being ready to enter college, young 
Brown was left behind by two or three suc- 
cessive classes, because he had no money to 
go any further with his education. At this 
time he talked for the first time with his 
mother about his future hopes, and received 
encouragement to try and go on to their 
highest fulfillment. His father, though 
desirous of seeing his son carry out his 
plans, discouraged him, as there seemed to 
be no way for him to do so. The son prom- 
ised his father that if he would allow him 
to try, he would use his first earnings after 
graduation from college to pay off the 
mortgage on the little house occupied by the 

family. But the father thought that that 
would he a hard promise to keep; he would 
need all his earnings thereafter to pay his 
own debts incurred in getting through col- 
lege! Thus hindered from pursuing his 
chosen course, he yet thought there was a 
more excellent way for him than to continue 
with his father at work as carpenter; so 
laying aside tools and paint-brush for part 
of the time, he taught school for two or 
three seasons. At the close of every such 
engagement he brought home and presented 
Id //is fid her every dollar of his earnings. 

On returning from one of these places 
where he had been teaching school a glad 
surprise was awaiting him. A little while 
before his return his mother had devoted 
a day to prayer and fasting and spent it in 
the solitude of the forest. " With Han- 
nah's faith she made known her request to 
God. With strong crying and tears the 
devoted mother besought the Lord for her 
son, laid the whole case before him; told 
her poverty and the desire of her heart; 
and appealed to him whose is the silver and 
gold, for means to educate her only son, 
whom she had given to the Lord. Soon 
after, a letter came from an acquaintance 
whom she had not seen for many years, 
announcing that he had selected her son as 
one of the young men he desired to assist 
in their education ! ' 

Having the way thus providentially 
opened before him, the young man went to col- 
lege, having six and one-quarter cents in his 
pocket on arriving at New Haven. AVhen 
he graduated, he had paid most of his own 
expenses by teaching music, and had forty 
dollars in his possession. This only illus- 
trates what was a matter of frequent com- 
ment among Dr. Brown's friends, viz., he 
was never in want of any good thing in 
after-life. " If men did not provide for 
him, he looked to God, and was never dis- 

He was gifted with superior musical tal- 
ent, as may be inferred from what is said 
above. He was always in demand at social 
gatherings because of his wonderful power 
of song. He also inherited something of 
his mother's poetical genius. After the 
death of his oldest sister he wrote a poem 
entitled, " The Sister's Call," for which he 
composed the music. Of this, an old friend 
says: " Who that ever heard his fine voice 
in ' The Sister's Call ' can ever forget the 




melody and pathos of that wonderful song! 
His very soul seemed to soar heavenward 
as, with uplifted eyes, and trembling tones, 
he sang: 

"A \ oice From the spirit land, 
A voice from thesilenl tomb, 
Entreats with a sweet, command, 
Brother, come home." 

The tune " Monson," found in most 
hymn books of the present day, was written 
by Dr. Brown for his mother's hymn, " I 
love to steal awhile away." 

After graduating from the theological 
seminary, Dr. Brown offered himself to the 
American Board to be sent to China. But 
the financial difficulties of the Board that 
year prevented it from sending him. While 
waiting for the way to China to open, he 
taught in the New York City Institute for 
the Deaf and Dumb. While in that posi- 
tion, where he proved himself very efficient, 
an invitation came to teach in the first 
Christian school in China, " opened by 
Christian merchants, Scotch, English and 
American, resident in China." They 
founded the " Morrison Education Society. " 
In this school, first at Macao and after- 
wards at Hong Kong. Dr. Brown taught 
for eight years. At the end of that time 
he returned to the United States on account 
of Mrs. Brown's ill health. Those years 
spent in teaching Chinese youths were cheer- 
fully given to that work in the belief that 
even in that time of the beginnings of mis- 
sionary labor there, the results would justify 
the effort. Dr. Brown was always attrac- 
tive to the young. To the end of life he 
had the heart of a young man, and his in- 
fluence over young men was very great. 

During his residence in China his house 
was one night attacked (as was supposed) 
by pirates. Hearing a disturbance he went 
to the door to ascertain its cause, when a 
sabre was thrust into his side. In some way 
the family were able to escape into the yard 
and conceal themselves. There they waited 
for day, while the wounded father grew 
faint from loss of blood and the wife was 
distracted, not knowing how dangerous the 
wound might be. Moreover, should the 
babe in ber arms cry, their place of hiding 
would become known, and they would all 
perish. The pirates ransacked the house, 
taking what they fancied and mutilating the 
rest. The Lord, however, delivered them 
from falling into the hands of the murder- 

ous men. It was always difficult to get 
from Dr. Brown an account of the event? 
of that awful night. He had no disposition 
to glory even in his infirmities. He was 
always a very modest, non-selj-mserting man. 

On returning from China he took three 
Chinese lads home with him to educate and 
train. Obliged to leave his field of mission- 
ary operations, he would even at home do 
something for that land. The success of 
the experiment was most gratifying. Those 
three boys became very useful and eminent 
men. One of them, Hon. Yung Wing, 
was for a time Chinese minister at Washing- 
ton. It was he who induced his govern- 
ment to send young men to the United 
States to be educated and fitted to become 
public servants. Believing slanderous re- 
ports about the Educational Commission, of 
which Mr. Wing was the chief, the govern- 
ment gave it up. But now, as China lies 
defeated and chagrined, this loyal son, in the 
spirit of an humble Christian, has come over 
from the United States, where he resides, to 
give aid and advice to his government. He 
has gone to China " to try and do some 
good. ' ' 

It would make too long a story to relate 
here in full the history of all of Dr. 
Brown's former pupils in China. But one 
incident deserves to be given a place in this 
brief sketch. A year before his final de- 
parture from Japan, Dr. Brown went as 
guest on a United States man-of-war to 
Hong Kong in search of health. He was 
there met by some of his pupils, who fitted 
up a house for his temporary occupancy, and 
provided him with every comfort and deli- 
cacy that an invalid could desire. More- 
over they presented him with valuable silver 
plate and a check for five hundred dollars 
in gold. Thus they tried to show him 
' ' that all they had and were they owed to 
his early teaching and influence." 

During the twelve years which intervened 
between his leaving China and his coming 
to Japan, Dr. Brown's work was of a two- 
fold nature, preaching and teaching. At 
"Sand Beach," on the west shore of Owasco 
Lake, near its outlet, he established a pri- 
vate academy, of which he was the principal, 
while doing duty also as a teacher in it. 
At the same time he was pastor of the 
Dutch Reformed Church at that place. 
Here he labored with indomitable zeal, 
having these two enterprises to carry on, 


REV. S. R. BROWN, D. D. 




yMi«ii«nMiiii kit 



cither of which would have been enough for 
one man. The church and parish were ar- 
dently attached to their pastor, and reluc- 
tantly gave their assent to his leaving them 
when, in the providence of God, he again 
felt the call of duty to go to a distant land. 
Being (I think) the very first to receive 
appointment as an American missionary to 
Japan, Dr. Brown thanked God as he was 
led again to leave native land and enter an 
unknown and untried field. 

He and Dr. Hepburn had been acquaint- 
ances and more or less associated as mission- 
aries in China. Without any conference 
between them they were appointed pioneers 
of their respective Boards in Japan. The 
years spent in China had been a preparation 
for life in Japan. A knowledge of Chinese 
literature meant ability with very little labor 
to read Japanese also. The study of 
Chinese in former years now stood him in 
good stead. As far as my information goes, 
Dr. Brown never did a great deal of preach- 
ing in the Japanese language. One of his 
chief endeavors was to exert an influence 
over the young men of this land and lead 
them to devote their energies to the spread 
of the truth. 

He was a born teacher, and hence he had 
no difficulty in gathering arouud him as 
many pupils as he could teach. To such 
young men he gave his best energies during 
the time he spent with them. From this 
work he would turn with equal delight, for 
the remainder of the day, to the other work 
that was accepted as his from the earlier years 

of his life in Japan, viz., the translation of 
the Holy Scriptures. Before his visit home 
in 1867—9, he had made a beginning in the 
translation of the Gospels, when fire de- 
stroyed his residence. His loved transla- 
tions were the things he most prized and 
sought to save from the devouring flames. 
In the smoke and danger he was able to put 
his hand upon one copy only. Thus in an 
hour the results of many months and years 
of labor were destroyed. 

Of the results of his training of youths 
in this land, it is not necessary to speak to 
any one who is at all familiar with the his- 
tory of the " Church of Christ in Japan." 
His pupils have been and are to-day its 
leading spirits. Four or five of them are 
presidents of Christian educational institu- 
tions. These are all ordained ministers of 
the gospel. Besides these there are others 
in the regular work of the ministry. Home 
have been, or are, occupying high civil 
positions. I believe these men would agree 
in sajdng that one reason why they fill their 
present posts of honor was because they sat 
at Dr. Brown's feet to learn of him and 
imbibe his spirit. Under God, lie was the 
instrumentality of leading them to become 
men of influence for good to their country- 

In the work of New Testament translation 
he was one of the three to whom the honor 
of that work principally belongs. Without 
in the least detracting from the high praise 
deserved by others, both Japanese and mis- 
sionaries, the translation of the New Testa- 




ment, with its excellencies and faults, must 
be assigned to Brown, Hepburn and 
(Jreene. Of this committee Dr. Brown was 
chairman, and his last act as member of 
that committee was to hand over his transla- 
tion of Revelation to the others for their 

During the last few years Dr. Brown's 
work in Japan was accomplished while suf- 
fering greatly, much of the time from an 
acute disease. He bore this with fortitude, 
seeming only to lament what proved to be 
true, that he probably had but a short time 
to continue his efforts for Japan's welfare. 
He was so feeble that he could not take part 
in the preparations for the home-going after 
that was decided to be necessary. But to 
those who visited him during those days, his 
words were a real inspiration. He often 
expressed the wish that he were young again 
and had another life to live, if he had, he 
would be glad to give it for the evangeliza- 
tion of Japan. It was a sore trial to him 
to turn away from the land of his adoption 
and the people for whom he would fain do 
more than ever. 

He left Japan, accompanied by his wife 
and daughter, in July, 1879. That winter 
was spent in Orange, N. J., but his health 
did not improve. In the following spring 
he removed to Albany, N. Y. During 
these months old friends flocked around 
him, delighting to do him honor. His 
Mission Board expressed to him special 
appreciation of his distinguished services. 

According to promise, he started for New 
Haven to attend a reunion of his classmates 
and relate to them the story of his life. 
On the way, he visited Monson, the home 
of his youth — a place peculiarly dear to 
him. He went to the graves of his parents, 
and saw many old friends. As the night 
which followed that day of great happiness 
began to dawn toward the Sabbath, he 
suddenly and quietly " entered in through 
the gates into the city" above. Thus 
" the Lord gave his beloved sleep." 
" Seldom indeed can the story be told 
of a life so modest in its beginnings — 
nurtured by motherly faith and prayer — so 
useful in its course, and so peaceful in its 

Note. — When Dr. Brown was teaching that 
boarding school for boys, and ministering to the 
church at "Sand Beach," I was a pastor in 
Auburn, N. Y. , only two miles away. I thus had 
the privilege of much personal intercourse with 
him, and some observation of his remarkable tact 
and power as a teacher. One boy who had been 
entrusted to his care, soon after entering the school 
and home, was called to an interview so kind, so 
serious and so faithful, that he was amazed at his 
teacher's apparent insight into his soul and life. 
The lad expressed his astonishment to one of his 
mates in words almost the same as those of the 
Samaritan woman concerning her interview with the 
Great Teacher : " He told me all that I ever did." 

Dr. Brown gave me, quite particularly, the 
history of his mother's hymn, "I love to steal 
a while away, From little ones and care" — after- 
wards changed, for general use, to " every cumber- 
ing care." The story has been widely published 
since in works on hymnology, but may not be known 
to all our readers. 

Mrs. Brown was living in Munson, somewhat 
obscurely, and much engrossed with the care of her 
young children, but becoming somewhat known as 
a writer. She had the habit of retiring at sunset 
into a grove not far from her humble home, for 

meditation and prayer. A neighbor who observed 
her daily withdrawal into the solitude, not under- 
standing its purpose, and mistaking it for neglect of 
domestic duty, made an ill-natured criticism upon 
it, which was reported to Mrs. Brown. That mis- 
taken criticism evoked the poetic response which 
has become so popular a hymn. 

Mrs. Brown resided with her son during his resi- 
dence at the Owasco, and I was privileged with 
some interviews with the venerable lady. One of 
those has been memorable to me. I was then a 
father of little children, and hers, of whom she had 
so sweetly sung, were in their maturity. Learning 
from her that three then survived, one of whom re- 
sided in Chicago and one in New Orleans, while the 
one in whose home she then sojourned had already 
spent some years at the antipodes, and would 
probably return thither after a year or two, I could 
not help uttering some words of condolence, for 
such separation from her children. The look on 
her aged face was one of heavenly serenity and 
cheerfulness as she replied: "I have learnt, d to 
enjoy my children at a distance." Never was 
sweeter lesson set me by gentler or wiser teacher. 
No other words have recurred to my memory more 
often or more helpfully in recent years. I commend 
them to all parents whose daily thoughts and 
prayers are for children beyond seas. — H. A. N. 



Dark as are the clouds which overhang 
the conditions of the Christians in Armenia 
and Mesopotamia, there are some indications 
that God is already turning their captivity 
into spiritual blessings. Letters coming 
from the missionaries announce a more 
friendly attitude ou the part of the old 
Christian Churches which have hitherto 
evinced so much zeal in opposition to Prot- 
estant missionary work within their bounds. 
The fact that the Protestant Christians have 
suffered equally with those of the old 
Churches, aud the widespread efforts of the 
missionaries to relieve suffering without dis- 
tinction, have touched and softened the 
hearts of multitudes of the Gregorian Arme- 
nians. Their doors are open wide now to 
the messengers of the gospel, as never 
before. Calls to preach come from every 
direction. Armenian churches are open to 
the Protestant preacher, while the Protes- 
tant chapels are in many places crowded to 
their utmost capacity. We thus have a new 
illustration of the power of the Christ-life 
in winning to the truth of Jesus. Alone by 
Christ's bloody sacrifice could God win the 
world back from its lost condition to saving 
fellowship with him, and only by a like 
suffering in his name are these masses of 
nominal believers in Jesus to be brought 
into vital union with liim. Under these 
aspects we are already able to recognize some 
of the purposes of God regarding this dark and 
awful mystery of the Armenian massacres. 

It is the well-known sympathy of the Ameri- 
can missionaries in Persia for the oppressed 
and suffering Nestorians of the mountains 
that has held the members of the Nestorian 
Church in such friendly relations to our 
mission establishment. Again and again 
have these missionaries come to the rescue 
of the Nestorian people, when jeopardized 
by some great calamity, from the uprising 
of the Kurds about them, so that among 
these Nestorians, too, is the door now open 
to an exceptional degree. 

A census of the Christian charities in 
Japan has just been issued by J. H. Pettee, 
of Okayama. This census gives a list of 
schools for the poor, homes for various 
classes, orphan asylums, hospitals, and insti- 
tutions for the Ainu. It does not profess to 
be a complete list, but, incomplete as it is, it is 
most suggestive. Thirty-seven schools for 
the poor are reported, with 1317 scholars. 
About seventeen of these are supported by 
contributions or earnings on the field, while 
most of the others are dependent, in whole 
or in part, on mission funds. Six homes for 
various classes are reported, for the aged, 
for the destitute, for rescued women, for 
young children of the working poor. These 
homes contain 106 inmates. Twenty-two 
orphanages are reported with 1189 inmates, 
eight of them appearing to be self-support- 
ing, or supported upon the field. There are 
sixteen hospitals classed among the Chris- 
tian charities, five of which are reported as 
receiving their support from the field. 

All but twenty-eight of these different char- 
ities seem to be under the direct superintend - 
ency of Japanese. Eighteen of them are re- 
ported as connected with the Congregational 
Church, fifteen with the Methodist, eight 
with the Presbyterian, eighteen with the 
Episcopal, eleven with the Roman Catholic, 
two with the German Reformed, two with 
the Baptist, two with the Friends. 

Eight of the twenty-two orphan asylums 
are connected with the Episcopal Church, 
while all of the institutions for the Ainu are 
under the direction of the English Episco- 
palians. It is an interesting fact that only 
one of the charities reported as connected 
with the Roman Catholic Church is indepen- 
dent of mission funds, while a great many 
of the others are. 

The oldest of all these charities are a 
school for the poor and an orphan asylum at 
Yokohama, organized in 1871 by the Insti- 
tute des Soeur de St. Enfant Jesus. The 
next oldest is an orphan asylum in Tokyo 
fouuded by the same sisters in 1873. 





It is not easy to keep pace with some of 
our progressive missions. The statements of 
one day sound like old history shortly after. 
In our June number it was announced of 
Nan that it was the newest station in the 
Laos mission. To-day we must record the 
establishment of a still newer station, Chieng 
Hai. The mission and the Board have been 
looking forward to this step up into the 
north for some time, as an imperative 
necessity, and financial provision was made 
for it more than two years ago from the 
Mitchell Memorial Laos fund. A very 
competent committee, at the head of which 
was Dr. McGilvary, have made a very 
thorough exploration of the territory to the 
north, and have decided that such a station 
is of immediate necessity. Strong argu- 
ments back up their report, which has been 
endorsed by the mission and the Board. 
Cnieng Hai is a large city about 150 miles 
north of Chieng Mai, in a very populous 
region. In fact, it forms a centre for near- 
ly one-half of the whole Lao-speaking peo- 
ple. Dr. McGilvary mentions scores of 
tribes in the hills who are neither Buddhist, 
Brahman nor Mohammedan, who will be 
accessible from Chieng Hai. He says: "I 
am more and more astonished at the extent 
to which the Lao language is spoken beyond 
the Cambodia. I met at Chieng Kong a 
Mr. Filiol, connected with the telegraphic 
department from M. Oo, fifteen days north 
of Hluang Prabang. He says that the Lu 
dialect is spoken far beyond there. The 
population in the plains are Lus, while he 
reports still more numerous hill tribes to the 
east and northeast. One of the Khas 
tribes, he says, is very interesting, and 
he thinks would be easily Christianized." 
The present is an opportunity not to be let 
slip. At this time there is no other source 
from which these people can expect the gos- 
pel than our Presbyterian missionaries. 

Aside from the extremely interesting 
character of the population which urges to 
the early occupation of Chieng Hai, it be- 
comes apparent that some of the prominent 
native rulers will welcome the location of a 
mission station at this new point. And 
perhaps a still more encouraging fact is 
the unexpected friendliness of the French 
Commissioners who, by the new partition 
of Siam, are brought in close relations 
to this whole territory. Not only were 
the committee on their visit to Chieng Hai 

received with the greatest cordiality by 
the French commissioners in the adjacent 
district, but on inquiring if they would 
be furnished passports for working in their 
territory, they were assured that already, 
in advance, instructions had been given 
from the chief Commissioner to issue such 
favors. The Roman Catholics have no 
missions in this territory, and remarks of 
the French commissioners seem to intimate 
that the Catholic missionaries would find 
their full employment in other parts of 
the newly acquired territory, so that the 
region around Chieng Hai is virtually con- 
ceded by the French authorities as the exclu- 
sive field of our mis-ion. Is not this a 
plain call of God for an advance in our mis- 
sionary ranks, to neglect which would be to 
incur, on the part of our Church, a guilty 
responsibility ? 

It is proposed to locate Dr. Denman and 
Mrs. Denman at Chieng Hai, while Dr. 
McGilvary will be temporarily associated 
with them. It is a matter of surprise even 
to our own missionaries to discover the wide 
extent of Dr. McGilvary' s influence among 
the Lao people. 

There has been a great deal of uncertainty 
as to the exact location of the new boundary 
lines agreed upon between Great Britain 
and France as defining the territory guaran- 
teed to Siam, and this uncertainty leaves op- 
portunity for skillful and unconscientious 
diplomacy to do great wrong. For some 
time it was feared that the new eastern 
boundary would throw some of our Laos 
work into French territory. These fears 
have been proved groundless, however, by a 
letter from Mr. Dodd, who has sent a map 
on which the British Vice-Consul at Chieng 
Mai has marked the real boundaries as offi- 
cially agreed upon. The guaranteed zone 
is the Menam Valley, the water sheds in 
the east and the west constituting its boun- 
daries. As Mr. Archer has drawn the 
lines, the eastern boundary runs between 
the hundred and first and hundred and 
second degrees of east longitude, as far as 
nineteen and a half degrees latitude north, 
where the line moves westward about a de- 
gree, and then runs almost directly north at 
one hundred and a half degrees of longi- 
tude east. The boundary line on the west 
separating Siam from British territory fol- 
lows in the main a line half-way between 




degrees ninety-eight and ninety-nine east 
longitude. If the reader will mark these 
Hues on any good map, he will see that all 
the stations of the Laos Mission lie well 
within guaranteed Siamese territory. A 
water shed, however, is not the most definite 
line, and it may tempt Great Britain or 
France to encroach further upon Siamese 
territory. The conscience of Christendom 
is, we trust, becoming more effective against 
such international dishonesty. Whatever 
comes rightly under British dominion is 
made more accessible for missionary work, 
and nothing could be more kindly or con- 
siderate than the course pursued by the 
French officials with whom our Laos mis- 
sionaries have thus far come into contact. 

Civilization has not delivered men from 
the bondage of baksheesh; indeed the more 
highly civilized a community, the more firm 
is the hold of the abomination of tips. 
Japan has in some little measure at least 
escaped this curse. Mr. Haworth writes 
from Osaka that after the very severe acci- 
dent which befell Mr. Porter, some time ago, 
when he was cared for at a town far away 
from his home by the police of Tsuruga, 
who were exceptionally kind and thoughtful, 
a present of a small sum of money was offered 
to the different policemen who were con- 
cerned in the matter. In every case, how- 
ever, they returned the money, saying that 
they had only done their duty, and could 
not take a reward. Would that a man's 
honest wage and a sense of duty doing were 
sufficient to satisfy the less self-respecting 
men of civilized lands! 

Mrs. Maria True, who for sixteen years 
was a faithful and effective missionary of 
Christ in Japan, but who several years 
ago severed her connection with the Board 
in order to take up more independent work 
which the Board did not feel able to under- 
take, passed away to the eternal rest and 
the higher service on April 19, in Tokyo, 
Japan. Large numbers of those whom Mrs. 
True had helped and by whom her kindly, 
Christian influence was felt, gathered on the 
day of her funeral to show their deep devo- 

begged me to send her Christmas offering if 
it was not too late. I enclose it in the form 
of a five- cent stamp." 

If any young stamp collector desires to 
make an offering to the mission cause and 
add a good stamp to his collection, he can 
gratify both desires by buying this Persian 
child's Christmas offering at a sum as many 
times its face value as he thinks it to be 

"The Story of the True God." 
These words or their equivalent Japanese 
words, have been inscribed upon a lighted 
lantern which is suspended in front of a 
little house in Tokyo. Natives who were 
attracted by this and entered the house 
would there hear of the only living and true 
God and of his love for all mankind, mov- 
ing him to give his only Son to save them. 

Some time ago a letter from Persia enclosed 
a five-cent Persian stamp with the note: 
" A little girl came the other day and 



June 20 — From New York, returning to 
the Peking Mission, G. Yardley Taylor, 

July 2 — From New York, returning to 
the East Japan Mission, the Rev. George 
P. Pierson. 


April 29 — At Vancouver, from the West 
Japan Mission, Miss Kate Shaw. 

June 11 — At New York, from the Brazil 
Mission, Miss Margaret K. Scott. 

June 16 — At Tacoma, Washington, from 
the East Shantung Mission, the Rev. Hun- 
ter Corbett, D.D., and Mrs. Corbett. 

June 29— At Chicago, 111., from the 
Mexico Mission, Mrs. J. G. Woods. 

July 2— At Wellesly, Mass., from the 
Mexico Mission, Miss A. M. Bartlett. 

July 15 — At New York, from the Eastern 
Persia Mission, Miss Annie Montgomery 
and Miss Mary Holmes. 


April 2— At Chefoo, China, the Rev. 
Rufus H. Bent and Dr. Sarah A. Poindex- 

May 8— At Bagdad, Persia, Carl C. 
Hansen, M.D., and Miss Lillian D. Rein- 

May 14— At Panhala, India, the Rev. 
James M. Irwin and Miss Helen G. Mcin- 




Concert of Prayer 
For Church Work Abroad. 

JANUARY General Review of Missions. 

FEBRUARY Missions In China. 

MARCH Mexico and Central America. 

APRII, Missions In India. 

MAY Missions In Slam and Laos. 

JUNE Missions In Africa. 

JUI,Y . . Hainan; Chinese and Japanese In U. S. 

AUGUST Missions in Korea. 

SEPTEMBER Missions in Japan. 

OCTOBER Missions In Persia. 

NOVEMBER .... Missions in South America. 
DECEMBER Missions In Syria. 



Yokohama : on the bay a few milea below 
Tokyo ; mission begun, 1859 ; missionary laborers — 
Miss Etta W. Case and Miss A. P. Ballagh. 

Tokyo : the capital of Japan ; station occupied, 
1869 ; missionary laborers — Rev. David Thompson, 
D.D., and Mrs. Thompson, liev. T. T. Alexander, 
D.D., and Mrs. Alexander, Kev. James M. McCau- 
ley, D.D., and Mrs. McCauley, Kev. H. M. Lan- 
dis and Mrs. Landis, Rev. Theodore M. MacNair 
and Mrs. MacNair, Dr. D. B. McCartee and Mrs. 
McCartee, Prof. J. C. Ballagh and Mrs. Ballagh, 
Miss Isabella A. Leete, Miss Kate C. Youngman, 
Miss A. K. Davis, Miss Annie R. West, Miss Bessie 
P. Milliken and Miss Sarah Gardner. 

Hokkaido — Sapporo — Otaru : Sapporo is the 
capital of the Hokkaido (Yezo), 550 miles north of 
Tokyo ; station occupied 1887 ; laborers— Miss S. 
C. Smith and Miss C. H. Rose. Otaru is the wes- 
tern part of the Hokkaido, 550 miles north of 
Tokyo ; occupied, 1884 ; laborers— Rev. George P. 
Pierson and Mrs. Pierson. 

In this country: J. C. Hepburn, M.D., and Mrs. 

In Germany : Rev. H. M. Landis and Mrs. 


Kanazawa : on the west coast of the main 
island, about 180 miles northwest of Tokyo ; station 
occupied, 1879 ; missionary laborers — Rev. Thomas 
C. Winn and Mrs. Winn, Rev W. Y. Jones, Miss 
F. E. Porter, Mrs. L. M. Naylor, Miss Kate Shaw, 
Miss Emma M. Settlemyer and Miss Mary M. 
Palmer. Outstation Toyama ; 4 outstations, 2 
native preachers, 4 licentiates and 25 native teach- 
ers and helpers. 

Osaka : a seaport on the main island, about 
20 miles from Hiogo ; station occupied, 1881 ; mis- 
sionary laborers — Rev. B. C. Haworth and Mrs. 
Haworth, Mrs. George E. Woodhull, Miss Alice 
R. Haworth, Miss M. E. McGuire, Miss Martha 
E. Kelly, Miss Ann E. Garvin and Miss Stella M. 
Thompson ; 1 native preacher, 8 licentiates, and 4 
Bible-men and Bible-women. 

Hiroshima : on the Inland Sea ; station occupied, 
1887 ; missionary laborers — Rev. Arthur V. Bryan 
and Mrs. Bryan, Rev. J. W. Doughty and Mrs. 
Doughty, and Miss Elizabeth Babbitt ; 4 outsta- 
tions, 1 native preacher, 7 licentiates, and 3 Bible- 

Kyoto : station occupied, 1890 ; missionary 
laborers — Rev. J. B. Porter and Mrs. Porter ; 2 
outstations, 1 native preacher, 3 licentiates, and 6 
native teachers and helpers. 

Yamaguchi : station occupied, 1891 ; mission- 
ary laborers — Rev. J. B. Ayres and Mrs. Ayres, 
Rev. S. F. Curtis and Mrs. Curtis, and Miss Ger- 
trude S. Bigelow ; 21 outstations, 4 native preach- 
ers, 9 licentiates, and 8 native teachers and helpers. 

Fukui : station occupied, 1891 ; missionary 
laborers — Rev. G. W. Fulton and Mrs Fulton ; 
2 outstations, 3 licentiates, and 2 Bible-women. 

In this country : Miss Alice R Haworth, Miss 
Kate Shaw, and Rev. and Mrs. S. F. Curtis. 



The comiDg historian who shall undertake 
to write the history of Japan in the nine- 
teenth century will have an interesting as 
well as a difficult task to perform. In ad- 
dition to a thorough knowledge of his sub- 
ject, he will need to have an especially well- 
balanced and unprejudiced mind. In the 
beginning, and until the middle of the 
century, Japan was practically a terra 
incognita, so far as the civilized world was 
concerned. Since that time she has come 
rapidly forward and has taken a place in the 
front rank of the great nations of the earth, 
and is to-day fast becoming one of the best- 
known of al] countries. To give a fair 

presentation of this mighty political and 
social revolution will require a clear head, 
a steady hand and a sympathetic heart. 

Now it is safe to say that no one who fails 
to take into account the influence of Chris- 
tianity during the last two or three decades 
can hope to do the subject justice. The 
Christian Chuch must be recognized as an 
important factor in the history of modern 
Japan. With her more than two hundred 
and ninety ordained ministers and a large 
corps of lay workers ; with her Christian 
schools of all grades; with her hospitals 
and orphanages, and with her total mem- 
bership of forty thousand, she is justly 




attracting the attention of intelligent and 
thoughtful men throughout the empire. 
To many such minds it is becoming daily 
more and more clear that not only is the 
Christian Church in Japan an established 
fact, and one that has come to stay, but that 
she is destined to exert a powerful influence 
upon the future of the nation. The Ja- 
panese have always been a religious people 
and it is not likely that they will ever rest 
satisfied for any great length of time with- 
out a religion. But it is equally clear that 
they will not be satisfied with the religions 
of the past. For these old faiths there is 
nothing left but to turn to Christianity and 
say: " Give us of your oil, for our lamps 
are going out." This is what thoughtful 
men all over Japan are saying to-day, and 
for this we ought to be devoutly thankful. 
But in order to reach even this point Chris- 
tianity has had to fight her way inch by 
inch. True, there was a time, only a few 
years ago, when she went forward with 
rapid strides and people talked about the 
" immediate Christianization of Japan," 
and of " a nation being born in a day," 
etc. But that season of prosperity was 
brief, and was speedily followed by a reac- 
tion which shook the Church to its founda- 
tions, and showed conclusively that here, as 
elsewhere, the gospel was to win the day 
not by a sudden and convulsive triumph, 
but by a slow and toilsome process. His- 
tory repeats itself, and it was to be the old 
story over again of Christianity in conflict 
with heathenism. The struggle is not essen- 
tially different from that which took place 
in the early centuries of the Christian era, 
and the young Church of Japan has but 
fairly entered upon it. Difficulties beset 
her from without and from within, and 
mauy important problems press upon her 
for solution. Let us look briefly at two or 
three of these problems and see what is being 
done to meet them. 

1. There is the problem of how to reach 
the masses, or of Church extension. 
Again, as of old, the Master divides the 
five barley loaves and the two small fishes 
among his disciples and bids them give to the 
multitudes. An easy and pleasant task, 
one would think ! But, to feed the hungry 
multitudes with the Master sitting by is one 
thing; to carry out his final command to 
preach the gospel to every creature is an- 
other, as the discipks all had occasion to 

learn sooner or later. The last ten years 
have witnessed a very widespread evangel- 
ism in Japan. Both missionaries and Ja- 
panese evangelists have gone on evangelistic 
tours throughout the land, penetrating into 
the remotest country districts, not only 
preaching, but, as far as possible, making 
the work permanent by establishing regular 
preaching places or churches. They have 
been followed, and in many cases preceded, 
by colporteurs and Bible-women carrying 
the gospel to the very doors of the people. 
In the great centres like Tokyo, Osaka and 
Kyoto churches and preaching places may 
be counted by the score, in some of which 
the gospel is preached daily. Preaching 
services are frequently held in the public 
parks. Opportunities are sought on festival 
days and at national or local expositions; 
and mass meetings are often held for 
preaching the word. In short, there has 
been a steady, faithful and persistent effort 
made to give the gospel to the people 
whether they would hear or forbear. Over 
and above the more direct results, a general 
impression has been created that after all 
Christianity is not such a bad thing, that in 
fact it may be a very good thing. And 
yet, it must be confessed, the masses have 
hardly been touched and the question, How 
shall we reach them ? presses hard upon the 
Church to-day. It is essentially the same 
problem that confronts the Church in every 
land, varied only by conditions and circum- 
stances peculiar to Japan. The lower and 
peasant classes are still powerfully under 
the influence of the past aud largely 
Buddhistic in faith, loose in morals, idola- 
trous and superstitious to the last degree. 
The middle classes are more hopeful, but still 
largely indifferent, not to say hostile, to- 
ward Christianity ; while the higher classes, 
for the most part, are skeptical and distant 
in their attitude. Young men of all classes 
are generally non-religious and atheistic. 
To meet these hard conditions and overcome 
them is the problem. Many thoughtful and 
earnest Japanese preachers and laymen are 
giving their time and strength to its solu- 
tion, while the leading branches of the 
Church all have their own organized home 
mission societies. But a higher type of 
Christian living in the Church, a dee2>er 
consecration and sense of reponsibility and 
most of all a baptism of the Holy Ghost 
are the great desiderata at present. At 




best it will be 
many a day be- 
fore Japan is truly 
a Christian na- 
tion. The Japa- 
nese Church must 
put her shoulder 
to the wheel and 
keep it there ; 
missionaries must 
give practical aid 
a n d sympathy ; 
the Christian peo- 
ple of Europe and 
America must 
continue to give 
men and money, 
and all must give 
their prayers. 

2. Then there 
is the problem of 
self-support. How 
shall the churches 
be made self-sup- 
porting ? The 
majority of Christians in Japan are far from 
being rich, and yet they cannot be said to be 
extremely poor. In one way and another 
most of them can make ends meet, but have 
little or nothing to spare. After a church is 
organized, therefore, it is a serious question 
how it is to maintain itself. Some say that a 
company of believers should not be formed 
into a church until there is a reasonable pros- 
pect, at least, of their becoming self-support- 
ing in the not distant future. But this is 
doubtful policy, to say the least of it. It 
may well be questioned whether in most cases 
it is not better to organize than to leave a 
large number of believers without the advan- 
tages of organization and without ecclesiasti- 
cal connection and representation. Besides, 
while the matter of delaying organization 
may in some cases, and to some extent, act 
as a spur, it does not solve the difficulty; 
for if the flock is to be kept together and 
made to grow, it must have the services of a 
pastor, as well as incur other expenses, and 
the question of where the money is to come 
from remains to be met just the same. 

But, discussion aside, let us look at facts. 
Of the four hundred and twenty-six churches 
of all denominations, only eighty are re- 
ported as self-supporting. The rest are 
given as " partially self-supporting, " but in 
fact many of them are doing, and are able 


to do, but very little. Moreover, of the 
eighty churches said to be self-supporting, 
some of them are not really so, because they 
are without competent pastors, or else the 
pastors are compelled to eke out an inade- 
quate support by doing outside work of one 
kind or another. This state of things is not 
due to want of liberality, or lack of conse- 
cration, on the part of the Japanese Chris- 
tians. The record of their. contributions for 
all purposes shows them to be ahead, 
rather than behind, Christians of other 
lands in this particular. But there are 
many calls upon their liberality. Chapels 
and churches must be built; the poor must 
be fed and clothed; ecclesiastical dues — ex- 
penses of presbyteries, synods, conferences, 
etc. — must be paid ; besides the contributions 
called for by the regularly organized mission 
boards and societies, many special calls for 
money to be used in the spread of the gos- 
pel must be met. There is, therefore, a 
constant drain upon the resources of every 
church from causes outside of itself. The 
question of self-support is thus seen to weigh 
heavily upon the Church in Japan, and 
especially so now that our Boards of For- 
eign Missions at home are pressing the 
matter by cutting down appropriations for 
churches and for evangelistic work. Earn- 
est efforts are being made by the Japanese 




Christians to attain to self-support, and the 
struggle and self-sacrifice put forth in this 
direction in many quarters command our 
admiration. To secure self-support through- 
out the Church will require long and patient 
effort — and aid from abroad judiciously 
administered will do much to bring about 
the desired result. No mere artificial rules 
or methods such as those suggested by the 
" Fourth Conference of the Officers and 
Representatives of Foreign Mission Boards 
and Societies" (see Report for 1896, pp. 
47, 48), will avail anything in Japan, what- 
ever they may be worth in other fields. 
Experience has also demonstrated that too 
much pressure of the subject upon the 
churches by the missions is unwise and per- 
nicious. Missions and missionaries may 
help in the matter, but the burden of devis- 
ing ways and means for the solution of the 
problem rests with the Japanese Church. 

3. The problem of Christian education. 
This is one of the most important and most 
pressing of all the questions now before the 
Church. Christian education must be had ; 
but how can it be secured ? The govern- 
ment schools, from the kindergarten to the 
university, are on a purely secular basis, 
religious instruction of every sort being 
strictly ruled out. Religion may, however, 
be freely taught in private schools, and these 
may be multiplied indefinitely without in- 
terference on the part of the government. 
On the face of it, therefore, the problem 
would seem to be easy of solution. As long 
as so much liberty is accorded private 
schools there ought to be no serious difficulty, 
one might suppose, in providing Christian 
education for all who will avail themselves 
of it. Now it is true that there are a great 
many Christian schools in Japan for both 
sexes and of different grades, most of them 
dependent upon the missions for financial 
aid as well as for help in teaching, and so 
long as the missions are willing to continue 
their support the schools can be kept going. 
The chief difficulty, however, does not lie 
here, but rather in the fact that private 
schools as such labor under very decided 
disadvantages when compared with the gov- 
ernment schools. The latter confer upon 
their students certain privileges which 
private schools cannot confer— such as free- 
dom from military conscription while in 
school, admission to competitive examina- 
tions for civil service, etc. To put it in 

another way, students of private schools are 
not exempt from military conscription and 
hence may be drafted into the army at any 
time ; they cannot enter government schools 
except by examination, and when they have 
graduated from the private schools they are 
forever excluded from the civil service, so 
that no public career can ever be open to 
them, no matter how great their abilities or 
attainments. Hence, the number of stu- 
dents, particularly of boys, in Christian 
schools is kept down to a comparatively low 
figure ; even Christian men preferring to 
forego their natural preference for a Chris- 
tian education, in order to secure for their 
sons the advantages which the government 
schools alone can give. Various ways of 
trying to meet the difficulty are now in 
practice, but I have not space left even to 
mention them in detail. Let it suffice to 
say that none of them are quite satisfactory, 
and that the problem weighs heavily upon 
the minds of all who are engaged in school 
work in Japan. It is cheering to note that 
there seems to be a growing sentiment 
among leading Japanese Christians, espe- 
cially in the Presbyterian Church, that it is 
better to be content with a small number of 
students and with a comparatively narrow 
circle of influence, and give a truly Chris- 
tian education to those who will take it, 
than to undertake to compromise with the 
government and be compelled practically to 
throw Christianity overboard. 

The above are some of the problems 
which seem to me to press most urgently upon 
the Japanese Church for solution just now. 
Questions of doctrine and of creed are im- 
portant and as yet largely unsettled ; but for 
the time being they are shelved, and rightly 
so, in view of problems more practical and 
more urgent. 

I bespeak for the struggling Church mili- 
tant in Japan the earnest prayers and the 
helpful sympathy of all in Christian lands 
who love the cause of our Lord and Saviour 
Jesus Christ. 

A Buddhist periodical in Japan acknowledges 
that "Buddhism is holding its own to-day by the 
mere force of inertia. By force of custom, the 
older and middle-aged people of the present day 
are still sustaining the old ' religion, though even 

the faith of those is gradually growing cold 

Within ten years Buddhism will fail in its endeav- 
ors. Its discipline will become powerless, its 
temples deserted, its believers and priests decim- 
ated • 







We who live and work in the interior find 
it a great help occasionally to secure the 
services of good speakers and distinguished 
men of the Church for an evangelistic tour 
through the field in which we are lahoring. 
A new face and a strange voice are attrac- 
tive to the Japanese, and the gospel thus 
reaches a larger circle of people. It is 
usually best to have a native and a foreigner 
go together. They supplement each other 
nicely, the two together furnishing about a 
proper amount of preaching for the average 
audience, and make the meetings more 
lively and enthusiastic. This is one of our 
ways of working in Japan. 

During the first week in June it was our 
privilege and pleasure to have with us the 
Rev. G. F. Verbeck, D.D., the venerable 
missionary of the Dutch Reformed Board, 
thirty-seven years resident in Japan, and 
now located in Tokyo. He is easily chief 
among foreigners in his knowledge and use 
of the Japanese language, has had a wide 
and varied experience in the country, 
knows well the Japanese nature and cus- 
toms, and being much beloved by the gov- 

ernment and people, is peculiarly fitted to 
be a messenger of the gospel everywhere 
throughout the land. 

We tried to secure the services of a good 
Japanese also to accompany Dr. Verbeck on 
his tour, but unfortunately were unable to 
do so. It being a busy time, a time of 
general awakening to renewed activity 
among the churches, none of the pastors 
could leave their charges. But the doctor 
being a host in himself, and quite able to hold 
the attention and interest of an audience for 
two hours at a stretch, we did not suffer, on 
the contrary had a very profitable time. 

Coming to us from the south, the first 
station touched was Tsuruga. This is a 
large town, population about twelve thou- 
sand, and very beautifully located on the 
bay of the same name. Work has been 
going on here under considerable difficulty 
for many years, with varying results. At 
one time there were about a score of be- 
lievers, but through persecution and boycot- 
ting the number has been reduced to almost 
nothing. The young evangelist happened 
to be absent just at this time, so all prepara- 
tions for the meeting fell to his wife. She 
managed well, however, and succeeded in 
getting together a good-sized audience of 
respectable people. 




The next day Dr. Verbeck directed bis 
journey over the mountains toward Fukui, 
reaching the next town, called Takefu, early 
in the afternoon. This also is a town 
of twelve to fifteen thousand inhabitants, a 
very thriving place. One of its special 
traits is its hatred of Christianity. Before 
we entered the place it had succeeded in 
worrying out of patience two other denomi- 
nations, who had given up and retired from 
the field. We have had an evangelist 
located there now for over two years, but as 
yet no visible fruit from his labors. The 
former worker having a short time ago gone 
to another field, and his substitute not yet 
arrived, we had to make preparations from 
Fukui. We advertised as best we could, 
and managed to get an assembly of about 
thirty together. 

On the day following we returned to 
Fukui, where Dr. Verbeck was to spend 
several days. Desiring to get as wide a 
hearing as possible, we arranged to hold two 
public meetings in the theatre. For several 
years back they have refused to rent the 
theatre for .Christian meetings, and it was 
only by hook and crook that we were able 
to get it this time. In the first place we 
had to pay a higher rent — about twice the 
proper price. Then we had to allow the 
theatre company to charge admission. To 
be sure, it was only three cents, but that 
amounts to a great deal to the Japanese — 
about the price of a good square meal. We 
were somewhat anxious on account of this, 
fearing that few people would be zealous 
enough to pay this amount to hear a Chris- 
tian lecture. As it was, a great many 
people w r ere turned away, who would other- 
wise have been glad to hear. Then again 
we had to pacify a certain rowdy class, per- 
suading them with promise of reward to 
refrain from causing trouble. 

Thus we were able to get a place for the 
meetings. The meetings were widely ad- 
vertised both in the newspapers and by 
means of posters at the principal street cor- 
ners, as also by the public crier circulating 
the streets with drum and stick to attract 
popular notice. As a result, a very select 
audience of about four hundred was present 
each day. By means of the admission, all 
but those who really wished to hear were 
kept away ; and disturbance was prevented. 
Students and teachers, members of the 
official class and well-to-do business men 

made up most of the audience. They lis- 
tened quietly and appreciatively, from begin- 
ning to end, pleased with the speaker's 
thorough command of their language, 
amused at his wit and anecdotes, and deeply 
impressed with his eloquence and downright 

On the third day we arranged to vary the 
character of the meetings by having one for 
specially iuvited guests. This was held in a 
large restaurant on the mountain side — the 
park of the city — a place much used for 
popular social meetings. A large room in 
the third story, capable of seating about 
three hundred people, was placed at our 
disposal. Invitations were issued to the 
principal families of the city, accompanied 
with tickets of admission. There was not 
as generous a response as we would have 
liked, but nearly a hundred were present. 
This kind of meeting is intended to be 
more informal — -a meeting for friendly talk, 
as it is in the Japanese, and is very popular 
in Japan. After the speaking, tea and 
cake were served. At this meeting, Dr. 
Verbeck first gave a lecture on Christianity, 
then after a brief rest related some of his 
early experiences in Japan, the whole occu- 
pying about three hours and a half. 

On Sabbath morning and evening we had 
preaching at the church. In the morning 
the other two churches united with us in 
listening to a very good and practical 
address on the study of the Bible and its 
power over the life; in the evening a fair- 
sized mixed audience assembled to hear Dr. 
Verbeck' s final address on the subject of 
" Eternal Life." 

On the day following we visited the out- 
station to the north of Fukui — the town of 
Maruoka ; population about five thousand. 
We have had a long and trying time at this 
place, and hardly expected much of an 
audience. We have no evangelist there at 
present, the former worker having left us in 
the spring. For about two years back our 
hearers have persisted in remaining outside 
the preaching place, and not a single person 
can be induced to enter. It is quite easy in 
good weather to get an audience, such as 
it is — the greater part of it invisible, with 
just the front row peering through the lat- 
tice, but it was with some hesitation that we 
invited our guest to face such an audience. 
. On this particular day it was drizzling rain, 
but we concluded to go on anyhow. As we 





expected, the hearers were not very numer- 
ous, and, as usual, kept their station on the 
outside. Dr. Verbeck testified that it was 
a unique experience to him, and he found 
difficulty in preserving his gravity. I am 
inclined to think he rather thought it was 
time to shake off the dust from our feet 
against this city and wait until the people 
were more willing to hear the gospel. Here 
our visitor left us to continue his tour north- 
ward, visiting in the Kanazawa field. 

During this tour two or three things were 
impressed anew upon us : First, that the 
foreign missionary with a knowledge of the 
language can do a great deal of good yet 
in Japan. One thing, he preaches the pure 
and living gospel. Perhaps his limited 
vocabulary prohibits his doing anything 
else ; perhaps it is because the truth has 
taken deeper hold on him, or because he 
sees it is what the Japanese need above all 
tilings else, and all else is useless to make 
men wise unto salvation. 

At any rate, the gospel is preached, and 
the people do not dislike it. Another 
tiling, the foreigner is still a drawing power. 
The people like to hear him, even if he 
makes mistakes and carries his brogue about 
with him. One can see it in their faces, 
the renewed interest and intent expression, 

vastly different from that with which they 
listen to one of their own people. 

Besides greater numbers are present 
almost invariably when it is known that a 
foreigner is to speak. It would have been 
utterly impossible to get audiences such as 
greeted Dr. Verbeck in h'ukui, for any 
other than a foreigner. 

Second, opposition to Christianity dimin- 
ishes as we enter large cities, and increases 
almost proportionately as we go out into the 
smaller cities and towns. The reason for 
this is perhaps twofold : The larger cities 
have a broadening influence; broader edu- 
cated minds are found here ; people have 
traveled, read books and newspapers, and 
know something of Christianity. While in 
the smaller places the people are more nar- 
row and bigoted, uneducated, untraveled, 
unread. Again, in the smaller places 
Avhere one man's business is everybody's, 
and where everybody is known or has some 
connection with everybody else, organized 
opposition is possible ; whereas in the larger 
places people from all quarters collect to- 
gether, and such diverse interests are 
represented that such opposition is next to 
impossible. When we try to enter the 
smaller towns and villages, we usually find 
them barred, doors, windows, and hearts, 




too, against " Yaso;" whereas as we ap- 
proach the capital, and the larger cities of 
the empire, all outward opposition at least 
vanishes, and the way is open to preach and 
teach as one wishes. 

Third, Christianity must make its aim, and 
find its strength in the middle classes in 
Japan. The upper higher classes are, 
humanly speaking, beyond our reach. The 
bonds of rank, family connection, pride of 
heart and regard for reputation, are too 
strong for them, and few are willing to hum- 
ble themselves and be called Christians. 
They are not even willing for the most part 
to take any notice of our religion or counte- 
nance it by their presence at our assemblies. 
" Not many wise after the flesh, not many 
mighty, not many noble are called." 
When Jesus made humility the mark of a 
disciple, he placed a stumbling block almost 
greater than all others before this people ; 
and in fact before all peoples. But the 
wisdom of Jesus is fully vindicated. As in 
the days of Jesus, the common people heard 
him gladly, so in Japan they are the ones 
his messengers most easily reach. They 
are willing to accept him and ready to bear 
his cross. It is by these and through these 
we must save Japan. 


Notes from a Station Meeting. 


Miss Garvin was the next to report. She 
reported that the Monday women's meeting 
which she had been carrying on in connec- 
tion with Miss Kelly was keeping up well, 
some ten or twelve women attending. It 
is a work meeting for teaching fancy work, 
etc., each meeting being followed by a half- 
hour or more of Bible instruction. Miss Kelly 
at this point said she wished to supplement 
Miss Garvin's report by something which 
the latter would not say herself, that the 
part of the religious instruction in which 
the women were most interested was Miss 
Garvin's talks on the Scripture. Although 
a trained and efficient Bible-woman assists 
in these meetings, she is not able to interest 
the women as Miss Garvin does. 

Miss Garvin next spoke of the night- 
school at the Sakaimachi preaching place, 
which has been increasing in numbers until 
there are now over thirty young men in 

attendance. Twice a week special Chris- 
tian services are held for these young men. 
Nearly all of them stay for the sermon 
every Thursday night, and quite a number 
come out to the Sunday-night meeting when 
they have nothing to get by coming except 
the Christian teaching. The interest among 
these young men in the religion of our Lord 
seems to be ample justification of the time 
and labor expended by the missionaries and 
helpers in keeping up the night-school. A 
very interesting social evening was pro- 
vided for the students of this school recently 
at the home of Mr. and Mrs. Porter. The 
young men enjoyed the occasion highly. In 
connection with this night-school the work 
of Mr. Aoki, a graduate of the Kanazawa 
boys' school, now a student of theology in 
the Doshisha, is very highly spoken of. 
He is said to be especially skillful in winning 
and dealing with young people. Miss Gar- 
vin has found it well to advise him to be on 
his guard against making use of the loose 
theology taught by some of the Doshisha 
professors (Japanese) in his sermons to the 
young men at the preaching place. He 
shows an excellent spirit in taking this ad- 
vice, and has borrowed Hodge's Theology 
from Miss Garvin's library as an antidote to 
the bad theology he may hear at school. 
The Sunday-school at this place, Sakaimachi. 
has rather gone back of late. This is part- 
ly due to ridiculous stories told to frighten 
the children away, such as, for instance, that 
the children who go to the Sunday-school 
will be nailed to the cross. This is the 
second time the school has suffered in this 
way. The school becomes very prosperous 
in numbers and interest when these stories 
will be started and the children will at once 
stop going. They will come and try to peer 
into the door, but if one tries to get them 
into the house they scamper off as if in fear. 
This is thought to be the work of two or 
three unknown persons. Miss Garvin and 
her helpers tried the plan of going out into 
a neighboring street and gathering up new 
children, but the same influence extended 
to them also and drove them away. 

The principal feature of Miss Garvin's 
report for this month was her trip to Iyo in 
Shikoku from which she had just returned. 
She pinned to a curtain a map of the region, 
drawn by herself, pointing out the various 
places visited on this most interesting jour- 
ney. Only those who have itinerated in 




Iyo and felt the stimulus of the reception 
which the hospitable people of that province 
give to the foreign missionary, can appreci- 
ate the enthusiasm with which the mission- 
ary speaks of his experience. This field is 
reached either by steamer direct from Osaka 
or Kobe, via the Inland Sea, or by rail to 
Hiroshima and thence across the Inland Sea, 
a voyage of four to five hours to Mitsu- 
gahama, where another boat takes the 
missionary in two hours to Nagahama, where 
the missionary work of the trip begins. 
We usually choose the Hiroshima route as 
it enables us to spend a night with our 
Hiroshima colleagues, always a delightful 

The connection at Mitsugahama is usually 
bad, and in Miss Garvin's case there was 
no exception. She reached that port at 9 
p.m., waited two hours and reshipped for 
Nagahama, but did not reach there until 
seven next morning, the greater part of the 
night being spent at anchor at an interme- 
diate point. A night on one of these little 
Inland Sea steamboats is not like a night on 
a Canadian " Empress," or a Cunarder. 
At Nagahama, evangelist Kikuchi rented 
an upper floor in a hotel and a public meet- 
ing was held Friday night, March 6. The 
meeting was quiet, with the exception that 
there were some cries of " No, no," when 
Miss Garvin's Bible woman addressed the 
meeting. But the Bible woman was not dis- 
concerted. She told the audience that she and 
Miss Garvin had not expected to address 
men, the meeting being for the other sex, 
but if the men chose to come and hear 
there was no objection, only they should 
certainly have the courtesy to be quiet. 
This appeal was seconded by the evangelist 
and by members of the audience, and quiet 
was at length secured. Miss Garvin's ad- 
dress was listened to with respectful atten- 

On Saturday, Miss Garvin and her Bible 
woman went on to Ozu, some two hours or 
more by jinriksha from Nagahama, toward 
the interior of the island. At this place 
there is an organized church with a licen- 
tiate as its supply. There is no church build- 
ing, but there is prospect of their having 
one in the near future. There is an efficient 
Bible woman here working in connection 
with Mr. Sasaki, the evangelist. On Sun- 
day afternoon, Miss Garvin visited the 
Sunday-school conducted by the Bible 

woman, and was highly pleased with the 
excellent organization and working of the 
school. After the Sunday-school a woman's 
meeting was held. Sunday night a public 
meeting was held in the new town hall, a 
building never before thrown open for a 
Christian meeting, capable of accommodat- 
ing 2000 people. There was a play going on 
at the Ozu theatre, and as the people are 
great theatre-goers, many who would have 
attended the service in the hall were at the 
playhouse. But in spite of this, the jani- 
tor, whose business is to take care of the 
footgear of the audience, reported over 400 
pairs of clogs. Evangelist Sasaki has since 
written me that a number of people were 
much impressed by Miss Garvin's address. 
She spoke of sin and atonement, and the 
evangelist confesses that he was anxious lest 
her plain talk about sin would not be well 
taken. But it was, and many were set to 

Monday the ladies went from Ozu to 
Yawatahama, on the coast at the western 
end of the island. The distance is only 
about sixteen miles, but as it involves cross- 
ing a range of mountains either in a kago 
(a sort of basket palanquin) or on foot, it 
is by no means an easy journey. Miss Gar- 
vin and her Bible woman chose to go on 
foot, and a very interesting picture was pre- 
sented by the little Japanese lady with her 
skirts tucked about her waist exposing the 
lovely, bright-colored crepe undergarment, 
and her bundle tied to her shoulders, her 
feet shod with straw sandals. If not liter- 
ally with the preparation of the gospel of 
peace, her attire and this journey were in 
preparation to preach the gospel of peace. 
This mountain trip proved exceedingly tire- 
some, and the ladies were cheered after 
descending to be met by Evangelist Sasaki 
and other Christians who had walked out 
several miles to meet and welcome them. 
That night between 100 and 200 people came 
to the preaching place to the meeting. At 
this place five are awaiting baptism. 

On Tuesday, March 10, they returned 
by kago to Ozu, and thence east five miles 
to Niija, where Mr. Sasaki has a preaching 
place and where several members of the Ozu 
church reside. Here lives the estimable 
Mrs. Mise, widow of a noble samurai, who 
has given herself to the true God, thrown 
open her home as a preaching place and a 
lodging place for the Lord's servants, and is 


Quiet progress in japan. 


using her large influence in leading souls to 
Christ. A remarkable woman and a great 
help in the work in that region. That 
night, Tuesday, a large meeting was held 
in a place rented for the occasion in the 
centre of the village At this meeting 
much annoyance was given by some rude 
boys who shouted saucy remarks while Miss 
Garvin's Bible woman was talking. Miss 
Garvin's address, however, was listened to 
most respectfully by the audience which 
filled the house and extended back into the 
street. Some rowdies who could not get in 
amused themselves by marching up and 
down the street blowing trumpets and shout- 
ing, much to the annoyance of many who 
were trying to hear Miss Garvin. 

An incident was related to Miss Garvin 
at Mrs. Mise's which well illustrates the 
power of the old Japanese idea of honor, 
even with those who have become Chris- 
tians. Some two or three years ago a boy 
in a Christian family in Niija stole some 
money, but was persuaded by Miss Hiroi, 
the Bible woman in that field at the time, 
who happened to discover it, to restore the 
money. Later the lad fell into the same 
sin, and this time it came to the ears of the 
mother, together with the knowledge of the 
former theft. The mother, feeling that the 
family had suffered disgrace, which, accord- 
ing to the old code of honor, could only be 
washed out by death, seized her son and 
jumped with him into a well, holding him 
down with the purpose of drowning him 
and afterwards herself. In some way he 
managed to struggle out of her grasp, and 
to scale the stone wall of the well and 
escape, running with all his might to call 
help. After the boy had escaped, the 
mother, feeling that her purpose was defeated 
in the escape of the child, and that her 
own death would be of no avail if he were 
left alive, tried to extricate herself, but was 
unable to scale the wall which the terrified 
lad had climbed like a squirrel. The boy's 
little sister, who had been aroused by the 
commotion at the well, ran and looked in, 
lost her balance and fell in. By this time 
neighbors arrived and rescued both mother 
and daughter unhurt. From that time this 
woman has been a changed being. Believ- 
ing that the escape of all unscathed from 
the terrible situation was nothing less than 
a miracle of Divine Providence, and repent- 
ing of the family pride which had led her 

to so desperate a deed, she and her family 
are all zealous Christians with no wavering 
in the faith. 

On Wednesday, the 11th, the lady evan- 
gelists went on five miles further east to 
Uchiko, a wealthy town, formerly a daimi- 
ate, where Mr. Sasaki makes frequent visits 
in his missionary work. Here a number of 
the best families, including the head man of 
the place, are interested in Christianity. 
An evening service was held in the house of 
a prominent young physician who is in 
sympathy with our work and will no doubt 
apply for baptism. A good audience came 
out and listened quietly. This was the last 
of a most interesting series of meetings on 
this tour. On the following day the two 
ladies took kago over the mountains to 
Gunchu, a distance of about twenty-six 
miles. Gunchu is on the coast about seven 
miles from Mitsugahama, which place is 
reached from there by jinriksha. 

The Itoya Machi kindergarten is doing 
well. An incident related by Mr. Mat- 
suoka, our evangelist in that section, is of 
interest as showing the good that is being- 
done by the children's schools. One of the 
pupils in the Itoya Machi school is a little 
girl of ten years, the adopted daughter of a 
lady of good family, but a devout Buddhist. 
This lady had in her house a shrine which 
was worth about $70, which she constantly 
used in her idolatrous worship. The little 
girl learned at the Sunday-school at Itoya 
Machi that there is but one God, and the 
worship of idols is sin. She at once set 
about the application of this truth at home 
with the result that the mother sold her 
idols and began to attend the meetings at Mr. 
Matsuoka's preaching place. She is now 
a believer in Jesus, and will doubtless be 
ready for baptism soon. 

The Y. P. S. C. E. at the Girls' School 
which is in Miss Thompson's charge con- 
tinues to flourish. The meetings are well 
supported, and the girls seem greatly at- 
tached to the society. One of them who 
was about to return to her home recently 
showed great sorrow at having to give up 
the Endeavor meetings. » 

Miss McGuire, reporting for the Naniwa 
Girls' School, said that the only new item 
this month was that the whole school had 
had the influenza, pupils, teachers and ser- 
vants. Fortunately, that attack this time 
was not very severe. The present school 




year closes with this month. There is no 
graduating class this year. The outlook 
for next terra is promising, there being 
many applications for the course of study 
on the part of those who contemplate pa- 
tronizing the school. The industrial depart- 
ment continues to thrive. The Sunday- 
school is described as " swarming." On 
one very stormy Sabbath the attendance 
was only about a dozen, but ordinarily there 
are seventy or eighty or more. These chil- 
dren come from the neighborhood and 
adjoining districts, and the influence of the 
Sunday-school is extending constantly. It 
is gratifying to notice the change in the 
attitude of these children. Children who 
before getting acquainted with the mission- 
aries at the Sunday-school used always to 
call after them disrespectfully on the streets, 
now bow to them with a glad smile wherever 
they see them. One little girl, whom Miss 
McGuire met near the castle half a mile 
from the school, said, " I will be sure to 
be at Sunday -school next Sunday." 

The older Christian girls in the Girls' 
School are taking interest in Christian 
work, and their influence is a power for 
good. Miss McGuire' s remark in closing 
her report that "nothing has happened" 
during the month to call for special mention 
is evidence of the quiet steady manner in 
which the school is doing its noble work. 

"With a prayer by Mr. Porter, this third 
monthly meeting of the Osaka and Kyoto 
stations closed. We all came away feeling 
greatly encouraged with the present outlook 
of our work. We feel that we have entered 
upon a period of wonderful opportunity in 
this field. Open doors invite us on all sides, 
and we are trying to enter in with joy and 
hope. Pray for us that God who is our 
help will give us the necessarv strength and 
Avisdom to make the most of our abundant 


[It is well to hear all sides. The following 
is the less hopeful view of the new Japan.] 

Since in the Japanese diet, some time ago, 
funds were voted for the erection of two 
temples in Formosa in which the spirit of 
the late Prince Kitashirakawa is to be wor- 
shiped, further action has been taken look- 
ing to the revival of Shintoism. 

I quote from the proceedings of the 

diet as reported in the Japan Mai/, 
March 7: "Mr. Kitahara Nobutsuna 
introduced the representation for the re- 
establishment of a department for the 
management of Shinto affairs. In ancient 
times an officer of that nature had stood at 
the head of all the departments of State, but 
when the country fell under military rule 
the office had gradually sunk to a condition 
of insignificance. Yet the Shinto creed was 
the foundation of the empire, and the basis 
of the imperial authority. The sovereign 
himself to the admiration of the nation main- 
tained the old forms of worship in sincere 
integrity, but the people at large had become 
reprehensirely remiss. The only apparent 
means of applying a remedy was to reestab- 
lish a Shinto department. It was true 
that an ecclesiastical bureau already existed 
in the Home department, but it dealt with 
Shinto and Buddhist affairs indiscriminately, 
and could not serve the purpose contem- 
plated by the representation. 

" Mr. Hayakawa Ryosuke supported the 
representation. At present the rank of 
the various shrines, as well as the ceremo- 
nials pertaining to them, were fixed by a 
Bureau of the Home Office. Considering 
that the matter involved such high issues, 
such an arrangeir ent seemed most inade- 
quate. The worship of the Kami (gods) 
according to the Shinto cult was not a mat- 
ter of religion: it had relation solely to the 
virtues of loyalty, fidelity and filial piety. 
The existence and practice of such a cult 
was an honor to the country. Hence the 
necessity for the proposed department. It 
ought to be presided over by the emperor 
himself, or by one of the princes of the 

" Mr. Komuro Shigehiro opposed the 
representation. The project embodied was 
altogether too vague and the language em- 
ployed did not seem becoming. Apparently 
the idea was to reestablish a department 
such as had existed in the early days of the 
Meiji era (1868-1896), a department 
charged with the conduct of administration 
and religious duties indiscriminately. Such 
a measure could not be approved. 

" Mr. Hayakawa Ryosuke said that Mr. 
Komuro was probably the only Japanese 
that did not understand and sympathize 
with the proposal contained in the repre- 
sentation. There was no question of 
religious controversy, still less of politics. 




The simple object was to establish the source 
i >f the national virtues, loyalty, fidelity and 
filial piety. 

" The closure having been put and car- 
ried, the House passed the representation." 

Comment upon this legislation having in 
view the stimulation of ancestral worship 
is hardly necessary. Many of the Chris- 
tians look upon it with foreboding. It is 
quite within the range of possibility that 
such a bureau, in attempting to cultivate 
the virtues of loyalty, fidelity and filial piety 
on traditional lines, may do so at the expense 
of the religious liberty of the enlightened 
among the people, who have come to be wor- 
shipers of one Supreme Divine Being. 

It is also to be regretted that Japan, 
counting upon her having, by her late 
military successes, obtained an assured posi- 
tion among civilized nations, is now showing 
signs of retrogression in other important 
respects, which may sooner or later come to 
have significant bearing upon the Christian 
work, and the safety of life and property of 
American and European residents here. 

The remarkable attitude of the govern- 
ment in the matter of bringing to justice 
the confessed murderers (in purpose and 
plan) of the 1 unfortunate queen of Korea, 
notwithstanding all the protestation made of 
intent to punish severely Viscount Miura 
and each and every Japanese who might be 
found to be implicated in the affair, is 
enough in itself to awaken grave doubts as 
to the efficiency of the Civil Code promul- 
gated five years ago in securing justice 
according to western practices. 

It should not be forgotten that it was on 
the adoption of this Civil Code, as an evi- 
dence of her advancement in civilization, 
that Japan was able to secure the revision 
of the treaties with the western powers, 
giving her jurisdiction over all residents in 
the empire. This Code, however, upon the 
compiling of which seventeen years was 
expended, was never acceptable to the 
Japanse people. 

The Japan Mail of March 25 con- 
tained the following: " Promulgated by the 
government in 1891, it " (the Civil Code) 
" was to have gone into operation from 
January 1, 1893. But a strong agitation 
was organized against it, chiefly on the 
grounds that sufficient care and time had 
not been devoted to its compilation; that it 
did needless violence to the established cus- 

toms and immemorial traditions of Japan; 
that it was virtually but a transcript of 
foreign laws, and finally, that its purpose 
was to pave the way for treaty revision, 
rather than to minister to the legislative 
wants of the nation. The last of these 
charges undoubtedly embodied the gist of 
the Code's unpopularity." 

On March 18, 1896, one of the ministers 
of State announced to the House of Peers 
that the work of revision bad been completed ; 
that in its process the " fullest attention 
had been paid to the customs and laws of 
Japan . . . . ; that he was thus in a posi- 
tion to say on behalf of the revision com- 
mittee, that the body of laws now submitted 
for the House's approval was not excerpted 
from the laws of any foreign country, but 
represented a careful adaptation of modern 
legal principles to the customs and traditions 
of Japan. The House might rest assured 
that the enforcement of these laws in their 
revised form would not entail any incon- 
venience or embarrassment upon the people. ' ' 

" Mr. Murata Tamotsu, having been 
closely connected with the work of compil- 
ing the Code from its initiation, begged to 
say a few words. The House would remem- 
ber that he had strenuously opposed the 
Code when it was submitted four years ago, 
his conviction being that due attention had 
not been paid by the compilers to the imme- 
morial customs and special conditions exist- 
ing in Japan, and that dangerously slavish 
subservience to foreign laws could be traced 

in many of the provisions He was 

happy to note that the revising committee 
had consisted solely of Japanese, no foreign- 
ers being consulted. Further, he found on 
comparison that nearly all the objectionable 
features of the Code, as originally compiled, 
had been removed, and he considered that 
the body of laws now before them might be 
put into operation without apprehension." 

In commenting upon this action of the 
diet, the Japan Mail says : 

" To foreigners the importance of all this 
lies in its bearing upon treaty revision. 
That an intelligible body of civil laws 
adapted to modern requirements should be 
enforced in Japan is a preliminary essential 
to the operation of the revised treaties. ' ' 

But it seems that we are to have instead 
a Civil Code conformed to the " immemorial 
customs and traditions of Japan." Viewed 
in this light the conduct of the trial of Vis- 




count Miura and his accomplices loses much 
of its singularity. Justice is to be admin- 
istered by judges who can clear confessed 
murderers, if no one can be found who will 
swear to having witnessed their performance 
of the deed ! 

Something of the character of the future 
judiciary of Japan may be gathered from 
another action of the House of Peers taken 
January 18. 

"Prince Tokugawa reported in favor of 
the bill for abbreviating the period of prac- 
tical training in the case of judicial proba- 
tioners. The committee, with the exception 
of one member, had decided that the pro- 
posed measure was absolutely necessary for 
the purpose of filling up the vacancies 
among the judges and public procurators. 

"The House voted the second reading 
unanimously, and agreed to pass the third 
reading at once, which was also voted with- 
out discussion." 

As far as possible I have preferred to give 
in this letter quotations from the Japan 
Mail a paper conducted by one who is a 
friend of Japan in every sense of the word, 
and in which one may count on finding the 
least possible adverse criticism of the country 
and people. In a recent conversation of a 
friend with one of the leading Christian 
men of Tokyo, the latter said, " Why can- 
not some American publie man review the 
events of the past autumn and winter and 
show the world that Japan is only playing 
at civilization ?" 

It is utterly useless for either a missionary 
or a Japanese Christian to attempt it. The 
former would be supposed by the general 
public to be making out a story to suit his 
own ends, and the latter would simply be 
thrown into prison when it was known what 
he had done. A Christian editor not long 
ago began a series of articles, in which it 
was to be demonstrated that the worship of 
one Supreme Being was not incompatible 
with loyalty and patriotism, and his paper 
was promptly suspended. 



No events of striking or special importance 
have taken place in the direct work of the 
Presbyterian Mission. The best of feeling and 
cordiality exist between the native workers 

and the missionaries. Although the Fukuin 
Shimpo has seen fit to predict trouble in the 
near future for other leading missions simi- 
lar to that experienced by Congregation al- 
ist» a , there is no present evidence of friction 
of any kind to justify the prophecy. Our 
assistance in preaching, in advice and gen- 
eral cooperation seems to be sincerely and 
heartily desired by the pastors and evangel- 
ists, and there is no doubt that the attention 
of unbelievers is directed to the investigation 
of Christian doctrine to a hitherto unknown 
degree. A missionary in a sister church 
has recently tried the novel experiment of 
advertising that he is willing to expound 
the tenets of his faith by correspondence, and 
with the result of numerous inquiring let- 
ters of a most interesting and encouraging 
character. There have been reports of re- 
vivals in certain of the churches and com- 
munities of believers, and an outpouring of 
the Spirit is the hope aud expectation of the 
faithful. One writer in a native periodical 
frankly inquires whether the believers are 
not in many cases receiving only chaff when 
they should be having the Bread of Life 
broken to them, and the suggestion made 
that the attention of active Christians has 
been turned too much to works that com- 
mand attention- -hospitals, orphanages and 
the abolition of public evils — to the detri- 
ment of their own advance in spiritual 
things. All things point to changes in the 
religious atmosphere, and for the better. 

To those among the Christians who cher- 
ished the hope that the coming of the depu- 
tation from the A. B. C. F. M. would bring 
about the long-desired "readjustment" 
there has come disappointment. The pub- 
lication of the letter of the deputation to 
the Japanese churches written just before 
their departure from Japan, and, later, of 
their official report to the Board in America, 
the whole distinctly condemning the course 
of the Doshisha Company in demanding 
rent for houses built by the Board for mis- 
sionary use, and reproving the spirit that so 
completely ignored all moral considerations 
in the matter, has, we believe, had salutary 
effect on the Christians of other churches. 

The general condition of our own 
churches finds reflection in the interest 
taken in the work of Home Missions. The 
Synod's Board publishes monthly reports of 
receipts and expenditures, and from those of 
the past half year I have gathered the fol- 




lowing items. The contributions to the 
fund came from thirty-seven churches, 
tliirty-seven "communities of believers" and 
thirty-eight individuals, amounting to 
(572. 32 yen. Eighty yen of this sum was 
contributed by about ten missionaries. 
With these 672.32 yen plus 216.52 yen re- 
maining from last year's contributions as a 
working basis, in all 888.84, the Board has 
carried on its work at a cost of 506.08 yen, 
leaving a surplus of 382.76 yen yet in the 
treasury. It must be understood that the 
above thirty-seven " companies of be- 
lievers " are entirely dependent on mission 
funds for their support, as are also many of 
the churches. The churches that help 
themselves are not as yet in a position to do 
much toward helping others. 

During the first days of April the spring 
meetings of Presbytery were held, and there 
was also an informal gathering of most of 
the pastors and evangelists connected with 
the two presbyteries centring in Tokyo. 
The latter meeting was of two days' dura- 
tion. Reports of the condition of Christian 
work in various places were made and then 
followed a long discussion of ways and 
means of increasing religious interest 
amongst church members, and of extending 
the work of the church amongst unbeliev- 
ers. It was felt that to the regular work 
that pastors and evangelists are doing there 
might profitably be added frequent visitation 
by such prominent men as Messrs. Ibuka, 
Iuagaki, Uemura, Ishiwara, and that it 
would be right and proper to ask the Home 
Mission Boards of which these brethren are 
members, to undertake work of this sort 
within the bounds of the two presbyteries, 
the churches and preaching places benefiting 
by the visitation to help in defraying the 
cost of it. Such work is of course not new 
in either theory or practice. The Home 
Mission Board has used a considerable part 
of its funds in this way, and the missions 
also have felt the importance of the method 
and supported it from mission funds and are 
to some extent still doing so. There should 
be no difficulty hereafter, as there has been 
none in the past, in arranging that represen- 
tatives of the Home Mission Board when 
thus traveling shall visit not only the few 
places where the Board has regular work, 
but also the places under the care of the 
missions. One danger has, of course, to be 
guarded against, viz., that of loss to the 

actual pastorate. The number of settled 
pastors is small, but four, for example, in 
the First Tokyo Presbytery amongst more 
than twenty organized churches. Some 
men who were formerly connected with 
churches are now engaged in this traveling 
evangelistic work. The mission is careful 
not to encourage what it must be confessed 
is a native disposition to make light of the 
pastoral office in favor of a kind of work 
which combines undoubted usefulness with 
freedom from the cares, etc., incident to the 
pastorate. Persistent pastoral effort is by 
far the greatest need of the Church, and we 
regret that this is not realized by the Chris- 
tians, ministers and people, in a much 
higher degree. 

A noteworthy feature of the two days' 
meeting was the sermon of Mr. Uemura on 
Luke 12 : 49, preceding the communion 
service on the morning of the 4th inst. It 
was an earnest appeal for a more vital faith, 
on the part of Christian workers, as evi- 
denced by lives of thorough consecration to 
Christ' s service, so that the Church may make 
headway in winning the land for Christ. 

There was present on this occasion a Chinese 
gentleman from Formosa, who was then visit- 
ing Japan as the guest of the government. 
He is a Presbyterian Christian of some forty- 
five years' standing, in fact, from his youth. 
He went from Amoy to Taipeh, in northern 
Formosa, thirty years, ago, and has ever 
since been engaged in business there and 
amassed a large fortune. He had brought 
his grandsons to be educated in Japan. He 
was invited to address the gathering and did 
so in English, Mr. Ibuka interpreting, and 
Mr. Kiniura said a few words in response 
also in the English language. 

About the middle of April a meeting was 
held in one of the Tokyo parks, at which 
were present nearly 2000 of the Christians 
of Tokyo, as estimated, representing all the 
various denominations. Open-air addresses 
suitable to the congratulatory occasion were 
made by several of the most prominent men 
of the church. 

The annual commencement of the Meiji 
Gakuin was held on March 28. There 
were fifteen graduates, ten in theology and 
five from the academic department. 

A feature of the exercises was the admir- 
able address of Dr. Henry Hartshorne, of 
Philadelphia, who has been spending the 
winter in Japan. 





It is the settled conviction of the Presby- 
terian Church that the ministry should be a 
truly learned profession. The history of 
the Church in this country has been in 
large measure the history of a persistent 
effort to secure this end. At no period has 
she been found willing to lower the standard ; 
not even when most pressed for an adequate 
supply of laborers for her immense fields, 
and when most conscious of her deep pov- 
erty. It must be said for her that her 
efforts have been crowned with no small 
degree of success. The means which she 
has employed have been the following : 

I. She has written in her Form of Gov- 
ernment a recommendation that the candi- 
date be required to produce a diploma of 
Bachelor, or Master, of Arts from some 
college or university ; or at least authentic 
testimonials of having gone through a 
regular course of learning. An examination 

in the Latin language is also made a consti- 
tutional requirement; and also in Greek and 
Hebrew; together with an examination in 
the arts and sciences, theology, natural and 
revealed, ecclesiastical history, the sacra- 
ments and Church government. Written 
evidences of his skill in composition and in 
the exegesis of Holy Scripture must also be 

II. She has spent millions of dollars in 
erecting and endowing schook, colleges, and 
theological seminaries of a high order, at 
which, under the best influences, candidates 
for the ministry may secure their training. 

III. She has provided scholarships for 
her candidates, by means of which a part 
of the strain and anxiety with regard to 
their pecuniary necessities may be removed, 
and the need of stealing time from sleep 
and study for the earning of money may at 
least be diminished. 

Long experience has shown that God, for 
the most part, has chosen the poor of this 
world to become preachers of the Word, 
and it is evidently unreasonable to require 





candidates to earn a living and attend at 
the same time to all the exacting require- 
ments of a college curriculum. 


The success achieved by the Church ap- 
pears from the fact that the men ordained 
by the presbyteries are, with very few 
exceptions, meu who have pursued a full 
course in one of the theological seminaries of 
the Church, and, as a preparation for the 
seminary, have had a classical education at 

It is further made conspicuous by a com- 
parison of the state of things in the Presby- 
terian ministry with the corresponding state 
of things in the medical and legal profes- 
sions in our land. When you call in a 
physician to the intimacy of your family in 
time of need, and introduce him to all the 
sacred privacy of the sick chamber, you 
have, on the average, only one chance in 
twenty that he will be a man of real liter- 
ary culture, and of that refinement which 
comes from suitable training. On the other 
hand, when you call into your home, in the 
hour of trial, a Presbyterian minister, you 
have every reasonable assurance that he 
will be found to be a man who has had the 
benefit of such a training. 

It is to be noted, too, that this is the case 
in spite of the fact that the presbyteries are 
admitting every year a very considerable 
number of ministers from other denomina- 
tions to our body, and that these men are 
not always up to the standard which we are 
requiring of our own men. Eighty-two 
were received from other denominations dur- 
ing the year 1894-95. 


There have been from the beginning men 
who have more or less stoutly opposed the 
whole principle upon which the Church has 
been conducting her educational work with 
such distinguished success for so many 
3'ears. The subject is of fundamental im- 
portance and the criticisms made deserve the 
most careful consideration. 

A. It is said that there are too many min- 
isters already. It may be said at once in 
reply : 

(a) That there are by no means too many 
ministers of the right kind. It need not be 
disputed that there are many men in the 
ministry who are not an ornament to the 

profession. So there are a great many men 
in the medical and the legal professions who 
are not ornaments, but the reverse. A 
comparison will show, however, that the 
proportion in the clerical profession, so far 
as our Church is concerned, is very much 
smaller than in the professions of law and 
of medicine. It is, nevertheless, a fair 
question whether our methods are responsi- 
ble to any degree for the failures which do 
occur. If so, it is obvious that a remedy 
should be sought without delay. 

The undesirable men in the ministry are 
partly the imperfectly educated men. But 
the fact is that the Church's method, so far 
from being responsible for them, has been 
instrumental in reducing this class to a 
minimum. The Board of Education is the 
Church's agency for the accomplishment of 
this all -important task. The Rev. A. T. 
McGill, D.D., in an address delivered in 
New York in 1869, declared that the Board 
had put the Church and the world under 
obligation by setting high the standard of 
learning, as well as of piety and talents, 
required for the ministry. "It is," said 
he, " mainly owing to the Board of Educa- 
tion that the full course at college and 
three years at the seminary have been secured 
now at length as the indispensable training 
of our ministers. More than all causes 
combined which can be conjectured for the 
change, the pledge to take the full college 
course required by this Board has secured 
it. Half of our students of theology thus 
marshaled and required, and this half 
men of humble circumstances in the world, 
will, of course, constrain the other half to 
attain the fullest preparation which the 
wants and wisdom of our day prescribe." 

Again, the undesirable men are partly 
such as are of doubtful character, destitute of 
the special talents necessary for the ministry, 
or characterized by general inefficiency. It 
is not pretended that the Church's method, 
as exhibited in the work of the Board 
of Education, effectually eliminates all of 
the men belonging to such a category. It 
uses, however, all the precautions which 
experience has suggested as likely to secure 
such elimination; and when men of the 
kind just described gain an entrance into 
the ministry the presbyteries are themselves 
rather to be blamed than the Board. It is 
a matter of common and not unfounded 
complaint, that, while entrance to a Metho- 




diet conference is most jealously guarded, 
the door into presbytery is left open so 
wide that men from other denominations 
which have grown weary of them, or cast 
them out, hud an easy entrance. The men 
who enjoy the scholarships of the Board, 
on the other hand, are under the closest 
watch and inspection through each stage of 
their career, and generally through quite a 
number of consecutive years ; so that it 
seems as if a conspiracy of misinforma- 
tion, or misrepresentation, or both, would 
be necessary to enable a man decidedly un- 
worthy or unfit for the ministry to com- 
plete a course of study under such checks and 
regulations as our Church employs through 
the Board by which to guard the entrance 
to the sacred office. 

(6) It must be observed further with 
regard to the allegation that there are too 
many ministers already that the need of the 
prayer dictated by our Lord himself was never 
more apparent than at the present moment. 
AVhen modern conditions are considered, 
and when the prospect of a world-wide 
movement is before us, all that the Church 
is doing is so utterly out of proportion with 
what the state of the case imperatively 
demands that thoughtful men cannot but 
feel a measure of alarm. It may be con- 
fidently affirmed that both the men and 
the means are very far below the actual 
needs both for the home and the foreign 

The contrary impression is sometimes 
gotten because the Church allows her rolls 
to be more or less clogged by the incapable, 
the idle, and the indolent; because she 
pays little or no attention to the immediate, 
economical and full employment of the 
whole capable ministerial force at her dis- 
posal ; and because the provision she makes, 
on the average, for the support of her min- 
istry is so far from adequate that a feeling 
of unrest is created, and a multitude of 
candidates appear eagerly seeking a hearing 
before every vacant church which promises 
a somewhat nearer approach to a sufficient 
support. This is a heavy indictment, but it 
is true, and the time has come when it is of 
the highest importance that a radical reform 
should be instituted that the ministry may be 
saved from degradation and the work of the 
Church put upon a plane of honor, dignity 
and success. 

(c) It is also a matter of the utmost sig- 

nificance that the Lord of the harvest is still 
evidently calling laborers into the harvest. 

The sons of the Church who give good 
evidence of being called of God to the 
sacred office are numerous; and the people 
of Cod dare not be indifferent to the obli- 
gation which lies upon them to give these 
young men, consecrated of God to his 
service, the best preparation for their work 
which their means permit. 

B. A second objection made to the 
Church's method of helping men into the 
ministry by means of scholarships is the 
alleged injury to tJie character of the men who 
are thus aided. Those who make this charge 
probably do not realize that it implies 
that pretty much the entire ministerial force, 
not only of our own denomination, but of 
others besides, has been already demoral- 
ized. Mr. H. W. Harriman, in an article 
in the Church Review for June, 1887, 
makes the following statement: " Some 
years ago two clergymen, who were in a 
position to know the circumstances of many 
students in the General Theological Semi- 
nary, N. Y., compared notes and found that 
all the students there at that time, except 
two, were receiving assistance from some 
source, and it was not certain that these 
two were not." In our own theological 
seminaries there are very few who are not 
enjoying the benefit of a scholarship, either 
of the Board of Education, or of the sem- 
inary, or of both. The alleged injury to 
character does not appear in actual experi- 
ence. " We would ask any one," wrote 
Dr. Charles Hodge, " who holds that our 
system is a failure, to go to the General As- 
sembly and see if he can distinguish tho^e 
who were self- supported from those who had 
been aided in their preparatory studies by 
the Church. The thing could not be 
done." He further declared that " in 
intelligence, in general culture, in activity, 
in orthodoxy, in usefulness, the American 
clergy — not the Presbyterian only — are 
equal to any body of clergymen in the 
world — the Moravians perhaps excepted." 
If it does not injure the character of the 
cadets of the nation at West Point to re- 
ceive every man each year from the gov- 
ernment $540 in cash, besides free tuition 
and many other privileges, why should it 
injure the character of a candidate for the 
ministry to receive $80 or $100, besides 
free tuition and other privileges ? 




C. A third objection sometimes urged is 
the alleged uselessness of the expenditure. It 
is said that a man of real value to the 
Church must be a man of energy capable of 
pushing his own way into the ministry; 
and that those who are conscious of a true 
call of God to preach the gospel will not be 
deterred by difficulties, and in the end will 
be all the better qualified for the work by 
the experience and manliness gained by 
contending with them. No man of good 
sense will readily deny the general statement 
that strength comes by struggle with diffi- 
culties and that personal character is often 
improved by the experience of trials. It 
must be borne in mind, however, that the 
moment the burden of trial and difficulty 
which is laid upon a young man becomes 
too great for his strength, great mischief, if 
not ruin, is likely to be the result in place 
of advantage. The experience of the vete- 
ran missionary, Dr. Paton, may be cited 
with advantage. He and his chum had 
divided between themselves the toil of some 
mission work for which a small stipend was 
given, and this was similarly divided. The 
result of the experiment was disastrous. 
The attempt to do two thing3 at once, to 
labor for their living while devoting every 
possible moment to toilsome study, was too 
much for their strength. Mr. Paton soon 
began to suffer from bleeding of the lungs, 
and was compelled to retreat to his father's 
farm. His companion also fell ill and died, 
so that the Church was deprived of a de- 

voted servant, who had fondly hoped to go 
with his friend to the heathen world as a 
missionary. No sensible man would treat a 
valuable colt, in which he had invested his 
money, as many men insist that we shall 
treat our imj>ecunious candidates for the 
ministry. The policy of our Church, which 
gives a moderate degree of aid to save her 
candidates from excessive strain upon their 
powers, is abundantly justified by experience. 
It has been her glory and boast that she 
can say to her young men with some degree 
of confidence : ' ' From whatever other pro- 
fession or walk in life a condition of poverty 
may shut you off, it shall not be said that 
simple poverty shut you out from the holy 
ministry. Poverty shall not of itself con- 
stitute a passport into the sacred office; 
only it shall not shut you out. You must 
have brains and energy and piety and love 
of souls; and, above all, you must give sat- 
isfactory evidence that God has called you 
to preach the gospel." Let us make all 
possible improvements in our method, but 
let us gratefully recognize the fact that this 
method, operating through the Board of 
Education, so far from tending to introduce 
undesirable elements into the ministry, has 
been to a very remarkable degree instru- 
mental in bringing into that office many of 
the choicest spirits from the choicest sources, 
trained in the school of self-denial and 
suffering, and made in the end the means of 
the greatest blessing to the Church and to 



The College Board is the Church's stew- 
ard. The steward here renders account of 
its stewardship. By the Church's direction 
funds are entrusted to the Board to be used 
for specified purposes in accordance with 
principles and methods which the Church 
has established or approved. How is the 
work done ? 

The Board has twenty-four members, 
twelve ministers and twelve laymen, each 

Assembly appointing eight members to 
serve for three years. The office is in Chi- 
cago. The president of the Board from its 
organization in 1883 has been Dr. Herrick 
Johnson. During his absence, Dr. J. L. 
Withrow has acted by request of the Board 
as adviser of the other officers. The treas- 
urer of the Board gave his services gratui- 
tously for nine years, and since then has 
been given $1500 a year to cover his clerical 
expenses. His office is adjacent to ours for 
our convenience, and he gives daily hours 
of his valuable time in making our funds 
both safe and productive, reading important 




correspondence, and advising regarding de- 
tails of the work. A member of the 
Board, an eminent lawyer, advises gratui- 
tously regarding legal questions. There is 
a secretary who has a clerk and an office boy. 

An institution asks aid in meeting its 
current expenses. What does the Board 
do ? We send three printed blanks to be 
filled out. One requires detailed statement 
of the institution's property, debts, insur- 
ance, officers and ecclesiastical relations. 
Another requires detailed statement of its 
faculty and students, of its Bible teaching 
and religious exercises and influences, and 
of its expected income and expenses for the 
ensuing school year. The third requires 
detailed statement of its income and the 
sources of it, and of its expenses for the 
previous year. Correspondence and con- 
ference are had with leading men of 
its region. It is visited. Careful study 
is made of the body that controls it, 
the community where it is located, and 
the region about. We consider its history 
and prospects; and however short or 
poor their histories, most institutions see 
before them enrapturing prospects. No 
application is considered unless the institu- 
tion is incorporated ; is under one of three 
prescribed forms of Presbyterian control ; 
is sufficiently remote from similar State or 
religious schools; has reasonably sufficient 
property; has no indebtedness, and has the 
loyal support of its region. 

Now imagine the Board at its annual 
meeting, the third Tuesday of June. Not 
all the members get to any one meeting; 
and if they should, our little office, closely 
packed with files of letters, catalogues and 
books would not have room enough to re- 
ceive the blessing. After prayer, the 
minutes of the last meeting are read; ex- 
cuses of absent members are received, the 
action of the recent General Assembly is 
noted, and officers are elected. The finan- 
cial condition of the country has been 
studied, an estimate of the Board's probable 
iucome is made, and the amount that may 
be safely appropriated is fixed ; for the 
Board has never had a deficit, and purposes 
never to have one. 

Study is made of the location, history, 
needs, desires, actual work and prospects 
of each institution, and comparative study 
of all the fields. The appropriations are 
voted and other business transacted. 

How much is voted for the current ex- 
penses of each institution — what it needs 
and ought to have ? About one-half what 
is absolutely needed, because that is all we 
have to give ; and many applications which 
we would grant are denied because we 
cannot take bread from half-starved chil- 
dren to half starve additional ones. When 
the Church shall give us $100,000 a year 
we shall make schools and colleges flourish, 
the world wonder, and the Church exult. 

How is the money paid to institutions ? 
One-half of each appropriation is paid iu 
the middle of the school year, when the 
following conditions are met: 

1. The application of a college must have 
the approval of its synod endorsed on it ; 
the application of an academy the approval 
of its presbytery. 

2. We require an itemized schedule of 
estimated income and expenses for the year. 
This is compared with the statements made 
in the application, and it must appear 
probable that the institution will close the 
year without debt. 

3. Fire insurance must be adequate. 

At Christmas time it makes one's heart 
happy to authorize remittances. Many 
teachers have received little money, some 
none, since the June before. They owe for 
board or bills at stores. They want money 
for railroad fares to join the home circle in 
the holidays. They have done double 
work, are weary, and need change and rest. 
" God bless them!" the heart cries, " as 
devoted, strenuous, self-sacrificing, illy-paid 
noble men and women, as necessary to the 
kingdom's conquering progress, and as use- 
ful, as any that serve our Lord Christ!" 

That is in the middle of the school year. 
In June the second half of each appro- 
priation is paid, when the following condi- 
tions are met: 

1. Insurance must be adequate. 

2. A balance sheet must show all ex- 
penses, and all income and the sources of 
it, for the year just closed; and it must 
show that the amount to be remitted by the 
Board will discharge every dollar of obliga- 
tion incurred during the year. A dollar of 
debt forfeits the Board's appropriation. 
" But," you will ask, " how is that always 
possible ? How can institutions, in hard 
times and inadequately aided by the Board, 
avoid deficit?" They do it. "How?" 
Well, often trustees or other friends put 




their hands in their pockets. But often 
that is not enough; and then — then the 
presidents and principals, the professors and 
teachers, relinquish their claims to a part, 
perhaps a large part, of the insufficient 
stipends they were promised. And they 
stand by those institutions year after year 
under similar conditions. Why are they 

so foolish when they are offered larger and 
promptly paid salaries in State schools ? 
You know why: they are Christ's; and 
they will do the work he has called them to 
do, leading young minds to him, at any 
cost to themselves. God bless them ! Say 
it in your hearts: " God bless them!" 


Rev. Henry T. McClelland, D.D., presi- 
dent of the Board of Missions for Freed- 
men, writes us, that Rev. Dr. Cowan, the 
Secretary of that Board and our editorial 
correspondent, has been " called to experi- 
ence the sorest possible earthly loss. His 
beloved wife, at the close of a most distress- 
ing illness, at the end fell peacefully 
asleep, ' ' on Friday evening, July 24. On 
this account our brother was unable to write 
anything for these pages. It was beauti- 
fully said that he was finding it " too dark 
to write in the valley of the shadow of 
death." He may be assured that a great 
number who read this page will affection- 
ately pray that the rod and the staff of the 
divine Shepherd may comfort him now. 
" Blessed be the God and Father of our 
Lord Jesus Christ, the Father of mercies 
and God of all comfort, who comforteth us 
in all our tribulation, that we may be able to 
comfort them that are in any affliction, 
through the comfort wherewith we ourselves 
are comforted of God." 

Dr. McClelland adds : 

" We have been feeling the rod in our 
work in the way of sickness and bereave- 
ment for several weeks past. I enclose a 
notice of the death of the Rev. I. M. Mul- 
drow, who was in our work at Cheraw, S. 
C. , and who after a severe illness of more 
than two mouths " fell asleep." The 
letters we have from Mrs. Muldrow illustrate 
not onlj r the tenderness of the loving Chris- 
tian heart in sore affliction, and the victory 
of faith over the last enemy, but also the 
especially near relation which exists through 
the Board between our contributing 
churches and the faithful workers among 
the Freed men. 

"A letter just at hand from Dr. J. B. 
Smith, president of Mary Allen Seminary, 
says : ' We have the sad news of Miss Mel- 

ville' s death on the 8th inst., at her home 
in Colgate, Wis. She was a very lovely 
Christian, and we shall miss her greatly.' 

" Miss Melville was a teacher in the Lit- 
erary Department at Mary Allen. She 
entered the work in October, 1890. Six 
years of faithful missionary work in such a 
school, and for such a people, is a glorious 
segment in the fullness of a Christian life. 

" Our treasurer, Dr. Beacom, has been 
cpiite ill for the past two weeks. He is still 
confined to his room. We hope and pray 
that he may soon be at his desk again. 

" Meanwhile the work goes on, and never 
appealed more forcibly than now to the 
prayers and benefactions of the people of 


(From the Africo-American Presbyterian.) 

With profound regret we record the death 
of Rev. I. M. Muldrow, who departed this 
life at his home, Cheraw, S. C, last Mon- 
day, after a prolonged illness. Rev. Mr. 
Muldrow was a native of Sumter county, 
S. C, where most of his relatives now 
reside. He obtained his early schooling 
in the Goodwill school, near Mayesville, and 
subsequently entered Biddle University. 
There he took the regular preparatory and 
college courses, and was graduated from 
the latter with the class of '89. He imme- 
diately eutered the theological school of the 
same institution, from which he was gradu- 
ated with the class of '92. He was licensed 
and ordained to the work of tne ministry by 
the Presbytery of Fairfield and took charge 
of the church and school at Cheraw as his 
first field of labor. The work prospered 
under his care and latterly he also served 
the church at Chesterfield Court House and 
was doing an excellent work there. Amid 




his labors, and while yet comparatively 
young in the cause, he was stricken down at 
his post — called from labor to reward. 
Rev. Mr. Muldrow was a young minister of 
good personal presence, of fair abilities, and 
of decided energy in his work, lie leaves 

a wife and several small children, who have 
the cordial sympathy of a wide circle of 
friends in this their hour of bereavement. We 
commend them to the care of him who is 
the Father of the fatherless and a Judge of 
the widow in his holy habitation. 



Rallying-day will fall this year on Sab- 
bath, September 27. It will, we trust, be 
widely observed. The General Assembly 
emphatically approves and recommends its 
observance. It is essentially and practi- 
cally a Sabbath-school rally There are 
rallying-days, so-called, for the advocacy 
and support of many good objects, but this 
day — the last Sabbath in September — is 
distinctively a rally of the Sabbath-school 
for the furtherance of Sabbath-school aims. 

Rallying-day brings with it its own special 
opportunities and obligations which the 
earnest, wide-awake superintendent will 
gladly seize for the advancement of the 
interests of his school. In doing this he 
will step into line with a host of fellow- 
workers, and the moral and spiritual effect 
will be grand beyond computation. A 
neglect of the opportunity means inertness, 
or incapacity, or a criminal disregard of 
sacred interests. 

Rallying-day is the voice of the Church 
calling upon her Sabbath-school forces to 
marshal themselves together for a new 
campaign. Summer everywhere brings 
more or less of laxity in work. In cities 
this is peculiarly the case. In city and 
country alike the autumnal air is tonic 
and bracing. It is a good season for " put- 
ting on strength," planning new work, 
making up lost time, calling the roll, 
searching for absentees, canvassing for new 

The Sabbath -school and Missionary De- 
partment has this year prepared a pro- 
gramme or Order of Worship, for the use of 
Sabbath-schools on Rallying-day, and also 
some suggestions on the subject for the 
united movement for the canvass for new 
scholars. Samples have been generally 
distributed, and the supplies will be sent 

free of charge to schools promising to fake 
up an offering for this work. 

Last year the income of this Department 
fell short by some thousands of dollars of 
the amount received in 1894-5. The ten- 
dency this year is very marked towards a 
general shrinkage in the amounts of indi- 
vidual collections. We must make up for 
this in some way, or, instead of advancing, 
or even barely holding our own, we shall 
have to retreat. What can be more appro- 
priate than an offering on Rallying-day to 
the cause of Presbyterian Sabbath-school 
missions ? Surely it will be a pleasure to 
our Sabbath-schools to supplement their 
Children's Day contributions on this occa- 
sion ! The special object for which the 
offering is asked is the providing of lesson 
helps and literature to our mission schools 
— a most important and practical feature of 
our work. 

By command of the General Assembly 
this Department energetically advocates and 
promotes m every possible way the observ- 
ance among our churches and Sabbath- 
schools both of Children's Day and of 
Rallying-day. The general observance of 
those days in our Church, with the good 
effects flowing from that observance, is 
mainly due to the persistence of the Depart- 
ment in keeping the subject prominently 
before the churches. The church considers 
this a part of her educational work, which 
she entrusts to this Department to carry out. 
And as this cannot be done without the 
expenditure of money, it is fitting, on that 
ground alone, that the Sabbath-schools and 
churches should aid us by their offerings on 
these special days. But beyond this we 
must plead the vastuess and the importance 
of our work among the children of our 
country and through them among all classes 
of the people. It is only by persistence in 
asking that we can make sure that the nec- 
essities of this work will be dulv considered 




among the hosts of other claimants for be- 

But Rallying-day is peculiarly our day 
— the day of Sabbath-school improvement 
and extension. A small thanksgiving offer- 
ing from each school would replenish our 
exchequer and enable us to plan further 
aggressive work for Christ. Will not the 
schools encourage us in this blessed but 
onerous duty ? 


Our missionaries are exposed to many 
perils in the discharge of their duty, and it 
is a cause for much gratitude that we have 
had so few casualties. Last July, however, 
witnessed two very serious accidents. One 
of them befell Mr. Joseph Brown, our devoted 
synodical missionary in Wisconsin, the other 
injured brother being our equally zealous 
synodical missionary for Michigan, the Rev. 
J. V. N. Hartness. Mr. Brown was on his 
way to an appointment at McGregors, three 
miles from Hancock, in Waushara county, 
Wisconsin, when the pole strap broke caus- 
ing the pole to fall to the ground. Mr. 
Brown was violently pitched out of the 
wagon, breaking three ribs and sustaining 
other injuries. He was promptly cared for 
and as soon as possible removed to his 
home in Marshfield, and is, we trust, by 
this time fairly restored, thanks to his good 
constitution. This accident happened on 
July 3. On the 18th, -Mr. Hartness was 
pushing forward to keep an appointment 
in Delta county, Mich., and in his zeal 
he undertook a part of his trip on what 
is called a " railroad bicycle," which 
jumped the track, and he sustained a com- 
pound fracture of the thigh, and was sent 
to Chicago for hospital treatment. We 
trust that he also by the time this arti- 
cle is published will have recovered from his 
injuries. By these accidents two most use- 
ful men were laid aside in the best working 
period of the year, but this is a risk all 
must take, and it will rejoice many hearts 
to know that they are both spared for further 
service in the cause which they love so well. 


Rev. M. E. Chapin, our untiring Sabbath- 
school missionary in Aberdeen Presbytery, 
South Dakota, sends a sketch of his doings 

on Children's Day. Breakfasting at his 
home in Aberdeen, he started with a young 
man in a livery rig to the Gem schoolhouse. 
Their way lay through level fields of wheat 
ten miles. On arriving, at nine o'clock, they 
ran up a large U. S. flag on the chimney of 
the schoolhouse, and soon the people began 
to flock in, a service was held and a Sab- 
bath-school organized. The superinten- 
dent-elect lives nine miles from the school, 
but has accepted office. At 11.15 a.m. 
Mr. Chapin led a class of fifteen nearer 
Aberdeen, and afterwards took dinner. In 
the afternoon, accompanied by another 
friend, he visited a school five miles north of 
Aberdeen, and in the evening after a long 
drive he visited another school established 
two years ago. At each place he distrib- 
uted the literature of the Board. Over 
sixty persons were brought under instruc- 
tion. Forty miles were traversed and the 
day was felt to have been profitable. 

Rev. J. G. Harris, one of our Sabbath- 
school missionaries in Southern Virginia, 
has been successful in organizing five Sab- 
bath-schools in Petersburg, Va. He expects 
to secure good teachers for these schools 
from the State school after the return of the 
students from their vacation. He sees much 
work still ahead. Petersburg is a Baptist 
stronghold. Including the above, Mr. 
Harris has organized ten schools in the 
present year. 

Brother Mann, writing from Idaho, con- 
cerning the reorganization of a Sabbath- 
school at Cedar Creek, says: " My preach- 
ing every two mouths is the only religious 
service they ever have, except their Sabbath- 
school. They are very poor, have nothing 
to sell except a few eggs and a little butter. 
Their homes are a one-room loghouse with 
a shed addition for a kitchen. Yet they 
find room to entertain the preacher and 
Sabbath-school missionary. ' ' 

Many a Sabbath -school missionary can 
give like testimony to this of Sabbath-school 
missionary Mann in Idaho: " People come 
from all directions even in mud and dark- 
ness to hear preaching. They very much 
enjoy the sight of a minister of the gospel." 

Many of our Sabbath-schools in the fron- 
tier States are open only during the summer, 




and with the return of spring the zealous 
Sabbath- school missionary counts them all 
over by name and hopes that they will blos- 
som again into life. Not a few, however, 
remain closed till he visits them. 

Presbyterial missionary Mr. J. M. May 
says of a Sabbath -school which he organized 
in 1893, at Summerville, Kans. : "This 
school has been a fruitful vine. At its 
organization there were only two professing 
Christians in the community. Our last meet- 
ing brought the number to forty-nine, all 
attendants of the school, and leaving very 
few unconverted adults in the neighborhood. 

The Synod of Indian Territory, in the 
report of its Sabbath -school Committee, lays 
stress upon the distribution of the Lesson 
Helps and literature provided by the Board. 
The Committee say : " The Missionary De- 
partment of the Board has been very gen- 
erous in its donations of literature and 
books to our needy Sabbath-schools, and we 
desire to put on record our hearty apprecia- 
tion of the sympathy of the superintendent, 
Rev. -lames A. Worden, D.D., who has 
never failed to meet our requests for assist- 
ance. We also call attention to the fact 
that our church publications are of sufficient 
variety to meet the requirements of all 
attending our schools, and we insist that the 
principle of loyalty to our ecclesiastical or- 
ganization has a paramount claim upon us in 
all the branches and methods of our work." 

The report of the Rev. R. H. Pollock, 
Sabbath -school missionary in Nebraska City 
Presbytery, shows during the past year a 
total of fourteen schools organized, with a 
total of fifty -four teachers and 471 scholars, 
six of these schools being continuous all the 
rear, besides several schools reorganized, 
bringing the total up to eighty-five teachers 
and 721 scholars. He assisted during the 
year at twelve Sabbath-school conventions, 
held revival meetings at several points, 
resulting in forty-seven conversions, made 
1666 household visits, distributed 207 Bibles 
and Testaments and 31,278 pages of litera- 
ture, and delivered 373 public addresses. 

presbytery is missionary ground, and much 
of it is comprised in what is known as 
Indian reservations. Most of these reserva- 
tions have government schools for the secular 
education of the Indian children, and we 
have also on some of these reservations 
boarding and training mission schools for 
the moral and religious, as well as intellec- 
tual training of the children and youth. 
These we specially commend as worthy of 
approval and support. Few, if any, of the 
Sabbath -schools have libraries. Your com- 
mittee report with eminent satisfaction the 
timely Christian labors of our Presbyterian 
Sabbath -school missionaries. 

The Sabbath-school Committee of the 
Dakota Presbytery make the following 
interesting statement as to the work : " The 
field covered by our Sabbath-schools in this 


Under the wise aud energetic manage- 
ment of our synodical missionary, the Rev. 
E. M. Ellis, the Home Class plan of Sab- 
bath-school work is making steady progress 
in Montana. Mr. Ellis writes: " There are 
many small places and scattered settlers 
where a Sabbath-school could not be main- 
tained and where the Home Department finds 
abundant welcome all along the line. It 
serves the isolated families with the gospel as 
they have not been served for years. It is 
also a starter for regular Sabbath-schools. 
As soon as a settlement has increased suffi- 
ciently, or as soon as some one arrives who 
can superintend, the sentiment is ripe for a 
school organization. Again, it often hap- 
pens that a school dies because the superin- 
tend moves away. The Home Department 
then comes to the rescue and Bible study is 
kept up until such time as the regular school 
can be resuscitated." 

In another letter Mr. Ellis says that iu 
many places he connects the Home Class with 
himself as leader. The members promise to 
study the Bible for half an hour at least 
each week ; he gives them their certificates 
of membership and Lesson Helps, and they 
report to him and send him their contribu- 
tions every quarter. Many of the families 
live from ten to a hundred miles from any 
church or school, and many are very poor. 

Mr. James M. May, one of our Sabbath- 
school missionaries in Kansas, reports that 
sixteen of the mission schools organized in 
that state have, within a few years, contrib- 
uted over a hundred members to the Presby- 
terian churches. 



The nature of the work the Board of 
Relief renders, as well as the character of 
its needs, remains much the same year after 
year. The field of operation is widening, 
from time to time, and the list of those 
aided from its treasury grows in length with 
every advancing year, but practically the 
work and its necessities do not materially 
change character. 

As there are few, if any, new elements 
introduced into the work of the Board, we 
have the same field to cultivate and the 
same classes of needs to supply. 

In bringing the cause of the Board again 
to the readers of the Church, we have, 
therefore, practically nothing new or start- 
ing to relate. It is the old familiar story 
of (rod's aged ministers and their dependent 
families, with broken health and feeble 
bodies, standing patiently by the highway of 
the Church's progress, and waiting for the 
fulfillment of the Master's command to his 
Church, " forsake not the Levite as long as 
thou livest upon the earth." 

We have no theories to present, nor any 
desire to muster arguments to defend the 
cause of the disabled minister of God. 
The cause does not need argument; it only 
needs the attention of the Church. We 
desire, therefore, simply to fix attention on 
the work and its present needs. 

The condition of the work at the opening 
of the new fiscal year, on April 1, 1896, 
was that of a Board reporting a debt, and 
facing the prospect of an increasing list of 
beneficiaries, with no definite ground of 
expectation that its receipts w : ould be larger 
than those of the year just closed. 

^uch a prospect is uot hopeful for en- 
larged operations, and yet it is not hopeless. 
The 3714 churches which failed to con- 
tribute to this cause last year, present, in 
addition to the usual opportunities to push 
the cause, a fruitful field of operation for 
this year's work. This is a feature of 
encouragement for the Board. The soil is 
not exhausted ; there is still much laud to 
be possessed. A larger acreage must be 
cultivated. Diligent efforts must be put 

forth to bring these unproductive fields into 

How potential the " might have been " 
seems, when we reflect that if, in addition to 
our other receipts, these non-contributing 
churches had given on an average $3 a 
piece, the year would have closed with a 
balance instead of a debt! 

But the past is irrevocable. It ie the 
current year, with its possibilities and perils, 
with which we have to do. It is natural for 
one to suggest that effort be put forth to 
bring these 3714 churches into line this 
year as contributors to the cause. While 
we are doing the best we cau to reach this 
result, we must bear in mind that it is not 
the same list of churches which fail to give 
each year. For some reason or other, one 
church fails to fall into line this year, winch 
was one of the giving churches last year; 
and another, which failed last year, is found 
on the roll of honor this year. The only 
way to accomplish the happy result is to 
bend every energy in stirring up all the 
churches alike to give to the cause. 

If each Presbyterial Committee on Relief 
will assume the responsibility of laboring 
to bring every church in their own presbytery 
into the goodly company of contributing 
churches, the greater part of the difficulty 
will be removed. With the earnest hope of 
accomplishing this, we have sent a brief, 
pointed circular to every Presbyterial Chair- 
man on Relief, throughout the entire 
Church, urging him to energetically set 
about procuring this result in his own pres- 
bytery, through such means as will best 
commend themselves to his own judgment. 

We firmly believe that if the measure of 
beneficence which marked the churches' 
contributions to Relief last year can be 
maintained, and in addition to this, a 
contribution, however small, secured from 
every church which usually or occasionally 
fails to give, there will be no deficit in the 
operations of the current year. And we 
say to every reader of the Church we sin- 
cerely hope that your congregation will be 
asked for a contribution for the cause of 
the disabled minister and his dependent 
family, sometime during the year, which 




closes April 1, 1897. And we most sin- 
cerely trust there will be sflcb a response to 
this request (if it has not already been 
made) as shall cause our treasury to over- 
flow with the benefactions of Clod's people. 

The Board needs for its growing work 
the $200,000 wliich the last two General 
Assemblies urged the churches and indi- 
vidual givers to provide, and yet it only 
gets from these sources as au annual sum 
about hall of this amount. 

We cftnnot bring ourselves to believe that 
there is any appreciable unwillingness upon 
the part of the people of God to adequately 
support this worthy and Christlike cause. 
When its tender and sacred claims are pre- 
sented, both the head and the heart of the 
Christian move the hand to give. 

Dr. Cattell,who has been the beloved and 
honored Secretary of this Board for nearly 
twelve years, aud who, much to our sorrow 
and loss, has been compelled, by broken 
health, to lay down the work, has been 
accustomed to emphasize the statement that 
it is a cause wliich " lies deservedly near 
the heart of the Church;" and he has been 

right in such an assertion. Experience and 
observation fully confirm it. There is not a 
single church in our communion that will 
refuse to contribute something towards this 
cause, when the matter is explained and 
urged. In many instances it is of necessity 
a small gift, by reason of actual inability 
to make it large; but a small gift is some- 
times more generous and fragrant than 
many a large one, because; it is perfumed 
with the merit of personal sacrifice and 
cheerful giving. 

We earnestly and hopefully bespeak the 
generous and willing support of the churches 
and individual givers, for the tender and 
righteous cause of the disabled minister of 
Christ and his helpless family; and cannot 
we with confidence hope, that every 'pastor, 
either upon the day the collection is taken, or 
upon the Sabbath preceding, will, in a few 
earnest words, heartily commend the cause for 
which weptead, and urge his people to make 
a generous offering for its support f 

W. W. Heberton, Treasurer, 
For the Executive Committee of the Board. 



The efforts of the Board to inspire our 
young churches with confidence iu its 
ability and readiness to aid where aid is 
necessary have been crowned with very 
gratifying success, and it is the desire of the 
Board that all of our churches newly organ- 
ized upon the home missionary field shall 
feel assured that when they have done their 
utmost to provide church homes, such 
assistance will be given them as shall guar- 
antee the completion of the work. 

But it must be confessed that in uot in- 
frequent instances the desired confidence is 
carried to an extent that places the Board 
in an embarrassing condition. 

A letter just received in connection with 
an application for aid will illustrate the 
point that is here made. The pastor of the 
church writes: 

" I trust the Board will consider it favor- 
ably and grant us the full amount asked for. 
It will be absolutely essential to hold the 
field. In the full confidence that the Board 
would do so, we have gone to work to 

build." Again he says: "We have con- 
cluded to proceed to build in the firm confi- 
dence that the Board will not leave us in 
the lurch." He concludes with the words: 
" You can readily see, dear brother, how 
anxiously we await the decision of the 
Board, and what a terrible position we 
would be in if we did not secure every dol- 
lar asked for." 

This is what we term " embarrassing 
confidence," that is, embarrassing to the 
Board. Notwithstanding the plain state- 
ment in the instructions sent to the church 
of the limitations that the General Assembly 
has put upon the proportion of the grant to 
the total value of the property, the applica- 
tion calls for half as much again as the rule 
permits. Yet the church has gone forward 
and contracted for the building and assumed 
obligations in "full confidence" that the 
Board will grant " every dollar " that is 
asked. The Board therefore must face the 
alternative of either violating the explicit 
rule of the Assembly, or disappointing the 
church and putting it in a " terrible position. ' ' 




If the dear brother whose church makes 
this application had only appreciated the 
fact that the Board is the servant of the 
Church, and is under the most solemn obli- 
gations to administer its trust in exact 
accordance with the rules given it, he would 
have saved both the Board and the church 
very serious embarrassment. Cases like the 
above are occurring very frequently and 
cause the officers of the Board great anxiety 
and at times even distress. 

This very day a self-sacrificing and de- 
voted pastor writes to the secretary of the 
Board that unless a grant can be made to 
his church in contravention of the distinct 
requirements of the Assembly, he will be 
ground between the " upper and the nether 

Another good brother, whose church had 
borrowed from the Manse Fund, in a mo- 
ment of enthusiasm promised the church 
that he would be personally responsible for 
the balance of the loan unpaid, and would 
immediately see that the mortgage was lifted 
from the property. He is now in great 
distress because his church holds him to a 
promise which is entirely beyond his power 
to fulfill unless the Board, moved by 
fraternal sympathy, again violates the ex- 
plicit provisions of the General Assembly. 

Such serious embarrassments would be 
avoided if pastors and churches would bear 
in mind that they cannot wisely make 
promises in behalf of the Board until they 
have the Board's authorization behind them; 
neither should they allow their confidence 
in the sympathy and ability of the Board 
to induce them to make contracts until they 
have an assurance that what they expect to 
ask of the Board it is within the power of 
the Board to grant. 



Your check, as per receipt, duly and thankfully 
received. The money has been paid out and we 
are entirely free from debt. Two years ago we 
could not have hoped for such a blessing as we 
have received in the form of church accommodations. 
We are making arrangements to dedicate our 
building — probable date, July 12 inst. 

Now, by the blessing of God, we hope to do 
much for the Master. The church is united and 
active to a marked degree ; your grant doing much 
to bind the heterogeneous mass into one loving 
Presbyterian body. May the blessing of God rest 
upon the Board of Church Erection. 


Your advice of the 4th inst. containing check is 
at hand. This is a magnificent gift of the Erection 
Board to the Waverly Church. We all rejoice in 
it, and wish we could meet the members of the 
board of trustees and thank them for the church. 
Our building is about completed. We plan to 
dedicate December 1. It is very satisfactory in 
every respect. The architecture is in advance of 
other buildings of its size in this country district. 
It is substantial, warm and attractive. 

Our people here are progressive, and I feel that 
they will make good use of the gift from your 
Board. We are gaining in numbers right along. 


A Connecticut pastor informs the Reli- 
gious Herald that by himself presenting the 
claims of the Congregational societies for 
missions and outside work in specially pre- 
pared sermons, he has invariably increased 
the collections for this work in different 
parishes from five to tenfold. Universally 
adopted, such ja. spirit would soon fill the 
empty treasuries to the Master's honor, and 
the purse-strings once loosened, become a 
source of strength to those in charge of the 
benevolent work of the churches. I know 
a case of a young man who advised a church 
to schedule the seven societies. He was 
gentle, diffident in manner, and his people, 
under local pressure, accepted two objects 
to collect for six months apart. He accepted 
the decision without even expressing regret. 
About two weeks later he stated the action to 
the congregation, nearly four months before 
the first collection was to be taken. Even 
then he did not murmur at the action of the 
church. He simply stated that as inability 
to give did not of itself mean a lack of 
interest in the work of the churches, and as 
the young people who waited on his ministry 
needed to become acquainted with the efforts 
the churches as a whole were putting 
forth, he should, for instruction, bring the 
work of the seven societies in turn to the 
people each year, and told them the further 
fact that as he contributed to each, any one 
who wished to send something to any of 
them could do so, as he would present the 
objects about the time he was to send his 
own small gift. Then he preached his ser- 
mon, giving the story of the history, pur- 
pose, work and needs of one of the societies. 
He never asked the church to do it, but 
inside of two weeks the church scheduled 
the seven. — Church Building Quarterly. 



In Mankato Presbytery, Adrian and one 
station will soon be provided for by a stu- 
dent. Swan Lake and Cottonwood are now 
hearing a man whom they expect to call as 

Rev. Charles H. Cook, in charge of the 
Indian Church at Sacaton, Ariz., has just 
received fourteen new members and baptized 
thirty infants. The temperature was 104°, 
yet the church was crowded. 

A committee was appointed at the last 
meeting of the St. Paul Presbytery to 
organize, if the way be open, a Swede 
church at Etter, near Red Wing, Minn. 
They have also arranged to build at this 

From Minnesota come tidings of good 
things. The field at Brainerd that we have 
generously helped in the past is gaining 
ground rapidly. Last year they had about 
eighty additions to their church and this 
year twenty-two. 

The Mormon Church was never so active 
both at home and abroad as it is now. It is 
said on good authority that they have 2300 
missionaries (one missionary to every hun- 
dred members) in the field, who are preach- 
ing Mormonism and making house-to-house 
visitations, explaining their doctrines and 
wresting the Scriptures to prove them. 

Wilford Woodruff, first president of the 
Mormon Church, speaking of the recent 
cyclones, said: " The prophet Joseph fore- 
saw these things, and so commanded the 
elect to gather here that they might be 
saved from such calamities." 

He said many children of the " Latter- 
Day Saints ' ' were turning from the true 
religion and exhorted the parents to disci- 
pline and instruct their children. 

We have had a full school and a good 
year at Marshall, N. C, "the only trouble," 

says the teacher, " being the prejudice 
against ' them thar Presbyterian books,' by 
a few. This is wearing away, and I am 
hopeful that we can use them without oppo- 
sition in the future. One man says the 
people are ' mighty touchous about you-uns' 
books, but the fact is that five-fifths of 'em 
[/. in favor of 'em, and ets only the rest 
thet's a-kickin'. ' " 

An unfortunate error crept into the report 
of Secretary McMillan's Assembly speech 
which was published in the August number 
of The Church at Home and Abroad. 
It had relation to the expense of adminis- 
tration of the Board of Home Missions. 
The percentage was given as seven. It 
should have been five. On p. 54 of the 
annual report it appears that the amount 
spent on the mission fields was $777,063.06. 
On p. 55 the expenses of administration are 
given as $40,300.56. 

The Rev. Dr. E. D. Walker, synodical 
missionary for Missouri, says: " I have 
made up my mind that our synod should 
have one dollar per member as the least to 
aim at as her gift to the Board of Home 
Missions this year through the churches and 
I expect to so talk it. This would be near- 
ly $20,000 from the Missouri churches. 
This would be a good advance. I have 
your letter stating the Board's purpose to 
try to conform to the Assembly's regulation. 
I do not see that you can do other than that 
you set out in your circular letter. ' ' 

One of the effects of severe retrenchment 
is to discourage and drive valuable men 
from the field and to replace them with 
strangers. The Rev. R. J. Cresswell, of 
North Dakota, writing of the evils which 
sometimes follow, says: " The Great North- 
ern Railway replaced its trained men by 
new green hands. As a result disastrous 
accidents, delayed trains, damaged prop- 
erty, etc., etc. ; and old men welcomed back. 
The same principle holds good in Church 





work. It is poor economy to replace expe- 
rienced and successful men with new and 
untried men to save a few dollars per man." 

Polygamy has come to the front again 
since Utah has become a State. One of the 
prominent citizens was at the Opera House 
recently with his three wives. Many that 
were not known as polygamists have brought 
their families from Idaho, where they have 
been living, waiting for Statehood. The 
president of one of their State institutions 
has three wives, it is said. Certain it is, 
that Utah is not yet Christianized, not even 
Americanized. People who believed that 
the Mormon Church meant what it said 
when it professed to relinquish the practice 
of polygamy were deceived. Constitutional 
provisions against an evil mean little without 
appropriate legislation and effective means 
of enforcing the same. The fact that the 
women have the ballot makes the situation 
more serious. 

Mrs. Sophronia Luce Kendall, the 
widow of Rev. Dr. Henry Kendall, our 
secretary of honored memory, died at her 
beautiful home in East Bloomfield, New 
York, July 25, 1896, at the age of seventy- 
four years. It has fallen to the lot of few 
women to render the Church such valuable 
service as Mrs. Kendall has done. Through- 
out Dr. Kendall's long and useful life she 
was his inseparable companion and helper. 
Her finely trained intellect, quick percep- 
tion and intuitive judgment contributed not 
a little to his brilliant achievements. It 
might safely be said that he planned no great 
movement, settled no grave question, counted 
no task completed without her counsel and 
approval. She early recognized the ele- 
ments of his power and helped him wisely 
to direct them ; she knew his defects and 
supplemented them ; she anticipated his 
wants and ministered to them. The Church 
militant will never know how much she en- 
tered into his labors and wrought in his 
splendid accomplishments as a pastor and a 
secretary. Through his final illness she 
watched till he fell asleep, and through the 
succeeding four years, from her embowered 
window, she kept her lonely vigil over his 
tomb until the hour of their reunion came, 
and now she sleeps by his side with all their 
five children. 

It is a privilege to have known Mrs. 

Kendall. Though she was often depressed 
because of physical infirmities, she had the 
power to elevate the spirits and quicken the 
thoughts of others. Her brilliant wit and 
rare intelligence shone conspicuously in her 
conversation and gave her, by common con- 
sent, a high place in any circle into which 
she might enter and in the esteem of all 
who knew her. 

Concert of Prayer 
For Church Work at Home. 

JANUARY The New West. 

FEBRUARY The Indians. 

MARCH The Older States. 

APRIL The Cities. 

MAY The Mormons. 

JUNE Our Missionaries. 

JULY Results of the Year. 

AUGUST The Foreigners. 

SEPTEMBER The Outlook. 

OCTOBER The Treasury. 

NOVEMBER Romanists and Mexicans. 

DECEMBER The South. 


A recent correspondence between the 
Board and Chairmen of the Standing 
Committees on Home Missions in the 
various presbyteries gives a most encourag- 
ing outlook for the coming year ; encourag- 
ing because of the excellent spirit of cooper- 
ation in the difficult task of retrenchment 
manifested in every case, and the sympathy 
with the Board and confidence in its man- 
agement. Every correspondent regarded 
the cut as a grievous misfortune, entailing 
hardship and privation. Some call it a 
calamity; but all without exception com- 
mend the Board's method of retrenchment 
as set forth in the circular letter as the 
wisest possible method : 



June 15, 189G. 

Dear Brother : — The Board is compelled, 
much against the wish of every member thereof, 
to reduce appropriations below the amounts grant- 
ed last year. It is hoped that a reduction of ten 
per cent, will enable the Board to keep its expen- 
ditures within its receipts during the current year. 
In making such a reduction it is the earnest desire 
of the Board and its members to adjust the reduc- 
tion so as to accomplish the best possible results 
and to make the burden as light and as equable as 




possible. We shall need your assistance in order 
to accomplish this. It is no reflection upon your 
former recommendation to ask your help in reduc- 
ing the amounts applied for this year. We are 
fully persuaded that you have been conscientious 
and wise in the past ; but a necessity is laid upon 
us. We must reduce expenditures. The Church 
has spoken through the General Assembly on this 
subject and her mandate must be respected and 
obeyed. Can it not be done in this way? 

1. Take the aggregate of the amounts granted 
to the churches and missions in your presbytery 

last year, which was $ , reduce it ten per cent., 

then take a list of your dependent churches and 
mission stations and group them and apportion the 
amount among them by estimate so as to bring them 
all within the sum. Let each application be made 
accordingly. With such a plan we trust that you and 
we will be able to accomplish this difficult task. 

In this arrangement no restriction is placed 
against new work. We desire you to arrange for 
the support of the best work within your bounds, 
whether old or new, to group in the interests of 
economy, to push churches up toward self-support 
as far as possible, to suspend everything that will 
bear suspending until the debt shall be paid, but so 
as to shield the missionaries from suffering. Let 
the burden fall upon the churches rather than 
upon the missionaries. Let the churches be 
thoroughly canvassed before applications are made, 
for which we provide blanks such as the enclosed. 

2. Hold a home mission conference in your 
presbytery this fall ; get the best speakers ; 
gather as many delegates, male and female, from 
the churches as possible ; stir the people by a gen- 
eral diffusion of home mission information ; then 
let the cause be presented from every pulpit, in 
every Sabbath-school and Christian Endeavor So- 
ciety in the land ; give to everybody, old and 
young, poor and rich, an opportunity to con- 
tribute to the cause, and with God's blessing we 
shall relieve the present stress, resume aggressive 
work, distribute the burden so that none shall feel 
it grievously, and enter upon a new era of prosperity. 

Here is a sample circular letter from a 
wise chairman of a Presbyterial Committee 
to the churches receiving aid: 

Hastings, Neb., July 1, 1896. 
To the Presbyterian Church at Superior : 

Dear Brethren : — The action taken by the last 
General Assembly and advice received from the 
Board of Home Missions render it necessary to 
call your attention to the following facts : 

1. It will be absolutely necessary for the Board 
to reduce appropriations ten per cent, this year. 

2. We find great inequalities in the grants to the 
different churches owing to the fact that when the 
treasury was very low the Board allowed less than 
we had recommended, and when it was fuller, the 
whole amount. The committee have revised the 
entire list in the interest of justice and equality, 
taking as a basis of computation a maximum salary 
of $800 for those churches paying nearly all the 
salary and a maximum salary of $750 for those pay- 
ing a smaller portion. The basis for your church 
is $750, and the maximum amount for which the 
committee will endorse your application is §250. 

Accompanying your application, however, must 
be evidence that the church has done the very best 
that it could, before you will receive the maximum 

3. No application will be endorsed until two 
copies of the subscription list, one for the Board 
and one for the committee (of the church making 
application) have been received. Blanks will be 
sent in due time. On these blanks must be given : 
first, the names of all members contributing and 
the several amounts given by each ; second, the 
names of all members who have not contributed 
and the reason why ; third, the names of persons, 
not members, who have contributed and the Several 
amounts given by each. 

In case your church is allowed less this year 
than last, you are expected to make up the differ- 
ence, so that the minister is properly paid. The 
committee have set the maximum salary no higher 
than they think necessary to get capable men and 
hold them. They leave the matter of salary, how- 
ever, with the congregations and throw upon them 
the responsibility in case they lose their pastors be- 
cause of insufficient salaries. The committee urge 
a most thorough financial canvass of each field, 
and if the officers of any church think the congre- 
gation is not doing what it could, the committee 
will gladly send some one to assist in awakening a 
due interest. 

The year promises an abundant harvest, and 
while we are paying our debts and supplying our 
necessities, we must not forget our debt to the Lord 
and the necessities of his work. Let us give the 
Lord his full portion, and, above all, his share out 
of the first income. 

Fraternally yours, Harry Omar Scott, 


Accompanying this circular letter is a 
schedule, of the aid-receiving churches, the 
full salary of each minister, amount raised 
by church last year, amount received from 
the Board last year, and the maximum 
amount the committee will ask this year. 




Extracts from Answers. 

These extracts from answers from a 
number of presbyterial chairmen are nec- 
essarily very brief. It is unfortunate that 
the limits of space will not allow the publi- 
cation of the full letter in every case: 

Rev. Edward H. Bobbins, Baltimore, Md.: — 
I approve emphatically the Board's determination 
to require a reduction in future recommendations, 
until its income is increased. I am willing to 
make an effort to have our synodical committee 
(of which I am a member, as Chairman of the 
H. M. Committee of the Presbytery of Baltimore) 
reduce its claims upon the Board ten per cent, after 
October 1. At that time our Synodical Sustenta- 
tion year begins, and we may be able to relieve the 
Board to some extent. It will involve heroic treat- 
ment, but the critical condition of the Board seems 
to demand it. 

As to the home mission conferences, the plan is 
good. I will endeavor to arrange one in our pres- 
bytery, and will communicate the suggestions to 
the home mission chairmen of the other presby- 
teries of our synod. 

Rev. H. Keigwin, Miami, Fla.: — In regard to 
the reduction of ten per cent, in the appropriations 
to missionaries, let me assure you, dear brother, 
that I shall do all in my power to aid the Board in 
getting free from this terrible burden of debt. I do 
not see any better way than the plan you have 
adopted, and I am sure our two presbyteries in 
Florida will be found heartily cooperating with you 
in this method proposed. You will, perhaps, re- 
member that it was the settled policy of the Pres- 
bytery of South Florida before the freeze and the 
consequent poverty of our people to reduce our own 
applications ten per cent, a year, and we were 
making rapid strides in some of our churches to- 
ward self-support. It will fall very hard now upon 
our ministers and churches, in our present financial 
depression, but I believe that systematic work in 
the churches in raising funds will readily bring 
about the result you are seeking. 

Rev. J. W. Ai/len, D.D., St. Louis, Mo.: — I 
have your favor of June 29, for which you will 
accept thanks, as it will help out our committee in 
its work in reference to applications. 

I think you and we are working toward the same 
end. When we know just about the limit of what 
may be appropriated for the St. Louis Presbytery 
during the year we may be able to cut our garment 
according to the cloth. I know that the feeling of 
our committee is that St. Louis ought not to be 

given below the amount received last year. The 
special reason for this is the large sum of money 
our churches have been compelled to raise towards 
the relief of the cyclone sufferers. We will have 
to expend at least two thousand dollars of our con- 
tributions specially raised for the purpose, to help 
Lafayette Park Presbyterian Church. We will 
also have to contribute something towards the 
McCauseland Avenue Presbyterian Church. The 
citizens of the city have given nearly two hundred 
and fifty thousand dollars towards the relief in ad- 
dition to these smaller sums for our family affairs. 
Would it not be possible for the Board to make an 
exception in our case under the circumstances, and 
allow us to stand about where we were last year ? 
As you will note by my letter of yesterday, we are 
already taking steps towards retrenchment by the 
consolidation of two of our mission churches. You 
will find in me a faithful advocate of economy and 
retrenchment if necessary. I am at your service 
when I can aid you. 

Rev. Samuel L. McAfee, Parkville, Mo.: — As 
a committee and as a presbytery, I think we fully 
appreciate the gravity of the situation in regard to 
our home mission work, and the embarrassment of 
the Board under its burden of debt. It has been 
our aim and effort to lighten our demands upon the 
Board and to press our churches on towards self- 
support. That we have made some progress in 
that direction, a review of the records for the past 
five years will give evidence. We have reduced 
our applications to the Board nearly one-half, and 
at the same time have increased our contributions 
to the treasury, though not as much as we have 
wished and aimed. 

Dr. McMillan asks us to scale our work so as to 
reduce our calls upon the Board ten per cent, upon 
the receipts of last year. We shall arrange to 
carry our work upon that basis. There must, 
therefore, be no more cutting of our applications. 
We shall urge pur churches up as nearly as possible 
to the full measure of their ability, and shall cut our 
ministers' salaries as nearly to the limit of a living 
as we can. In addition we shall do what we can to 
increase the contributions to the Board as largely 
as possible. 

Rev. J. G. Reasee, D.D., Webb Oity, Mo.:— 
In reply to your circular letter I would say that 
our presbytery will not only expect to get along 
with ten per cent, less than last year, but will make 
a most strenuous effort to increase its contributions 
twenty-five per cent. Already we are organizing 
conventions to arouse interest in this matter, and 
we expect, by the Lord's help, to give a good ac- 
count of ourselves for the current year. 




J. C. Sefton, Carthage, Mo. : — After a conference 
with Dr. Eeaser and other members of the Home 
Mission Committee, it was thought best to hold a 
number of home missionary meetings, reaching, if 
possible, all the churches in the presbytery. These 
meetings will be held during the month of August, 
and we hope to stir the people up, to excite 
them to good works. On September 1, we will 
hold a missionary meeting during the day time in 
one of the parks ; at night in the First Church. 
We hope, by holding meetings in the mission 
churches of the presbytery, to stir the people 
up so that we will have a large attendance in 

Rev. D. Stalker, Calumet, Mich.: — The Home 
Mission Committee of our presbytery (Lake 
Superior) will put forth every effort to help the 
Board carry out the will of the Church as expressed 
through the General Assembly. We will arrange 
for a home mission conference during the meeting 
of presbytery so as if possible to stir up the people 
to more liberal contributions this year. 

Rev. S. Brown, Ashland, Wis.: — In a recent 
letter you referred to the need of cutting down ten 
per cent, on the amount of our appropriations. We 
certainly regret the necessity the Board is placed 
under, and as loyal Presbyterians, I trust we shall 
do all in our power to help out. 

Rev. W. O. Roston, Dubuque, la.:— Our Stand- 
ing Committee on Home Missions (Presbytery of 
Dubuque) met yesterday afternoon and reached 
what we hoped would be satisfactory results. 

We understand the proposition of the Board to 
be that the committee take nine-tenths of the ap- 
propriations of last year and use it according to its 
best judgment. We have carefully looked over the 
field and have decided that the maximum appropria- 
tions for our churches this year should be as 
follows : * * * * 

Rev. Allen Bell, D.D., Winona, Minn.: — We 
will do our best to carry on the work to the most 
advantage, carefully conserving the interests of the 

Rev. A. C. Pextitt, Fisher, Minn.: — I like 
your suggestion and will act upon it as far as pos- 
sible. But you find us in a very precarious situa- 

1. We have practiced economy so sternly in the 
past few years and have put our dependent churches 
in such large groups that we find we must make 
some changes or lose some ground upon which we 
have all spent much money and time. 

2. The counties of Polk, Marshall and Kiltson 
have not been able to sow their usual acreage on 

account of wet. We are a wheat-raising settlement, 
but the acreage of wheat will not be half that of 
last year ; and with wheat at forty cents per 
bushel, and oats twenty cents and barley ten cents, 
we must use the very strictest economy to live at 
all ; however we will do our very best to ask as 
reasonably as possible. 

Edgar W. Day, Fargo, K D.: — It is with great 
regret that we face the fact of smaller salaries for 
our home missionaries, which, to many a noble 
worker, this reduction in appropriations will mean. 
We will try very hard so to arrange our work, "re- 
adjusting, etc., as to bring the aggregate of our re- 
quests ten per cent, below the aggregate of your 
appropriation for last year, but my heart is heavy 
when I think of what this means. We do not 
propose, however, to stand around and worry, nor 
to let discouragement mar our best efforts. 

A committee, consisting of Revs. J. S. Boyd, of 
Hillsboro, and J. M. Waddle, of Lisbon, has been 
appointed to plan for a home missionary conference 
this fall. 

Rev. T. E. Douglas, Willow City, N. D..—I 
agree with you that something must be done in 
order to reduce the debt, but it should not come on 
these Western fields, that have been fighting hard 
times for five or six years. 

Rev. John P. Williamson, Greenwood, S. D.: — 
Your circular letter of June 16, 1896, stating de- 
cision to reduce ten per cent, is received. The 
Board have followed the finger of God. What can 
man reply ? The Committee on Home Missions and 
Missionaries will make their future recommendations 
on this basis, but we need a little time for consulta- 
tion. We shall carry out the other recommenda- 
tions in your letter so far as practicable among the 

B. F. Powelson, Gunnison, Colo.: — Rest assured 
we will give you all the assistance possible in keep- 
ing the Board's expenses within limit. We pre- 
sume the provisions set forth in your communica- 
tion are the rule or standard to which we are to 
work, and by which we are to be governed or in- 
fluenced. We will do all we can to comply with 
the wishes of the Board. 

Rev. Josiah McClain, Salt Lake City, Utah : — 
I see it is necessary to use all possible economy and 
cut wherever we can. I am sure our men in this 
field will be ready to fall in line with the Board's 
policy. But you know, of course, this loss will fall 
on the minister, for I know now the most of our 
churches are giving all they can give. While I 
think no complaint will be made, yet the loss will 
come upon the poor fellow who is living from hand 




to mouth. From the bottom of my heart I am 
sorry for them as I know you are. I wish our 
Church could see how wrong it is to make 
such a tiling necessary for even one year. This 
matter we will have up before presbytery and have 
presbytery direct the committee. 

Rev. J. H. Raynard, Tacoma, Wash.: — Your 
instructions, presented us in a letter from Secretary 
McMillan, in regard to a reduction of ten per cent, 
were read, and I was instructed to say we are going 
to be very diligent in the accomplishment of this. 
If. you will notice closely you will see we are now 
within the limit. Neither Hoquiam, Westport, 
Ocosta nor Aberdeen, is now asking any aid 
— through presbytery. Yenino and South Union are 
also being cared for without aid. And so for six 
months Kelso and Buckley were cared for without 
aid from Board. We are now arranging to group 
Calvary, Westminster and Sprague Memorial under 
two men, and here we can save $400 or $500 more. 
I think you will find us ready to do our best these 
awful times. Our men are loyal, and we are trying 
to teach our churches to be. 

When we endorse an application we will be very 
careful that the conditions are all met, and the 
cutting will be done to the lowest notch possible. 
We want to thank you most sincerely for your con- 
fidence and liberality to us as a presbytery. The 
Lord bless you all. 

Rev. W. J- Hughes, Baker City, Oreg.:—I am 
very sorry that the amount to be given by the 
Board to this presbytery must be reduced. Some 
of the fields cannot be reduced without being 
abandoned, and there are some places where we 
should begin work by all means. But I suppose 
that it is necessary to curtail, and I will assist in all 
ways that I can to keep up the work and reduce the 

The circular letter was sent to the synodi- 
cal missionaries also. The answers, so far 
as answers have been received, bear the 
same expressions of sad regret at the neces- 
sity of retrenchment when such glorious 
opportunities for advancement are open to 
us, but all commend the plan and promise 
cooperation. There is room for but a few 
brief extracts from their letters: 

Rev. C. S. Dewing, D.D., Somerville, Mass.: — 
Your communication, regarding reduction of ap- 
propriations, just received. The majority of all ap- 
plications sent in from the Presbytery of Boston 
have been cut down from ten per cent, to twenty 
per cent., and in some cases the continuance of the 
-work is imperiled. I endorse it heartily as I do 

all your plans and suggestions and will shrink from 
no duty or responsibility that may aid in making it 

Rev. Calvin A. Duncan, D.D., Knoxville, 
Tenn. : — Thank you for sending me a copy of your 
letter prepared for the Chairmen of Home Mission 
Presbyterial Committees on the reduction of 
amounts asked for in behalf of dependent churches. 

The plan you suggest, of reducing ten per cent, 
the aggregate of the amounts granted to the 
churches and then apportioning the remainder 
among the churches is surely an excellent one. 

Also nothing but good in the shape of increased 
contributions from the churches can come from the 
presbyterial home mission conference which you 

You ask whether I will cooperate in the execu- 
tion of this scheme. Most assuredly I will. 

Rev. T. S Bailey, D.D., Iowa: — I have just 
read your letter and circular to the Home Mis- 
sionary Committee. Most assuredly I will do all 
that lies in my power to carry out the suggestions. 
Of course it will be a little hard to cut appropria- 
tions down on some of the fields, and we shall 
make special efforts to do it discreetly and leave the 
pressure where it can be most easily borne. We 
recognize the necessity that is upon the Board and 
are in fullest sympathy with the efforts being made 
to relieve the situation. I hope you good brethren 
down at headquarters will be given strength and 
patience to endure all things for the Master's sake, 
for I can easily see that the burdens must rest 
heavily upon your hearts. 

I think we can arrange a series of home mis- 
sionary conventions throughout our State for the 
fall. I have already had council with a part of the 
committees of the various presbyteries in the synod, 
and will follow it up and let you know when we get 
our plans definitely arranged. 

Rev. H. P. Carson, D.D., Scotland, S. D.:— 
Certainly I will cooperate with you and the Board 
at our next synodical meeting in the plans you sug- 
gest. Your method of making the apportionment 
of the reduction seems to me a wise one. 

As to the home mission conference in each pres- 
bytery this fall, while I am sure it would be very 
efficient in gaining the end sought, I am not so sure 
that it will be practicable in this synod to get much 
of an attendance at such conference, on account of 
the expense of travel, our people being in such 
financial straits, but I think we will do our best. 

Rev. T. M. Gunn, D.D., Latona, Wash.:— In 
reply to your circular letter of June 15, I would 
say that I, with the rest of the missionaries, will 




most cheerfully accede to the terms of your letter 
and most heartily cooperate in carrying its sugges- 
tions into effect. Its provisions respecting the con- 
duct of our work are a great relief to us as they 
enable us to make the wisest use of the means at our 
command, and especially to become aggressive in 
our new work. This is especially desirable as the 
opening of wide areas to settlement and the de- 
velopment of vast regions in mining is throwing 
upon us the necessity of being ready to keep pace 
with large new populations. 

Our missionaries are heartily willing to bear 
their share of hardship and privation if need be to 
dominate this vast influx of people in the interests 
of their divine Master and Lord. The officers of 
the Board have our heartiest sympathies in the 
struggles through which they are passing. 

At the popular meeting on home missions 
at the recent General Assembly at Saratoga 
Springs, Dr. Maclaren, of San Jose, Cal., 
made an address of rare eloquence and 
power, from which we publish the following 


Men put forth their supreme acts of heroism 
when they realize that they are working in the line 
of God's Providence, and that every blow they 
strike is a part of the conflict of the ages for re- 
deeming and glorifying the world. The noblest 
of those who first settled on our Atlantic coast 
were strengthened by prophetic monitions that 
they were carrying out a great purpose of God. 
This has been the chief inspiration of those who 
have hazarded their lives when our institutions 
were in peril. 

The battle hymn of the Republic expressed the 
instinct of the people that in the history of our 
country, " Our God is marching on !" And this is 
our inspiration in the heroic work of home 

Wherever we look at our national history we see 
the hand of God. Geographically he has given us 
the most conspicuous part of the world — between 
the two great oceans — reaching out to the two great 
continents eastward and westward. It is the moun- 
tain of the Lord's house set upon the top of the 
mountains and all nations are flowing into it. 
Geologically God arranged our territory so that his 
purposes should not be thwarted. He placed no 
gold in the Green Mountains, the Catskills, or the 
Alleghenies. The gold hunters found nothing to 
attract them and left all this region to immigrants 
whom they despised as plodding, unromantic 
peasants and traders. If the gold of the Sierras 
had been placed in the Eastern mountains the his- 

tory of the world would have been changed ; other 
races with baser ambitions would have inhabited 
this land, and we would not have been here to- 
night. God thus determined the ethnology of our 
country. He saw to it that it should be first set- 
tled by the choicest of the English race — by Scot- 
tish covenanters — men of Ulster— Hollanders of 
the most heroic period — Germans, Huguenots and 
men from every part of Europe who loved liberty, 
home and Christian faith. 

In the early part of this century our government 
purchased from France the vast region of Louisiana. 
This gave us a territory extending from New 
Orleans to the head waters of the Mississippi and 
indefinitely towards the northwest. "When the 
transfer was finally consummated our representative 
at the French court was asked by a Frenchman 
what we intended to do with our new territory, and 
he replied that we had no present use for it and 
that there would probably be no settlements west of 
the Mississippi for a hundred years. The century 
has not yet closed and we have not less than sixteen 
millions of people west of the Mississippi. Nearly 
all of the territory is organized into State govern- 
ments. Agriculture, mining and commerce are 
flourishing, and the whole great region is pulsating 
with prophecies of the future. 


I have seen a picture representing Marcus Whit- 
man standing before President Tyler and Daniel 
Webster pleading for Oregon. Whitman, Tyler 
and Webster, and the greatest of these is Whitman ! 
Marcus Whitman stands as a type of the most 
heroic spirit of our age — the Christian knight- 
errant of the nineteenth century. 

In this spirit the Presbyterian home missionaries 
have penetrated the region beyond the Mississippi, 
and in this territory which the fathers thought 
would not be inhabited for a hundred years they 
have established twenty-five hundred Presbyterian 
churches, in which are organized one hundred and 
eighty thousand church members. And the work 
is just beginning, the faith of the Church is increas- 
ing, and the future shall tell of more heroic deeds 
than the past. 


Thousands of years ago on the plains of Shinar 
the human race was divided and scattered Some 
traveled to the far East and there they remained 
for ages lost to their brethren, working out a strange 
history and becoming subject to strange delusions. 
Others moved westward. They have a stormy 
history full of wars, revolutions and reformations. 
Some of them cross the ocean to a new continent, 




and now they have crossed this continent and there 
they meet some of their long lost brethren, and 
they look westward over the ocean to the region 
where they are congregated in multitudes. Out 
from the Golden Gate bands of missionaries are 
sent to carry the gospel to China and Japan, and 
that portion of our country that we often call the 
Occident has become the Orient from which the sun 
is rising on the millions of Asia. 


The final conversion of the world is to be asso- 
ciated with great revivings in the United States. 

Loving liberty as we do, we hope for the over- 
throw of every despotism in the world and the reor- 
ganizing of all nations into free enlightened re- 
publics. In order to accomplish this it is not 
necessary for us to send emissaries among the 
nations to undermine the thrones of despots and 
preach republicanism. We can republicanize the 
world simply by being a triumphant republic. A 
free government in the United States is a perpetual 
menace to every tyrant under heaven. We shall 
send our Christian missionaries to foreign lands in 
greater numbers and support them with increasing 

The committee appointed bj r the Assem- 
bly in May, at Saratoga, to confer with the 
Boards of Home and Foreign Missions, and 
advise as to the proper course to be pursued 
with reference to the new Presbyterian 
Building, No. 156 Fifth avenue, held its 
first meeting in New York city, Tuesday, 
July 28, and continued in session through- 
out Wednesday, July 29. There were 
present the chairman, with Hon. Benjamin 
Harrison, Hon. John Wanamaker, Hon. 
James A. Beaver, of Pennsylvania ; Judge 
Thomas Ewing, of Pittsburg; Samuel B. 
Huey, Esq., of Philadelphia; Thomas Mc- 
Dougall, Cincinnati ; Dr. H. B. Silliman, 
New York; and Robert S. Williams, Esq., 
New York. Mr. Justice John M. Har- 
lan, U. S. Supreme Court, was absent on 
account of official business, and Mr. Alex- 
ander McDonald is in Europe. 

On Wednesday morning the committee 
examined the new building and also the 
properties 53 and 55 Fifth avenue, and in 
the afternoon met with the Boards of 
Home and Foreign Missions in a confer- 
ence of three hours' length. Considering 
the extreme heat prevailing, it was very 
pleasing to find such a large representation 
of the Boards, brethren having come long 

enthusiasm, but the greatest service we can render 
them to cheer them on and give them victory will 
be to preach Christ so mightily here at home that 
the United States shall become ablaze with revival 
glory, so that its light shall shine to the ends of the 
earth to reveal the way of the Lord. 


Born in New York city — where my father 
preached for many years — and laboring now almost 
in sight of the Golden Gate, I have crossed the con- 
tinent many times and have had some part in 
organizing our home mission work, and I have 
learned to be sure of this, that the most pressing 
need of our country is a greater band of Christian 
Nazarites whose whole ambition shall be to live in 
the spirit of Christ and preach his gospel with 
tongues of fire. 

When the time comes of which our Master spoke 
so often, when the first shall be last, and the last 
first, above all warriors, statesmen and capitalists, 
shall be those whose lives have been spent rebuking 
iniquity, standing for righteousness and pleasing 
Christ perfectly. 

distances to be present at the conference. 
And we are happy to report to the Church, 
acting under instructions of the Assembly, 
that the conference was full, harmonious 
and satisfactory ; and to express to the 
membership of the Church our full confi- 
dence in the integrity, fidelity, good faith 
and loyal service of all the members of the 
Boards in the administration of their trusts, 
including the erection of the new building, 
No. 156 Fifth avenue. 

And the committee earnestly hopes that 
the Church will unhesitatingly sustain the 
causes of Home and Foreign Missions, 
giving that financial support necessary for 
the prosecution of the work of the two 
Boards, and also for the liquidation of the 
debts which embarrass them at present. 

The committee has provided a sub-com- 
mittee of three to formulate a full report to 
be submitted to a meeting of the full com- 
mittee at a later date. This present state- 
ment was approved by every member above 

The way to get ready for the widest field for 
service and the loftiest opportunities to do God's 
will, is faithfully to fill the narrow sphere in which 
He at present sets us. Do the little, and God will 
provide the Great. — Alexander McLaren. 






Enoch Kingsbury was born in Langdon, 
N. H., in the year 1800. After a good 
preparation, he entered Amherst College, 
but owing to pulmonic trouble he did not 
graduate. Impelled by a desire to preach 
the gospel, he resumed study in Union 
Theological Seminary, Va., where the 
climate was more mild, and after a partial 
course there, he finished the theological cur- 
riculum at Auburn, N. Y. In 1830 he 
married Miss Frances R. Goodwin, of Sims- 
bury, Conn., a woman qualified by both 
intelligence and grace to share in the work 
to which he was devoting himself, and they 
immediately departed to what was then 
regarded as the farthest West. 

They first halted at Eugene, in the 
W abash Valley, but notwithstanding the 
excitement and the terrors of the Black 
Hawk War, the next year they crossed the 
line from Indiana into the Prairie State, and 
located themselves permanently at Danville. 
So soon as there were a sufficient number of 
people at that county seat to suggest the 
need of a room for religious meetings, he 
gave ground from his own lot for a Presby- 
terian house and vigorously helped forward 
its erection. The bell which he obtained 
for it was brought up the Wabash river and 
is still calling people to worship from the 
cupola of Kingsbury Chapel in a new part 
of the growing city. 

That mother church in Danville has now 
a membership of five hundred. The records 
testify to Mr. Kingsbury's fidelity as pastor 
until he could gain the consent of his flock 
to release him that he might look after 
other sheep widely scattered. 

For a considerable period after his settle- 
ment in Danville there was no Presbyterian 
church westward as far as Springfield and 
northward as far as Chicago, and the newly 
arriving immigrants in this large territory 
became the objects of his intense solicitude. 
It may truly be said that for years he was 
the under-shepherd of the sheep of north- 
eastern Illinois. 

His interest in the newcomers was absorb- 
ing. His own experiences had prepared 
him to sympathize with them in their priva- 
tions and trials, and to encourage them with 
an assurance of a brighter future. A man 
of great practical sagacity, it was seldom 

that he did not find the way to their hearts 
by helpful suggestions; but the main object 
of his visits was not gained until he had 
rendered them some spiritual benefit. He 
sought to become acquainted with them, to 
learn of their adventures, misfortunes, sick- 
nesses and bereavements from which none 
were long exempt in those days of discom- 
forts and exposure to dangers and to malaria. 
This knowledge was an advantage to him in 
subsequent visits when he came with not 
only counsels from a full heart, but with 
some good book or tract, or with a copy of 
the Bible for those who had not the divine 
book. Never did he leave his home on 
these exploring tours without having packed 
his saddle-bags full of the best religious 
publications; and when a wheeled convey- 
ance was practicable, it was well laden with 
the same spiritual provisions for soul-hunger 
and soul-needs. His Christian manliness 
and genial disposition made him ever wel- 
come, and if no prophet's chamber was 
built for him, there were, doubtless, thank- 
ful returns for the blessings he brought. 
Where he found immigrants of a sufficient 
number in proximity, he encouraged and 
assisted them in organizing a Sabbath-school 
with a view of a future church ; and after 
population had increased and numerous 
churches were dotting the prairies, he was 
the ever-ready helper of their ministers in 
times of special interest, and he still exer- 
cised a paternal care of them when they 
were unsupplied. Mr. Kingsbury lived to 
see the good seed which he had sown abun- 
dantly multiplied. 

As Abraham was called and qualified for 
a special and unique mission, so may we 
believe that Enoch Kingsbury was called to 
go into a far country and endowed with rare 
qualifications for an important service. He 
was self-reliant, gifted with an inventive 
genius, skillful with his hands — a man of 
resources as well as loyal to the indications 
of Providence. 

He had not been long in his Canaan until 
a wagon he needed and a wagon he made — 
and several afterwards. On a winter even- 
ing he received a letter from a minister a 
day's journey remote, requesting his help in 
a series of meetings. As snow had recently 
fallen, he went out to his wood-pile and, by 
moonlight, in a short time, constructed a 
jumper with a seat adapted to a saddle. 
The next morning he swiftly glided over the 




expanse until the sun had melted the snow, 
when, abandoning the jumper and putting 
his saddle upon the horse, he kept on his 
way, arriving at the place of meeting in 
time for the night service. 

At another time, being in a town three 
hours from home, whither he had come on 
horse-back, and finding a much-needed 
stove, he constructed a sled, bought rope for 
a harness, and took the stove home with 
him on the same day. 

His cleverness in common affairs gave 
him so much influence that rarely was an 
enterprise undertaken by his fellow-citizens 
without his approval. He was chosen pres- 
ident of the first bauk established in Dan- 
ville. His judgment guided the construction 
of school buildings and his sanction gave 
force to the movement which brought the 
first railroad to that town. Nor did he 
allow these offices to hinder him from re- 
sponding to frequent calls from abroad. So 
much was he revered that his services were 
solicited for funerals and evidently it was 
believed that a blessing came from his mar- 
riage benediction. Requests came from 
people in the border counties of Indiana, 
who knew him well, not less than from 
many on the grand prairie, and they were 
not denied. A young lawyer in Covington, 
afterwards distinguished in the Church as 
well as in his profession, was about to wed a 
worthy maiden of the same town, and in- 
vited Mr. Kingsbury to officiate. It was 
midwinter, and ice had begun to form in the 
Wabash river. The young couple were 
despondent, and the groom was compelled, 
most reluctantly, to call in a justice of the 
peace. So demure were all present that a 
stranger entering and ignorant of the occa- 
sion might have thought himself at a 
funeral. At the moment fixed, the door 
opened, and, to the joy of all, Mr. Kings- 
bury appeared, having poled himself across 
the turbulent waters on a piece of floating 
ice. So punctual was he in his engage- 

As a citizen of a young and rapidly grow- 
ing nation, Mr. Kingsbury realized his 
responsibilities and was a patriot of the 
honest type of Abraham Lincoln, between 
whom and himself there was a cordial 
friendship. His political principles were 
those of righteousness, and he had the 
courage to proclaim them as opportunities 
were afforded him. As an indication of 

high esteem and as a recognition of his 
benign influence upon the people of a con- 
siderable portion of the State, Mr. Lincoln, 
when he became President, appointed him 
to the office of postmaster. 

There was no man more zealous than Mr. 
Kingsbury in promoting the cause of educa- 
tion. He interested himself in the erection 
of school buildings and in the methods of 
instruction and discipline practiced in them, 
stimulating both teachers and scholars by 
helpful advice. Nor was his interest less in 
higher institutions of learning. At the 
commencements of Wabash College he was 
a familiar figure, and once, at least, was 
his countenance made radiant by the gradu- 
ation honors of a son — now the Prohibition 
candidate for governor of the State of In- 

Mr. Kingsbury did not allow his diver- 
sity of interests to interfere with his own 
studies, and he kept himself well informed 
as to the world's progress. Plain in dress, 
he was a man of intellectual culture. This 
was evident in his diction, which was always 
clear to the understanding of his hearers, 
and gave him power with any audience. 
His sermons were admirably planned and 
logically forcible. His refined taste and 
judgment were apparent in all the parts of 
a religious service. The writer, then a 
home missionary at Covington, Ind., with a 
charge that included a country neighbor- 
hood, invited Brother Kingsbury to assist 
him in a " big meeeting." Galleries were 
constructed on a wide barn floor, on each 
side of which horses and cattle, under the 
mows, were permitted to witness the pro- 
ceedings. On a table were a Bible and a 
hymn-book, a bowl with baptismal water 
and on plain dishes the " elements " for a 
communion service. In the first hymn se- 
lected by Brother Kingsbury were these 
lines : 

"No gorgeous windows' storied light 
Nor pictured saints appear 

But God, himself, is here." 

His text was from Acts 2 : 1 — " They were 
all with one accord, in one place " — and it 
was another pentecostal season. The word 
was preached in demonstration of the Spirit, 
and of power, Christians were revived, and 
a numbsr were baptized and received into 
the Church. 

The intellectual endowments of Mr. 




Kingsbury gave him distinction as a de- 
fender of the truth. The earlier period of 
his ministry was an age of religious con- 
troversy. There were not only denomina- 
tional jealousies, but heretical sects and new 
organizations were sending forth their 
champions to gain followers and public 
favor. Especially did these champions 
present themselves where churches were 
weak or where they were thought to be not 
ably supplied. Mr. Kingsbury was not a 
man of arrogance or pretension, and by 
those who knew him not he was likely to be 
reckoned as a foe easily to be vanquished. 
The Danville minister always granted the 
use of the church to a traveling preacher, 
claiming the privilege of adding some re- 
marks to the discourse, if he should be 
inclined so to do. Sometimes a few re- 
marks were sufficient to induce the traveler 
to pass on to other fields ; but if the assail- 
ant had enough of hope to renew his effort, 
he was sure eventually to regret his mislake. 
In a number of debates, never did the de- 
fender of the true faith come off second 
best. In every instance he won honor for 
his abilities and the confidence of the people 
in the orthodoxy of his denomination. 

A glimpse of Mr. Kingsbury's philan- 



Rev. JohnW. Millar, Havre: — I have to be 
superintendent and generally address the school, 
sometimes teaching as well, but if I take four ser- 
vices a Sabbath, and act as janitor as well, I cannot 
do justice to any. I tell the synodical missionary 
he must try to get men who are ' ' a compound of 
an angel and an ox." The qualities of each are in 
the greatest demand, and I can claim few of either ; 
so the work suffers. 


Rev. H. F. Olmstead, Galveston : — I thought 
it wise to organize at Pasadena with seventeen 
members, fifteen by letters and two by profession. 
If some arrangement can be made soon to give a 
preaching service on Sabbath to Deepwater we 
could organize there. I am the only man on the 
ground at Pasadena and Deepwater. I preach for 
them on week-nights. They have never had regu- 
lar Sabbath services. There are other openings for 
work as soon as the Board can take it up. Here 
is what ought to be done — to hold our own down 
here and gain ground. This will meet with Dr. 
Little's hearty approval, who is personally ac- 
quainted with the field. 

First. A man should be stationed at La Porte to 
give his entire time to that town and such work as 

thropy is afforded in the following extract 
from a letter received from Rev. Amos 
Jones : 

"In 1856 he invited me to aid him in a 
protracted meeting. When I reached Dan- 
ville I found him gone to New York city 
for a carload of poor children, and for many 
days after he returned his hands were full 
with the responsibility of finding liomes for 
the orphans, but the meetings went on 
successfully. ' ' 

In person Mr. Kingsbury was of medium 
height, stoutly built and of dark com- 
plexion, with dark eyes in which there was 
oft a merry twinkle. He indulged in pleas- 
ant humor, and was rarely if ever angered 
or disconcerted, which was of great advantage 
to him in argumentation. He was so- 
cially agreeable, but moderate in his demon- 
strations. Toward those with whom he dif- 
fered in opinion he was gentle and courteous, 
and by such, no less than by those who agreed 
with him, he was regarded with esteem and 

" Father" Kingsbury, the heroic pioneer, 
the zealous patriot, the Christian citizen 
and the faithful evangelist rested from his 
labors October 26, 1868. 

" The memory of the just is blessed." 

he could do close around. The most of his support 
at first would have to come from the Board, but I 
believe it would grow rapidly. 

Second. Group Lampasas with some other church 
or churches. I think Dr. Little can find some way 
to arrange for them. 

Third. Let one give his entire time to a field 
-composed as follows : (1) Webster and a commu- 
nity two and a half miles west ; ( 2 ) Pasadena and 
Deepwater; ( 3 ) Texas City ; (4) Clear Creek and 
a community two miles west. 

That would leave the fifth Sunday, when there 
is one, for skirmishing. A deep channel is being 
dredged from the jetties across the bay to Texas 
City. Two large cotton firms are putting up large 
storehouses and other facilities for handling cotton. 
It is growing steadily. A number of Presbyterians 
and Congregationalists are there. A Methodist 
minister gives them an afternoon service once a 
month. We have enough at Clear Creek to or- 
ganize, which, with the community west of it, would 
give a man a good day's work. 

This group could not do much the first year for 
the support of the missionary, but I am confident it 
would grow steadily. I do not believe there is a ter- 
ritory covered by the Board more promising of good 
results for the amount required to carry it on 
than this field indicated above. I know how 
cramped you are for funds, but allow me most re- 
spectfully and earnestly to urge the wisdom of mak- 
ing this one of your first cases of new work. The 
sooner this is done the better. 





Miss Fannie Willard, Haines Mission : — As I 
look back over the past quarter many an encour- 
aging picture rises before me. That there are dis- 
couraging pictures I do not for a moment deny. 
But these shadows only serve as a background to 
throw into greater relief the bright spots in our 
work. My interest is evenly divided between 
school and village work. Mr. Warne can keep 
busy two such workers as I am. Of course the 
"fire" interrupted the school, but not seriously at 
all. After the tables were made for the dining- 
room and we had tacked up our little patch of 
blackboard, the children settled down as happily 
and contentedly as though nothing in the world 
had occurred to disturb our school equilibrium. 
Almost all the lessons I taught orally, until some 
books were sent from Juneau. I never thought I 
could get along so nicely with so few books. It 
just shows what we can do if we "have to," and 
now our patience is rewarded. Good Dr. Jackson 
has promised us regular school-room seats and 
desks. Dear, dear ! what luxury ! I only hope 
we won't, with all this prosperity, wax fat and 
kick as did Jeshurun. School closes in about a 
week now. Some of our boys expect to go away 
for a vacation. How we pray for these boys that 
they may be kept from the evil that is in their 
world. We are having glorious weather and our 
mission looks and sounds like a beehive. I laugh 
for pure joy as I listen to the sounds of the hammer 
and saw. Every stroke seems to say "New home," 
"New home." Then a perfect chorus rings out 
as great loads of wet sand slide with a tremendous 
crash into the yawning cellar of our new home. 
God is good indeed unto his servants at Chilkat. 
Never has the future looked so promising as at this 


Rev. I. T. Whittimore, Florence: — By the 
grace of God, a good constitution and unbounded 
hope, I now close the eighth year of service here. 
I have entered on the forty-third year of my min- 
istry, and have nearly completed the seventy-second 
year of my life. By order of the Presbytery of 
Peoria, A. T., I went to Casa Grande April 4, 
1896, and organized the "Endeavor Presbyterian 
Church of Casa Grande" with twelve members. 
Two Presbyterian elders were elected and ordained, 
both young men and highly esteemed. They now 
sustain a weekly prayer meeting. Contrasting the 
place seven or eight years ago — six saloons, drunk- 
enness, gambling, Sabbath breaking and lawless- 
ness — with the place to-day, the change is wonder- 
ful. It was gratifying to me at my last appoint- 
ment there to find two fine young ladies at Arizola, 
whose names are now on the Church roll, had 
given their hearts to Christ since my last talk with 
them. To God be all the praise. The attendance 
at both Casa Grande and Arizola has held out 
well, forty to forty-five being the usual number. 

I leave to-morrow for an itinerating tour of 75 
miles up the San Pedro, to be absent two or three 
weeks, preaching at mines and schoolhouses, going 
and returning, mercury from 106° to 112° in the 
shade and 130° to 140° in the desert. Yet with a 
continuous breeze from the Gulf of California it is 
not severe. The trip a year ago seemed so satisfac- 

tory that earnest appeals have come from time to 
time for a repetition. 

So hard are the times that all that the paying 
members of our little church can do financially is 
to aid in paying current expenses of the church 
and Sunday-school without aiding in my support. 
To return to the Casa Grande and Arizola field : 
It is growing rapidly in the country, but the new- 
comers are so poor that I dare not ask yet for sub- 
scriptions for salary. Consequently I pay from $3 
to $5 each trip ; $3 for stage hire and board and 
room rent, $1 to $2 for the privilege of preaching 
the gospel ; but to see real advance, moral and 
spiritual, is worth the sacrifice. When the tide of 
material prosperity begins to turn we shall have 
reason for rejoicing and satisfaction for trials en- 

I did hope that, as we have our Spanish chapel 
completed except seating, we should soon dedicate 
and have a Spanish school started in the fall, but 
the cloud hangs over us from your debt. We wait 
and watch and work. 


Rev. John H. Fazel, Wichita: — At this writing 
there is not enough money promised and being paid 
me by this field and our Board of Home Missions 
to keep myself and family ; so I am working harder 
and praying more than ever and singing ' ' Deliv- 
erance will come" somehow, some time. But it 
surely will have to come through the Home Mis- 
sionary Board, as this people have done all they 
can and have only succeeded in raising a promise 
of about $325, out of which I may get a little over 
$200. How can I support a family of five, almost 
adults, three in school, on $400? Besides, my 
father and mother are dependent on me, both being 
invalid. I have to buy them clothes and medicine, 
and part of the time employ a nurse. I cannot 
stand the pres&ure. I have sent my commission to 
Dr. Hewitt, Chairman of the Home Missionary 
Committee of Emporia Presbytery, and asked him 
to explain to you how it is and intercede for us 
with you. I don't know as I ought to write you 
this way, but I cannot help it. Unless you can do 
more for this field it looks as if I would be forced 
to resign, which some say would mean almost the 
dissolution of the Society at Oak Street. While I 
doubt that, I do know that it would greatly injure 
the work in this typical mission field. 


[This letter, from a beloved Indian brother, is given just 
as ne wrote it.] 

Rev. Benjamin J. Woods, Talihina: — I have 
labored among my own native people to upbuilt 
Christ kingdom in the world and 1 work among 
them very faithfully. I put all my time to lead 
the people in the right way to learn the truth ; but 
the work is hard, all kinds of people mixt up from 
all parts. Some likes the gospel and some seems 
like they do not want take the truth, but only the 
Choctaws they like Word of God ; but the colored 
people and the white that lives along the Rail Road 
are hard people to take the truth, although the 
preachers preach to them all times ; but I thank 




God what churches I have under my care are all 
very attentive. I have five preaching places all 
are doing well. Have S. S. at all the places. 
More Sab. School members this year than we ever 
have before. We have about 60 now, before we 
had only 43 members in S. S. I hope and pray 
the Lord that His blessings will rest en this people 
to become His children. My work is so far apart 
and it is so hard on me traveling to and fro over 
them rough mountains. When it is cold its hard 
on me and when it is hot it is bad on me. I am 
old and few more years I will pass away, while I 
live I want to do good. My people are all Indians 
and are very poor and am sorry that I cannot col- 
lect for the different Boards as I ought, but the 
people tries to help all they can but not able ; they 
are not able to support me for what they promise 
me. The Lord knows best. Pray for us. 


Rev. E. E. Stringfield, Springfield, Greene Co.: 
— The salary at best is not a living salary in this 
place. Last year I was compelled to borrow money 
to tide over the hard times. I cannot believe the 
Board fully appreciates the situation here. Our 
membership, it is true, is about 125 ; a number of 
these are children and the congregation is poor. 
The officers said they could not raise the $100 that 
the Board failed to grant. But last Sabbath I 
made an appeal to the congregation. After preach- 
ing on systematic beneficence I told them that if 
each member would contribute a postage stamp extra 
each week the $100 would be raised. And the 
congregation rose almost as one man to signify a 
willingness to do so. The members who were not 
present will be asked to contribute a like sum, and 
I now feel confident the sum will be raised. 


Rev. Thomas J. Weeks, Rosedale : — Many people 
on this Henderson Bay desire our services, so 
that I steal away occasionally to visit and preach to 
these long neglected ones. Last Sunday I presented 
the cause of Ministerial Relief, as also the Million- 
Dollar Fund. 

I visit the people at their homes periodically and 
see their poverty. Last evening one man told me 
that he had earned but $7 in cash during a year 
past ; that is he had received but this amount ; 
and thus it is with the larger portion of the people 
among whom I labor. At most homes, or ranches, 
I find that parents with children have to work out 
doors helping in clearing land, rolling black logs 
together, etc. Last Saturday I found a poor widow, 
lately recovered from a siege of sickness, out of 
firewood, attempting to drag some small logs or 
limbs nearly a quarter of a mile to her cabin home ; 
so I took hold of the wood, dragging it to her 
home and chopped sufficient to last over the Sab- 
bath. She appreciated the sermon preached the 
nest day more than usual. I find in these homes 
bread, beans and tea the staple supplies of the 
household. True, they keep a few chickens, a cow 
and pig or two, but the eggs, etc., go for needed 
supplies, they barely ever receiving cash for any- 
thing sold. 

Last Sunday a mother came to me saying, "Sir, 
my two girls are absent to-day from mission-school, 

having no shoes to wear, and the weather too damp 
and cold for bare feet." I felt sorry for these 
children, they having been present at every session 
for the year past. 

Two weeks ago, at the close of service, a little 
girl came to me with a smile, saying, " I wish to 
give fifteen cents toward the mission." The next 
time I gave service at this place the dear child was 
unable to attend, having, I learned, no shoes to 
wear. Thus it is, and this but one of many in- 
stances and experiences. God bless our Board of 
Home Missions and richly augment its treasury. 




Keigwin, Presbyterial Missionary, 
H. Smith, Crescent City, 1st, 
H. MacLeod, Ontario, Westminster 
M. Crawford, Ojai, 1st, 
Hemphill, Ballard, Los Olivos and Santa 

M. Merwin, Superintendent of Spanish 
R. Dennen, D.D., Long Beach, 1st, 
. G. Mills, Santa Paula, 1st, 
Haberly, Elk Grove and stations, 
G. Anderson, Orangevale and Roseville, 
N. Bevier, San Francisco, Memorial, 
B. McElwee, Madera, 1st, 
M. Gillies, Tracy and Grayson, 
. R. Scott, Rawlins, 
S. Darley, Georgetown, 
M. Hopkins, D.D., Denver, York St., 
Hicks, Littleton, 
F. Heltman, Brighton, 1st, 
H. Rennie, Ouray, 
J. Rodriques, Ute Indians, 
Rendon, La Costilla, San Pablo and stations, 



J. Lamb, Krebs and McAlester, 
C. Calnon, Pastor-at-Large, 
W. Griffin, Enid, 1st, 
Mordy, Presbyterial Missionary, 

C. Rowley, Brooks and Nodaway, 1st, 

A. Enders, Conway and station, 

W. McMillan, Colfax, 1st, 
W. Day, Panora, 
R. Hamilton, Manchester, 1st, 
Stickel, Sumner, 

Kadletz, Saratoga, Bohemian Reformed 
H. Noel, West Union, 

Martin, Paton and Rippey, 
. S. Shiels, Keokuk, 2d, 
. B. Phelps, Sigourney, 1st, 
A. Hahn, Deep River, 1st, 

B- Cooper, Columbus Junction, 

Figge, Hope, German, 

M. Tourtellot, Dows, 1st, 

P. Barbor, Florence and Cedar Point, 

F. Barrier, Wichita, Bethel and Endeavor 
P. Viele, Quenemo and Maxson, 
S. McClung, Argonia and Walton, 
A. Sankey, Cottonwood Falls, 

G. Richards, Brainerd and Indianola, 
J. Gregg, Wilsey, White Clay & Morris, 
R. Anderson, Clear Water, 1st, 
Everett, Netawaka, 
C. Smith, Axtell and stations, 
E. McGillivray, Frankfort, 

I. T. 
O. T. 






J. C. Berger, Medicine Lodge, 1st, Kans. 

G. E. Bicknell, Kendall and Syracuse, 
T. McClement, Cimarron and Lakin, 
J. M. Gillette, Dodge City, 1st, 

D. D. Mitchell, Harper and Freeport, 
M. L. Walcher, Ashland and Coldwater, 

E. Harris, Hugoton, Liberal and Meade, 
C. B. Eby, Carwood and Horace, 
W. M. Sutherland, Ellinwood, Ness City and 

S. Forbes, Richmond and Princeton, 
R. Hardin, Baxter Springs, 1st, 
R. M. Wimmell, Edna and Mound Valley, 

B. F. Smith, La Cygne and Sugarvale, 
E. B. Wells, Hill City, 1st, and Moreland, 
M. Bowman, Fairport, Plainville, Shiloh and 

H. S. Christian, Covert, Kill Creek, Downs 

and Rose Valley, " 

J. Baay, Smith Centre, Crystal Plains and 

station, " 

W. H. Course, Glasco, 1st, and Miltonvale, " 
H. W. Clark, Clyde, 1st, " 

C. W. Backus, Argentine, 1st, " 
J. H. Speer, Gardner, 1st, " 
W. C. Axer, Clinton, " 
T. Nield, Stanley and Blue Valley, " 
G. E. Moore, Salyersville and stations, Ky. 
A. J. Thomson, Kuttawa, Chapel Hill and 

Craig Chapel, ' ' 

A. "Wilson, Marlette, 1st, Mich. 

E. Willson, Otter Lake, 1st, and station, " 

E. P. Dunlap, East Jordan and Boyne City, " 

D. J. Mitterling, Coleman, 1st, and stations, " 
A. H. Carver, Duluth, Lakeside, Minn. 
C. Campbell, Grand Rapids, 1st, 

C. C. Hoffmeister, Lake Crystal and Watonwon, " 
C. E. Davenport, Kinbrae, Heron Lake and 

J. F. Montman, Lakefield, 1st, " 

E. M. Lumm, Rushmore, 1st, and Summit 

Lake, " 

C. S. McKinney, Canby, Fairview & Westside, " 
W. Campbell, Crystal Bay and Long Lake, ' ' 
G. G. Matheson, Pastor-at-Large, 
W. Douglas, Maine and Maplewood, " 

H. Ross, Angus and Euclid, " 

H. E. House, St. Croix Falls & Taylor Falls, " 
C. H. McOreery, Du